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and besides the second half of volume thirty of the
Historical Collections, wholly given up to the memorial
tribute to Doctor Wheatland, and the first half of volume



16 THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR.

thirty-one containing church records, family history, etc.,
there have been printed and issued the following extras :

1. A Partial Catalogue of Publications on sale.

2. The Annual Report for 1894.

3. Baptismal Records of the Church in Topsfield,
copied by Geo. Frs. Dow.

4. A Geological Report by Mr. Sears to accompany
his map.

5. Geological and Mineralogical Notes, parts 7 and 8,
by Mr. Sears.

6. The Wheatland Memorial in pamphlet form.

7. Salem and the Conkling Family, by Frank J.
Conkling, Brooklyn, N. Y.

8. The Pepperrell Portraits, by Cecil Hampden Cutts
Howard, Beebe, Ark.

In commemorating the founder of the Institute, as the
occasion was unique, so a course was followed not alto-
gether usual and, it was apprehended, open possibly to
adverse remark. Instead of presenting a carefully drawn
sketch, the work of a single hand, which must exhibit at
once the capabilities and the limitations of the limner, it
was thought the better plan to collate, in one volume, es-
timates and characterizations of the distinguished subject
from a multitude of appreciative sources, thus perpetuat-
ing, so to say, a rounded statue observable from many
points of view, rather than a canvas offering only one.
So far as your committee have been informed, the depart-
ture has not been considered an unwise one.

The elaborate map exhibiting the surface geology of
the county, pre})ared by the curator of that branch in the
Peabody Academy of Science and promised us for publi-
cation last year, has been issued by the Institute and has
been received with favor.

A trustworthy Guide to Salem and the adjoining region



THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR. 17

has been for years a desideratum with visitors at the Es-
sex Institute, and several books of no mean pretensions
have been furnished of late by private enterprise. One
of these has alread}'' reached its thirty-second thousand
and has enjoyed the commendation of critical journals in
remote sections of the country. It has seemed advisable,
this year, for the Institute to assume the publication of
such a guide. For this purpose the valuable accumulation
of material in the " Visitor's Guide " has been placed at
the service of the Institute and, largely extended and re-
vised with care under the supervision of the committee,
it will be issued at once and will bear the imprint of the
Essex Institute, It is thought to be as free from inaccu-
racies as is fairly to be expected. Such errors as may
linger in it, will, as they are discovered and pointed out,
disappear in subsequent editions.

The committee are unable to close this retrospect of the
year without alluding to a new element of Institute work
which has come to their notice, and which seems to them
to be of rich promise for the future. The class of ladies
who have taken up, as a recreation, the pursuit of local
history and antiquities, embodying the results of their re-
search in a series of short, carefully written and well-con-
structed papers, have been pleased to place these at the
service of the Essex Institute for reference or publication.
While some of the best of them, from the necessity of the
case, are made up largely of material already to be found
in our pages and are therefore of no value to us, as contri-
butions to our collections, commensurate with their lit-
erary quality, there are others, and these not a few,
containing original features of marked merit, — some new
mode of treatment of a familiar topic, — some new light
thrown on a cons})icuous character, — some new view of an
event heretofore regarded from an ill-selected standpoint,

ESSEX INST. BULLETIN VOL. XX\^I 3



18 THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR.

— which make the papers distinct contributions to the
store of knowledge this committee is endeavoring to ac-
cumulate. It can hardly be that this new movement will
fail of rendering welcome aid in our historical labors.

KOBERT S. RaNTOUL.

Geo. M. Whipple.
Chas. S. Osgood.
Edw. S. Morse.
William H. Gove.
Alden p. White.
Sidney Perley.

Local History Class Report.

It has been suggested that it might be of interest to the
members of the Institute to hear a short report of the
work of the Local History Class, a branch of the par-
ent tree, to a report of whose proceedings for the past
year, we have just had the pleasure of listening.

At the last annual meeting of the Institute a suggestion
was made that a class should be formed for the study of
our local history. It was thought this study might prove
interesting and instructive.

In pursuance of this suggestion, Mrs. Henry M. Brooks,
with a view to finding out if such a class would be desira-
ble, talked over the matter with a few persons, and, as a
result, a meeting to consider the question was called for
Thursday afternoon. May 24th, at the Institute rooms.
The day proved very stormy and but three persons were
present: Mrs. Brooks, Miss Arvedson and Miss H. D.
Lander. Of course no formal action towards the forma-
tion of a class could be taken, and the meeting adjourned
to June 6th.

At that meeting nineteen persons were present. It



THE RETROSPECT OF THE TEAK. 19

was voted to form a class for the study of our local his-
tory, to hold weekly meetings on Tuesday afternoons ;
the hour of meeting to be four o'clock ; the time of the
session to be limited to one hour ; the place of meeting,
the Henry Wheatland library room, the use of which was
offered to the class.

Mrs. Henry M. Brooks was chosen chairman, Miss H.
D. Lander, Secretary, and Miss M. E. Arvedson, Refer-
ence Librarian.

At first the members read extracts from books contain-
ing accounts of life in the early times. In a few weeks
they began to write papers, gathering the facts from the
books, but telling the stories in their own words. The in-
terest has increased greatly as the study has progressed.
Forty-nine papers have been prepared upon a variety of
subjects, including the lives of the early planters, of the
early governors, of the first ministers, and of the notable
women of those early days, who so bravely endured the
hardships and privations, and often the persecutions to
which they were exposed. Papers have been written also
descri})tive of the places prominent in our early history :
North and South Fields, Salem Xeck, and Salem Common.

Accounts have been given of Salem's early com-
merce, ship building, the early Xew England fisheries,
schools and school-masters, the establishment of Harvard
College, custom houses, taverns, slavery, travelling, the
early Quakers, and the cruelties and persecutions they
suffered at the hands of the Puritans. A paper dealing
with Roger AVilliams' life in Salem, and the persecutions
inflicted upon him by the magistrates, drew forth a paper
from another member of the class, taking the other side,
and, as the title sets forth, " Trying to prove that the mag-
istrates had some reason in their sentence of banishment
of Roger Williams from the Massachusetts Colony, from
their point of view."



20 THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR.

A paper describing the persecutions the Episcopalians
underwent from the Puritans was followed by another pa-
per called "A Defence of the Puritans." A discussion
usually follows the reading of the papers and often new
light is thrown upon a subject in that way.

Chronologically speaking, the class has not made much
progress, as the field of interesting material concerning
the very early days has not yet been exhausted. The last
paper was upon John Woodbury.

Several gentlemen, members of the Institute, have ver}^
kindly consented to address the class from time to time,
at Plummer Hall, and there have been given many not only
delightful, but also very instructive afternoon talks on
subjects bearing upon the work the class has been doing.
Mr. Rantoul gave the first informal talk on " Life Among
the Early Planters," which was most interesting. He was
followed by Rev. E. B. Willson, with a charming sketch
of " Life Among the Early Ministers." Next Mr. Sidney
Perley gave a very instructive and interesting talk upon
the "Interpretation of old Colonial Manuscripts," illus-
trated by blackboard drawings. Mr. Ezra D. Hines took
the class one afternoon, in imagination, upon his pictur-
esque and attractive ramble over "An Historic Highway."
Jan. 1, Mr. Henry M. Brooks read a most delightful
})aper, entitled " Old Schools." At the close of this paper,
in celebration of the day, a bowl of " Literary Salad, "
containing quotations from the papers which the members
of the class had written, was passed around. Each per-
son took a lettuce leaf with quotation attached and was
requested to bring to the next meeting the name of the
author.

Soon after this meeting, Hon. Alden P. White gave,
with blackboard illustrations, his most charming and fas-
cinating " Evolution of Essex County."

One afternoon Mr. Frank Cousins took the class upon



THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR. 21

an imaginary walk through the streets of Salem, describ-
ing very graphically, the various points of interest.

Mr. Brooks very kindly repeated, lately, his recent
paper upon "Early Localities," followed by some extracts
from the paper called " Some Eccentric People." Both of
these papers were very enjoyable.

Last September, the Dan vers Historical Society, through
Mr. Hines, sent a most cordial invitation to the class, to at-
tend a tield-meeting at Dan vers Centre. Twenty-five per-
sons availed themselves of this opportunity to visit the
places of historic interest in that town, under such admi-
rable guidance. After studying the Ingersoll Boulder,
lately ])laced upon the Common and visiting other interest-
ing spots, the party adjourned to the Chapel of the First
Church, where Mr. William P. Upham gave a most care-
fully prepared paper upon the ancient land grants in that
vicinity.

The class numbers at present sixty-four members, and
new ones are constantly being added. The largest num-
ber of persons at any meeting has been forty-eight, the
smallest twelve, with an average attendance of twenty-
eight.

Through the winter the hour for besfinnino; the meetino;
was changed to half -past three as the Institute Rooms
closed at five o'clock. Since May 1, the original hour of
four o'clock has been resumed.

The question has often been asked to whom is this
Local History Class open, and how is membership ol)-
tained? The class is open to any member of the Institute
or to any person a meni])er of whose family l)clongs to
the Institute.

No formality is required to become a member. Any
person fulfilling the above condition, who feels interested



22 THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR.

in the subjects the class is studying, will be most cordially
welcomed any and every Tuesday afternoon.

Respectfully submitted,

H. D. Lander,

Secretary L. H. G.

Lectures and Meetings.

Regular Meeting, Monday, June 18, 1894. — The Secre-
tary stated that he had just heard of the death of Hon. Caleb
Foote, who had been a member of the society from its or-
ganization in 1848, and one of its best friends. Upon
motion of Capt. George M. Whipple, it was voted, That
the Secretary be instructed to write a letter of condolence
to the family of our revered friend, expressing the feelings
of the members of the society upon the loss sustained by
them in this event.

In accordance with the above vote the Secretary wrote
to Mrs. J. B. Tileston at Mattapan (daughter of Mr.
Foote) : " It is the sense of the members of our society that
in the removal, by death, of our late associate, the Hon.
Caleb Foote, we have lost a most valued member and kind
friend, who was always ready to aid us in our work in
every way in his power, by liberal contril)utions of liooks
for our library, as well as by his ready pen whenever oc-
casion required. His memory Avill long 1)e cherished by
us, as having been one of the most genial and worthy per-
sons connected with the society. In communicating this
vote I would most tenderly offer to the family my heart-
felt sympathy with them in their bereavement."

Tuesday, Jidy 10, 1894. — A tield meeting was held
this day in Lynn Woods. About fifty members took a
special electric car at 'd.lb o'clock and reached the woods



THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR. 23

in about an hour ; some members went in a later car.
During the forenoon a portion of the party visited the
" wolf pits " and other places of interest, under the guid-
ance of Nathan M. Hawkes, Esq. Lunch was eaten at
1 o'clock near the summit of Mount Gilead. At 2 o'clock
the meeting was opened by President Willson with some
interesting remarks explaining the objects of field-meet-
ings, that for many years had been pursued by this so-
ciety : — the study of history, botany, geology, etc., by
visits to fields and woods, more especially in the county
of Essex. The speaker wished it understood that this
was a county society and not merely a Salem institution .
Mr. Willson referred to the beautiful park in which we
were holding our meeting and wished Salem could boast
of something of the sort. Mr. Hawkes gave a full ac-
count of the establishing of the park and told how the
property was acquired. Professor Morse spoke in his
usual entertaining manner of the value and importance of
out-door education. Alderman Gove hoped Salem would
do something to get possession of the territory between
Lynn and Salem for a park — that part between the rail-
road and the turnpike. In the same line were the re-
marks of AV. S. Nevins, Dr. H. C. Merriam, Dr. Jesse
Robbins, Captain Whipple and C. H. Preston of Danvers.
A vote of thanks was given to Mr. Hawkes and others for
courtesies extended. Meeting adjourned at 4 p. m.

Thursday ^ Aug mt 2, 1894. — About sixty members of
tlie Amcriciui Society of University Teaching, under the
direction of Prof. Lytnan T. Powell, visited Salem this day
and were entertained l)y the Institute and Peal)ody Acad-
emy of Science. They arrived in town at 9.30, and were
met at the railway station l)y a eommitte of the Institute,
with barges, and taken to our rooms, where they examined
our collections ; they then took the barges again and were



24 THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR.

driven about the city to points of historical interest. Re-
tiirnino; at 12.30 o'clock, a lunch was served in Pluranaer
Hall where about one hundred persons, inchiding the Com-
mittee, sat down to a lunch by Caterer Wentworth. At
two o'clock a meeting was held in Academy Hall at which
President Willson, in a few well chosen remarks, intro-
duced Prof. E. S. Morse who gave a brief histcn-y of the
Institute and Peabody Academy. The Hon. R. S. Ran-
toul then delivered a scholarly address, abounding with
information, on the history of Salem in the Revolution.
He was followed by Professor Powell who made a pleasant
speech expressive of the appreciation and thanks of the
visitors for the reception and courtesies extended to them.
The guests then visited the Museum of the Peabody Acad-
emy and afterwards took the cars for Boston or Marble-
head.

Regular Meeting, Monday, Aug. 20, 1894. — The
Secretary called the attention of the members to the death
of Mr. M. A. Stickney which occurred on the 11th inst.
The following resolutions offered by Mr. Rantoul, sec-
onded by Mr. Cousins, were ado[)ted. Resolved: That it
is with a deep sense of loss and regret that the Essex Insti-
tute is called to record the death of Matthew Adams Stick-
ney, at the ripe old age of eighty-nine. His early, constant,
and unfaltering devotion to the interests of this society,
dating from a time when its existence from year to year
was only secured by the untiring zeal of a few promoters
like himself, deserves to be remembered now when the
records of the society's stabilit}^ and usefulness cover half
a century. Born of an ancient Essex County stock,
leading a life pure and lofty in its aims and exemplary in
all its relations, his estimable qualities widel}- recognized
as they coidd not fail to be, and honored with membershi[)
in many leading archivological and literary societies of the



THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR. 25

country, a naturalist at the age of ten, devoted to the
study and to the collection of specimens which came to
possess a rare interest and value, a careful student of
genealogy and family history, leaving much of his research
in print, besides a fund of manuscript material most help-
ful to those who follow him, — he made his acquaintance an
invaluable privilege to the student by a wealth of personal
reminiscence ; by an acquaintance with the dark history of
Gallows Hill, under whose shadow he passed his life, and
of the Witchcraft period of which he made a specialty ;
while his gathered store of antique furnishings, publica-
tions and coinage made his comfortable homestead a Mecca
for the bibliophile and the archaeologist. His accumula-
tion of coins and medals of British and American issue,
of colonial and provincial currency, of continental pa-
per money, of New England almanacs, covering more
than two centuries in their publication, of autograph let-
ters, French, English and American, illustrating our Rev-
olutionary period, represented the devotion of a lifetime
and challenged comparison with the most exhaustive
collections in the country. With the exception of six
consecutive years during which Mr. Stickney was the
librarian of the Essex Institute, he was curator of numis-
matics from the foundation of the society in 1848 until
his death."

The Secretary was instructed to send a copy of the
above to the family of Mr. Stickney.

Regular Meetiiu/, Monday, JVbv. 19, 1894. — Mr.
Rantoul made a statement'in reference to a cradle presented
to the Institute by Richards W. Bradley of Boston. " The
Essex Institute accepts with satisfaction the custody of
an object so intimately associated with two of the most
distinguished sons of Essex County, as is the cradle of

KSSKX INST. BULLETIN, VOL. XXVII 4



26 THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR.

Joseph Story tind William Wetmore Story. The list of
their contributions to the fair fame of Salem, in politics, in
literature, in good citizenship, in law and in art, is quite
too extended to bear rehearsal here. Judge Story was
born Sept. 18, 1779, in a mansion house in Marblehead now
standing and nearly opposite the old Town House, and
was there cradled in this quaint and interesting relic. In
1801, he came to Salem, building ten years later the house,
now numbered 26 on Winter street, where he continued to
reside until his removal to Cambridge in 1829 ; and in
that house, on Feb. 12, 1819, the son was born whose
genius as sculptor and author has kept the name of Story
fresh in the regfard of a second generation of Americans.
No reminder of these two eminent men could be more sug-
gestive to the people of this region by whom their fame is
cherished than this cradle, and no place of deposit could
be selected where it will be more sacredly cared for than in
the Essex Institute." It was voted to adopt this statement
as the sense of the members of the Institute and the Sec-
retary was requested to record the same and forward a
copy through Mr. Bradley to the Hon. Wm. W. Story at
Rome, Italy.

Regular Meeting , Monday, Dec. 3, 1894, in Library
room. — The Secretary gave some reminiscences of several
old Salem schools, notably Master Lang's and Master Wat-
son's ; Mrs. Rogers', latter part of the last century; Mrs.
Brown's; Misses Pierce's, Miss Haskell's, James S. Ger-
rish's, and the English High school down to about 1836.
Specimens of penmanship of some of the old scholars
1791 to 1815, were exhibited, also receipts from old
schoolmasters at various dates. This paper called forth
quite a discussion, and among those who spoke on the sub-
ject in hand were President Willson, Mr. G. M. Jones,
Mr. W. L. Welch and others.



THE KETROSPECT OF THE YEAR. 27

Regular Meeting, Mondaij, Dec. 17, 1894, in Library
room. — Papers were read I)}' meinhers of the Local
History Class connected with the society : Mrs. H. W.
Edwards on "Lady Deborah Moody ;" Mrs. E. A. Kilham
of Beverly on "Anne Hutchinson;" and Miss Helen D.
Lander read a paper on " Hugh Peters," written by Miss
Lucy W. Perry. These papers were well written and
highly appreciated by the audience.

Remarks were made by the President and Hon. R. S.
Rantoul in praise of what had been said.

Regular Meeting, Monday Evening , Jan. 7, 1895, in
Library room. — Mr. John Robinson gave an account of the
stone implements and other relics of the early native In-
dians of Essex County, with suggestions as to their age,
origin and mode of manufacture. Specimens of stone im-
plements, [)()ttery, etc., from the Peabody Academy of
Science were exhibited. Mr. Robinson was of the opin-
ion, which he substantiated in some interesting remarks,
that the stone relics must have been made not later than
1550, for the Indians would not have been likely to have
made such articles after contact with Europeans, who vis-
ited these parts in the sixteenth century and could furnish
them with iron or c(jppcr utensils and tools. Some of the
implements may of course be much older.

Monday Evening, Jan. 14, 1895. — The first lecture
in the "free course" was delivered this evening, in Plum-
merHall, by Prof. T. C. Mendenhall, President of the
Worcester Polytechnic Institute ; subject, "The Seal Is-
lands and the Bering Sea Controversy," illustrated with
lantern views. The lecturer gave a brief account of the
origin and present condition of the Bering Sea Contro-
versy, mentioning incidentally that Bering, the discov-
erer of the straits, invariably spelt his name without the
h. The gazetteers and geographies all spell the word



28 THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR.

"Behring." He then spoke of the seal islands, discov-
ered by a Russian named Publlof in 1786. Two of the
group he named St. Peter and St. Paul. The Rus-
sians occupied the islands until they were sold with
Alaska to the United States, in 1867, for $7,200,000.
Professor Mendenhall said, that from these islands have
already been reaped more money than was paid for the
entire area of Alaska. The year after the U. S. bought it,
over 250,000 seals were killed by poachers from all over
the world. In 1871, a law was passed protecting seals,
but the poachers took to killing them in the open sea,
and before long their numbers became greatly diminished
and an effort was made by the government to stop this,
which eventually resulted in the "Bering Sea Contro-
versy." The lecturer described his trip to the islands
on a commission to obtain an estimate of the actual loss
of seal life. Pictures were shown of seal life and of the
natives of the islands. The lecturer stated that the seal
would be extinct in a few years, unless in the near future
some new and better plan than the arbitration provided,
should be made for its protection.

Regular Meeting, Monday Evening, Jan. 21, 1895,
at the Library room. — Mr. Herbert E. Valentine, a Salem
boy, but now of Somerville, read an historical sketch of
Company F, 23d Massachusetts Volunteers, organized in
the fall of 1861, from the " Union Drill Club " of Salem. In
introducing the speaker, Mr. Willson said it was appro-
priate that this paper should be read at a meeting of the
Institute, as all the officers of the company and several
of the members were more or less prominently connected
with the Institute: Henry F. Waters, Dr. James A.
Emmerton, F. H. Lee; and the commander of the corps,
G. M. Whipple, was for years secretary of the Institute.



THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR. 29

The company's life was traced by Mr. Valentine from its
lirst camp on Winter Island (Camp Bertram) to the camp
at Lynnfield, thence on its march through Boston, New
York, Philadelphia and Perry ville, where steamers were
taken for Fortress Monroe. In January, 1862, the fleet
sailed, the land forces under Gen. Burnside, the naval
squadron under Commodore Goldsborough ; after a stormy
and perilous time at C&pe Hatteras, the troops landed at
Roanoke Island. The speaker described, in vivid lan-
guage, the engagements at this place, at Nevvberne, N. C,
at later fights at Kingstown, Whitehall and Goldsboro.
Ninety per cent of Co. F were Essex County men and
seventy per cent from Salem alone.

Monday Evening, Jan. 28, 1895. — Dr. Richard Hodg-
don, of Boston, lectured in Plummer Hall on ''Unusual
Hypnotic States." The lecturer began by saying that


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