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Jahrb. XVII. 1891.
'90 Sarasin, P. und F. Ergebnisse naturwissenschaltlicher

Forschuugen auf Ceylon in den Jahren 1884-8fi. II. Zur

Entwicklungsgeschichte und Anatomie der ceylonesischen

Blindwiihle, Ichthyophis glutinosns. Wiesbaden 1890.
'96 Schaffer. .1. Ueber das kuorpelige Skelet von Ammocoetes

branchialis n-bst Bemerkungeu iiber das Knorpeigiwcbc

im .411gemeinen. Zeit. wiss. Zool. LXI. 189(;.
'91 Sewertzoff. A. N. Ueber einige Eigenthiimlichkeiieu in d<r

Entwicklung des Schiidels von Pelol)ates fu-cus. Bull.

Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou. 1891.
'5)7 Sewertzoft". A. N. Beitrag zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des

Wirbeltierschiidels. Anat. Anz. XIII. 1897.
'79 Stohr, Ph. Zur Kutwicklnngsgesdiichte des Urodelmscha-

dcls. Zeits. wiss. Zool. XXXIII. hs79.
*8l Stohr. Ph. Zur EntAvicklungsgesohichte des .\nuren>cli:i-

dels. Zeits. wiss. Zool. XXXVI. 18H1.
*'8l' Stohr, Ph. Zur Entwicklungsgeschiclite des Teleosticr-

Schadels. Festschrift zur Feier des .300 jiihrigen Beste-

hens der Universitiit \V^»rzburg. Leipzig !«?<-'.
'71 Traquair. On the cranial osteology of Polypterus. .lour.

Anat. and Phys. V. 1871.

B88EX INST. BULLKTIN, VOL. XXVIll 1<>



138 BULLEIIN OF THE FiSSEX INSTITUTE,

'90 Villy, F. The development of the ear and accessory organs

in the common frog. Quar. Jour. Mic. Sci. XXX 1^90.
*'73 Violik, ,T. A. Stndien uber die Verknocherung iind ilie

Knochen des Schadels der Teleostier. Niederl. Archiv f.

Zool. I. 1873.
'77 Wiederslieim, K. Das Kopfskelet der Urodelen. Morph.

Jahrl). III. 1877.
"79 Wiedersheim, R. Die Anatomic der Gymnophionen.

Jena 1879.
'80 Wiedersheim, R. Das Skelet von Pleurodeles watlii. Je-

naische Zeits. XIY. 1880.
'80 Wiederslieim, R. Das Skelet and Nerveusystem von Lepi-

dosiren annectens. Jena. Zeits. XIV. 1880.
'93 Wiedersheim, R. Lehrbnch der vergleichenden Anatomic.

3 Aufl. Jena 1893.
'92 Wilder, H. H. Die Nasengegend von Menopoma allegha-

niense uiid Amphiuma tridactylmn. Zool. Jalirb. V. 1892.
'91 Wilder, H. H. A contribntion to the anatomy of Siren laccr-

tina. Zool. Jahrh. IV. 1891.
'93 White, V. J. The skull and visceral skeleton of the Green-

land shark, Laemargus niicrocephalus. Trans. Koy. Soc.

Edinbnrg. XXXVII. 1893.



EXPLANATION OF THE FIGURES.

REFERENCE LEFTERS.



a. Angular process.

a n p. Antorbital process.

a p. Ascending process.

a s. Arteria perforans stapcdia.

6 Foramen for blood vessel.

/) 0. Basi-occipital cartilage.

h q. Body of quadrate.

c. ("oi iHi irabecula).

d. Dorsal nasal process.

dp. Descending process of <)uadrate.

d r. Dorsal trabecular rod.

* Not Bi'cn.



THE CHONDROOKANIIJM IN THK ICH IHYOI'.-I DA. W.)

p. Ethmoid plate,

e f. Ethmoid canal.

e f. Endolymphiitic foiaineii.

/". Foutanelle.

f I). FeiK'Stra ovali.«.

//. Hyomandibiilar cartilaire.

// //. Foramen tor hyoniandibiilMi liram-li of srvcnlh hfive.

/ .'•. Foramen for ninth nerve.



./•


.higular foramen.


./' '■•


Foramen for branch of jntrnlar vein.


1.


I,aniin;i cril)rosa.


Jr.


Labial cartilage.


J a r.


Lateral occipital crest.


m.


Meckel's cartilaiie.


m r.


Marginal rod.


n.


Notochord.


n c.


Na.sal capsule.


n i.


Foramen for branch of nasalis internus


n 1.


Nostril.


II s.


Nasal septum.


(>.


Otic capsule.


f> c.


Oculomotor foramen.


n r, J).


Occipital process.


n f.


Optic foramen.


o I.


Olfactory foramen.


n.


Orbito-nasal foramen.


p.


Otic process.


P-


Parachordal.


p a I.


Palatine foramen.


ph.


Palato-basal process.


I> '■•


Palatine cartilage.


Pf-


Perilympliatic foramen.


p (1 b


Postorbital band.


ppt.


Palato-pterygo-fiuadrate cartilage.


p r h.


Preorbital band.


I> r r.


Preorbital canal.


pt.


Pterygoid process.



Quadrate.



140 BULLETIN OF THK ESSEX IN8TITUTK.

r. liostrum.

r I. Foramen for ramus lateralis facialis of the seventh nerve.

/• m. Foramen for ramus maxillaris of fifth nerve.

r n. Foramen for ramus mandibularis of fifth nerve.

r p. Foramen for ramus ophthalmicus profundus of fifth nerve,

r p i. Foramen for ramus palatinns inferior.

r p a. Foramen for ramus palatinus superior.

/• H. Foramen for ramus ophthalmicus superficialis of fifth.

s. Stapes.

s h. Supraorbital band.

sp. Stapedial process.

s t. Synotic tectum.

s u. Support of balancer.

t. Trabecula.

t a. Tympanic annul us.

* c. TegMien cranii.

t e. Tectal cartilage.

t, m. Taenia tecti medialis.

tr c. Trabecular crest.

V. Foramen for branch of fifth nerve.

vii. Foramen for branch of seventh nerve.

viii. Foramen for branch of eighth nerve.

V 2). Ventral nasal process.

r. Ventral trabecular rod.



EXPLANATION OF PLATP^.

Fig. 1. Side view of model from Amblyntoma punctata, ten ram.
long.

Fig. 2. Dorsal view of same.

Fig. 3. Dorsal view of modeMromAmblystotna punctata, eleven mm.
long.

Fig. 4. Side view of model from Amblystoma punctata, twelve mm.
long.

Fig. 5. Dorsal view of same.

Fig. (J. Ventral view of same.

Fig. 7. Dorso-median view of otic capsule of same.

Fig. S. Side view of model from Amhlystoina je.ffersoniaaa, thirty-
nine mm. long.

Fiii. y. Dorsal view of same.



140 BULLETIN OF THK ESSEX INSTITUTK.

r. Uostrmn.

r I. Foramen foi* ramus lateralis facialis iif the seventh nerve.

r m. Foramen for ramns maxillaris of fifth nerve.

r n. Foramen for ramus mandibularis of fifth nerve.

r p. Foramen for ramus ophthalmicus profundus of fifth nerve.

7' p i. Foramen for ramus palatinns inferior.

r p s. Foramen for ramus palatinus superior.

r s. Foramen for ramus ophthalmicus superficial! s of fifth.

s. Stapes.

s b. Supraorbital hand.

sp. Stapedial process.

s t. Synotic tectum.

s n. Support of balancer.

t. Trabecula.

t a. Tympanic annuUis.

t c. Tegmeu cranii.

t e. Tectal cartilage.

t in. Taenia tecti medialis.

tr c. Trabecular crest.

V. Foramen for branch of fifth nerve.

vii. Foramen for branch of seventh nerve.

viii. Foramen for branch of eighth nerve.

V p. Ventral na.sal process.

V r. Ventral trabecular rod.



EXPLANATION OF PLATE.

Fig. 1. Side view of model from Amblystoma punctata, ten mm.
long.

Fig. 2. Dorsal view of same.

Fig. 3. Dorsal view of •inoAel fromAmblyatoniapunctata, eleven mm.
long.

Fig. 4. Side view of model from Amblyatoma punctata, twelve mm.
long.

Fig. 5. Dorsal view of same.

Fig. (). Ventral view of same.

Fig. 7. Dorso-midian view of otic capsule of same.

Fig. 8. Side view of model from Amhlyntoma jeffersoniaiia, thirty-
nine mm. long.

Fiii. 9. Dorsal view of same.



SIX INSTITITI !•■. ISUl, I, F.TIN, \0r,. XXVIII.




ESSEX INSTITIITE BtlLLETIX, \f>L. XWIII.




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S*K\ IXSTITl'TR liULI.KTIX, V(ll.. XXVIII.













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FiG 26






THK CHONDKOCKANIUM IN PIIK K^HTIl VOFSIDA. 141

Fis;. 10. Vfiitral view of same.

Fig. 11. Median view of otic capsule of same.

Fii;-. 12. Dorsal view of model from Amhlyittotaa punctata, sixty-nine

mm. louK-
Fig. i;^. Ventral view of same.
Fig. 14. Dorsal view of model from Desiaognathus fimra. twenty

mm. long.
Fig. 15. Dorsal view of model of nasal capsules from Plellnxlou

glutinosum, twenty mm. long.
Fig. Kj. Dorsal view of model from yprturus maculatus, forty-live

mm. long.
Fig. 17. Side view of model from young Amphinma nxenns.
Fig. 18. Dorsal view of same.

Fig. 19. Ventral view of model from older Amphinma.
Fig. 20. Dorsal view of model from Pipa americana.
Fig. 21. Ventral view of nasal region of same.
Fig. 22. Dor.sal view of model from young Ichthijapldx gUttinosus.
Fig. 23. Ventral view of same.

Fig. 24. Side view of model from older Irhthyophis glutiuosus.
Fig. 25. .Median view of otic region of same.
Fig. 2(;. Dorsal view of nasal capsules of same.
Fig. 27. Side view of model from young Poli/ptcrus bichir.
Fig. 28. Side view of model from trout twenty-two mm. long.
Fig. 29. Ventral view of same.
Fig. 30. Side view of model from young Protupltrus anntcttns.

(See text, p. 130, for error in shape of Meckel's cartilage.)
Fig. 31. Dorsal view of same.
Fig. 32. Ventral view of same.



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