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44



THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR.



Survey of



Madrid, Observatorio de,

Manchester (Eng.) Literary and Philosophical Society,

Manchester (N. H.) Public Library,

Manning, Richard C, . . . . Newspapers

Marburg, Gesellschaft zur Beforderung des Gesammten
Naturwissenschaften,

Massachusetts Board of World's Fair Managers, .

Massachusetts, Secretary of the Commonwealth of,

Meek, Henry M.,

Meigs, John, Pottstowii, Pa., .

Michigan Agricultural College,

Milwaukee, Wis., Public Museum of,

Minneapolis, Geological and Natural History
Minnesota,

Minneapolis (Minn.) Public Library,

Montpelier, Vermont State Library,

Montreal Natural History Society,

Moore, C. B., Philadelphia, Pa.,

Moore, David,

Morris, John E., Hartford, Ct.,

Morris, Seymour, Chicago, 111.,

Morse, E. S., Newspapers

Moscou, Societe Imperiale des Naturalistes,

Mowry, William A., Hyde Park, ....

Moynahan, Frank E., Danvers, ....

Munchen, Bayerische Botauische Gesellschaft,

Munchen, D. Gesellschaft fiir Anthropologic, Ethnologi(
und Urgeschichte,

Munchen, K. B. Akademie der Wissenschaften,

Nahant Town Clerk,

Napoli, Accademia delle Scienze Fisiche e Matematiche

Nashville, Tennessee State Board of Health,

Neuchatel, Soci6t6 des Sciences Naturelles,

Nevins, W. S.,

New Brighton, N. Y., Natural Science Association of
Staten Island,

New Brunswick, New Jersey State Microscopical So
ciety, ........

New Haven (Ct.) Colony Historical Society,

New Haven, Ct., Yale University,

New York (N. Y.) Academy of Sciences,

New York, N. Y., American Geographical Society,

New York, N. Y., American Museum of Natural History,

New York, N. Y., American Numismatic and Archae-
ological Society



1

15

3



11

3
1
1



10



1

1

12

1

1

1

12

3



1
1
11
4
1
1
1

8
10
1
7
13
4
1

22



THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR.



45



New York, N. Y., Astoi- Library, ....
New York (N. Y.) Central and Hudson River Railroad
New York (N. Y.) Chamber of Commerce,
New York (N. Y.) Genealogical and Biographical So

ciety,

New York (N. Y.) Historical Society,
New York, N. Y., Lenox Library,
New York, N. Y., Linnean Society of, .
New York, N. Y., Mercantile Library of,
New York (N. Y.) Microscopical Society,
New York, N. Y., Scientific Alliance of,
Nichols, Andrew, Bridgewater, N. H., .

Nichols, John H., Map

Northampton, Smith College,

North Andover Town Clerk,

Northend, William D.,

Nourse, Dorcas C, .... Newspapers

Nurnberg, Naturhistorische Gesellschaft,
Oliver, Mrs. Grace A., . . . . Newspapers
Ottawa, Royal Society of Canada, ....

Palfray, Arthur S.,

Palo Alto, Cal., Leland Stanford Junior University,
Paris, Journal de Conchyliologie, ....
Paris, Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, . ,

Paris, Societe d' Anthropologie, ....
Paris, Societfi des Etudes Historiques,
Paris, Soci6te Eiitomologique de France,
Paris, Soci6t6 Geologique de France,
Paris, Societe Nationale d'Acclimatation,

Parker, William,

Parson, Lewis B., Flora, 111., ....

Peabody, Peabody Institute,

Pearson, H. G., Memorial Committee, New York, N. Y.

Peet, Rev. S. D., Granville, O

Perkins, George A.,

Perkins, John W.,

Perley, M. V. B., Ipswich,

Philadelphia, Pa., Academy 'of Natural Sciences,
Philadelphia, Pa., American Academy of Political and So

cial Science

Philadelphia, Pa., American Philosophical Society,
Philadelphia (Pa.) City Institute, ....
Philadelphia, Genealogical Society of Pennsylvania,
Philadelphia, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, .



12



24
8
1
1
1
6

1
9
3

1
8
1
1
4



4ft



THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR.



Newspapers



Newspapers



Philadelphia, Pa., Indian Rights Association,

Philadelphia (Pa.) Library Company,

Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania,

Pliilbrick, Eliza and Helen, . . . Newspapers

Phillips, Stephen H.,

Pickering, John, ....

Piper, Horace, Washington, D. C,

Pittsburgh, Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania

Pool, Wellington, Wenham,

Poole, Murray E., Ithaca, N. Y.,

Porter, Rev. Aaron,

Portland, Maine Genealogical Society,

Portland, Maine Historical Society,

Portland, Ore., Library Association of,

Port-of-Spain, Victoria Institute,

Powell, Lyman P., Washington, D. C,

Prague, K. K. Stern warte,

Pratt, Henry J., ....

Preston, Charles H., Danvers,

Prime, Ralph E., Yonkers, N. Y., .

Prime, Temple, Huntington, N. Y.,

Princeton (N. J.) College,

Providence, R. I., American Humanitarian League,

Providence, R. I., Brown University,

Providence (R. I.) Public Library,

Providence, Rhode Island Historical Society

Providence (R. I.) Record Commissioners,

Putnam, Rev. A. P., Concord, ....

Putnam, Eben,

Putnam, F. W., Cambridge, . . . Newspapers

Quebec, L'Universite Laval,

Ramsay, Rev. William H.,

Rantoul, Robert S., . . . Newspapers

Regensburg, Naturwissenschaftlicher Verein,
Reynoldsville (Pa.) Volunteer, ....

Rhode Island Commissioner of World's Fair,

Rich, George, Columbus, O.,

Rich, Mrs. Snow, Newspapers

Richmond, Virginia Historical Society, .

Riga, Naturforschende Verein, ....

Ripley, Charles S., U. S. Navy, ....

Robinson, E. P., Hamilton,

Robinson, John, ....

Robinson, Mary F., ...



47

1



19
1



10



THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR.



47



Rochester (N. Y.) Academy of Science,

Rugg, Arthur P., Worcester,

Sacramento, California State Library,

St. Gallen, Naturwissenschaftliche Gesellschaft,

St. Jolin, Natural History Society of New Brunswick

St. Louis, Mo., Academy of Science, ....

St. Louis, Missouri Botanical Garden,

St. Louis (Mo.) Mercantile Library Association, .

St. Louis, Missouri Historical Society,

St. Paul, Minnesota Historical Society, .

St. Petersbourg, Academic Imperialedes Sciences,

St. Petersbourg, Societatis Entomologica,

Salem, Associated Charities of, ....

Salem Board of Health,

Salem Custom House Collector, ....

Salem, First National Bank,

Salem, Peabody Academy of Science, Newspapers and

Circulars,

Salem Public Library,

Saltonstall, Leverett, Boston, ....

San Diego, Cal., West American Scientist,

Sanford, H. H., Syracuse, N. Y.,

San Francisco, California Academy of Sciences,

San Francisco (Cal.) Board of Supervisors,

San Francisco (Cal.) Free Public Library,

San Francisco (Cal.) Mercantile Library Association,

San Francisco, California State Mining Bureau,

Santiago, Societe Scientifique du Chili,

Saunders, Mary T.,

Savage, James F., Lowell,

Sayward, C. A., Ipswich,

Scuddor, Samuel H., Cambridge,

Sears, John H.,

Shanghai, China Branch of Royal Asiatic Society,
Shirley, George H., Brooklyn, N. Y.,

Silsbee, Mrs. William,

Snowdon, W. H., Arcturus, Va., ....

Somcrville Public Library,

South Boston, Church Home for Orphan and Destitute

Children,

South Boston, Perkins Institution and Massachusetts

School for the Blind,

Springfield, Illinois State Board of Agriculture,
Springfield, Illinois State Museum of Natural History



28



3

1
1
1

1



U
I
7
1
1

2
1
1
1
32

3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1



48



THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR.



Springfield City Library Association,

Start, Rev. William A., Tufts College,

Stavanger Museum,

Stearns, John P., Santa Barbara, Cal.,

Stettin, Entomologischer Verein,

Stimpson, T. M., Peabody, . . . Newspapers

Stockholm, Academic Royale des Sciences,

Stockholm, Entomologique Foreningen,

Stone, Arthur R.,

Stone, Joseph W.,

Streeter, Gilbert L., ......

Sydney, Department of Agriculture of New South "Wales
Sydney, Linnean Society of New South Wales,
Sydney, Royal Society of New South Wales,
Tacoma, Washington State Historical Society,
Taunton, Old Colony Historical Society,
Taunton, Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural His

tory Society,

The Babcock and Wilcox Company, New York, N. T.,

The Hague, Nederlandsche Entomologische Verein,

The Werner Company, Chicago, 111.,

Throndhjen, K. Norske Videnskabernes-Selskab,

Todd, William C, Atkinson, N. H.,

Tokio, Imperial University of Japan

Topeka, Kansas State Historical Society, Newspapers

Tromso Museum,

Turner, J. Horsfall,

Turner, Ross,

U. S. Bureau of Education,

U. S. Bureau of Ethnology,

U. S. Bureau of Statistics,

U. S. Census Office,

U. S. Chief of Ordnance,

U. S. Civil Service Commission,

U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey,

U. S. Commissioner of Labor,

U. S. Commissioner of Patents,

U. S. Committee on Finance,

U. S. Department of Agriculture,

U. S. Department of Interior,

U. S. Department of State,

U. S. Director of the Mint,

U. S. Fish Commission, .

U. S. Geological Survey,



3
164



6
162



3

10



THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR.



49



U. S. Interstate Commerce Commission,

U. S. Judge-Advocate General, ....

U. S. Life-Saviug Service,

U. S. Naval Observatory,

U. S. Patent Office,

U. S. Quartermaster-General,

U. S. Secretary of the Treasury, ....
U. S. Surgeon-General, . .

U. S. War Department,

Upham, William P., Newtonville, ....
Upsal, K Vetenskaps-Societeten, ....
Walker, Joseph B., Concord, N. H.,
Waltham, Massachusetts School f'>r the Feeble Minded
Walton, J. P., Muscatine, la., ....

Washington, D. C, .American Forestry Association,
Washington, D. C, Anthropological Society,
Washington, D. C, Microscopical Publishing Company
Washington, D. C, Smithsonian Institution,
Waterloo, Ind., Archaeologist Publishing Company,
Waters, E. S., Minneapolis, Minn.,
Waterville, Me., Colby University,
Watson, S.M., Portland, Me., ....

Wel)ber, C. H., Boston,

Welch. William L.,

Wellesley, Wellesley College, ....

West, Edward W., Brooklyn, N. Y.,
Wheatland, Elizabeth, .... Newspapers
Wheatland, Henry, Estate of, ....

Wheeler, W. O. and E. D. Halsey, .Morristown, N. J.,

Whipple, George M.,

Whitney. Mrs. H. M., North Andover, Newspapers and

Maps,

Wien, K. Akademie der Wissenschaflen,

Wien, K. K. Geologische Reichsanstalt,

Wien, K. K. Naturhistorische Hofmuseums,

Wien, K. K. Zoologisch-botanisch Gesellschaft,

Wien, Verein znr Verbreitung Naturwissenschaftlicher

Kenntnisse,

Wiesbaden, Nassauischer Verein fiir Naturkunde,
Wilkes-Barr6, Pa., Wyoming Historical and Geological

Society

Williams, Mrs. Henry L.. . Newspapers

Williams. Tucker D., Newspapers and Circulars,

Williamsburg, Va., William and Mary College,

ESSEX INST. BaLLETIN, VOL. -V.XVH 7



1

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147



12



25



1

58



28
2



1
2
3

4

13
4

12
1
2
1
2

96
I
1

30

1
8

173

24

20

4

4

1
1



33
2



50



THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR.



Willsou, Rey. E. B., .... Newspapers,

Wilsou, Fred A., Nahant,

Winnipeg, Historical and Scientific Society of Mani-
toba,

Wiusor, Justin, Cambridge, ....

Wintlirop, Robert C, Jr., Boston,

Worcester, American Antiquarian Society,

Worcester Society of Antiquity,

Wright, Frank V., Hamilton,

Wurzburg, Ptiysikaliscli-Medicinische Gesellscliaft,

Yates, Lorenzo G., Santa Barbara, Cal.,

Zebullos, E. S., Argentine Minister, Washington, D. C.

Zurich, Naturforschende Gesellschaft, .



151



4
35

3
3

120

17

3
3



The followiDg: have been received from editors and
publishers :



American Journal of Science.
American Naturalist.
Beverly Citizen.
Cape Ann Advertiser.
Chicago Journal of Commerce.
Danvers Mirror.
Engraver and Printer.
Georgetown Advocate.
Groton Landmark.
Home Market Bulletin.
Iowa Churchman.
Ipswich Independent.
Lawrence American.
Le Naturaliste Canadien.
Lynn Item.
Lynn Transcript.



Marblehead Messenger.

Musical Record.

Nation.

Nature.

Open Court.

Peabody Advertiser.

Peabody Press.

Salem Gazette.

Salem Ncavs.

Salem Observer.

Salein Register.

The Citizen.

Traveler's Record.

Voice.

Zoologischer Anzeiger.



The donations to the cabinets during the year number
four hundred and seventy from the following one hun-
dred and thirty-two donors.



Allen, Misses.
Allen, George H.
Ames, George L.
Archer, Augustus J.
Archer, Mrs. Mary J.



Arvedson, George.
Baldwin, William II., Boston.
Banks, Charles E., Portland, Me.
Barton, James W., Danvers.
Batchelder, Henry M.



THE RETROSPECT OF THE YEAR.



51



Bates, William B., Estate of.

Bemis, Caroline E.

Berkeley, F. E., Riverside, Cal.

Bradlee, Rev. Caleb D., Boston.

Bradley, Richards M., Boston.

Briggs, Mary E.

Brooks, I. Hobart, Boston.

Brooks, Mary M.

Carpenter, Virginia, Dedham.

Cliadwick, Susan 0., Peabody.

Chamberlain, .James A., Boston.

Chapman, William O.

Chase. Henry A.

Cleveland, Mary S. and Lucy H.

Codman, Mrs J. Amory, Boston.

Colby, Henry L.

Colby, William R.

Cole, Mrs. Mary A.

Cousins, Frank.

Creamer, George G. , Hamilton.

('urtis, George, Boxford.

Curwen, George R.

Dalton, J. Frank.

Davis, Henry G., Leominster.

Doherty, E. W.

Eaton, H. L., Wenham.

Farrington, Mrs. Susan B.

Felt, John.

First National Bank.

Foster. C. Augustus, Topsfield.

Garnett. Richard, London.

(Jauss, J. 1). H.

Goodell, Zina.

Gould, John H., Topsfield.

Hale, Henry A.

Harrington, Richard B.

Hassam, Fred. K. F., Hyde Park

Hawkins. Mrs. E. A., East Wen.

ham
Hill, Mrs. Benjamin I)., Peabody.
Hoar, K. R., Concord.
Hobbs. Henry, Wenham.
Hodges, Mai-y O., Topstleld.
Holmes, Mrs. Lucy B., Boxford-



Hotchkiss, Susan V., New Haven,
Ct.

Hubon, Henry G.

Hunt, T. F.

Hyatt, Alpheus, Cambridge.

Johnson, Daniel H., New York,
N. Y.

Johnson, Thomas H.

Kilham, Mrs. Edward, Beverly.

Kimball, Sarah S.

Kinsman, Mrs. William L.

Knight, Mrs. Edward H.

Lamson, Frederick.

Lander, Helen D.

Lander, Louisa.

Lander, Mrs. William A.

Lee, Francis H.

Lee, Mrs. Francis H.

Little, David M.

Low, Daniel.

Mack, William.

Merchant. George F., Gloucester.

Monroe, Minerva B., Lynn.

Moore, David.

Morse, Edward S.

Morse, N. R.

Narbonne, Mary A.

Newhall, James R., Estate of,
Lynn.

Northend, William D.

Norton, Thomas II., Warren, Me-

Osborne, H. Frances.

Osgood, Mrs. Charles S.

Peabody Academy of Science.

Philbrick, Helen and Eliza.

Phillips, Mrs. S. H.

Phippen, George D.

PickeriniT, -lohn.

Putnam, Eben.

Rantoul, Hannah L., Beverly.

Rantoul, Robert S.

Richardson. Edward S. L., Au-
rora, HI.

Robinson, John.



52



THE RETKOSPECT OF THE YEAR.



Robinson, Mary.

Russell, William.

Salem Marine Society.

Salem Water Board.

Saunders, Mary T.

Silsbee, Mrs. William.

Skinner, John B.

Smilh, Augustus A.

Smith, George P., Philadelphia,

Pa.
Smith, Isaac T., New York, N. Y.
Spear. Charles F., Peabody.
Stickney, Walter J.
Stone, Jolin, Estate of.
Stone, Joseph W.
Stone, Lincoln R., Newton.
Taber, Abraham, New Bedford.
Thomas, Jean.

Tileston, Mrs. J. B., Mattapan.
Toui'et, Benjamin A.



Turner, Ross.

Upham, William P., Newtouville.

Upton. William A.

Webb, Arthur N.

Webster, Charles B., Boston.

Welch, Charles O.

Welch, William L.

Wheatland, Elizabeth.

Whipple, Charles L.

Whipple, George M.

Whitney, Mrs. Mary W., Law-
rence.

Wiggin, Emma.

Williams, Misses A. O. and M. E.

Williams, George W.

Willson, Rev. E. B.

Winn, Frank M.

Winston, Miss K. S., Richmond,
Va.

Wright, Frank V., Hamilton.



BULLETIN

OF THE

ESSEX IT^STITTJTE.

Vol. 27. Salem: July — December, 1895. Nos. 7-12.

THE LUMBAR CURVE IN SOME AMERICAN
RACES.



BY GEORGE A. DORSET.



ASSISTANT CURATOR, IN CHARGE OF PHYSICAL ANTHRO-
POLOGY, FIELD COLUINIBIAN MUSEUM.



INTKODUCTION.

The human vertebral column in profile presents two
sets of curves : the primary, or dorsal and sacral curves ;
and the secondary, or cervical and lumbar curves. The
secondary curves are preeminently human characteristics
and are not acquired by the individual until after birth.
Furthermore, the secondary curves are essential to the
upright gait, and of the two, the lumbar is the more im-
portant. Investigation has shown that the curvature of
the lumbar region varies according to age, sex and race.
It has also been shown that the lumbar curve is not an

ESSEX INST. BULLETIN VOL. XXVII 8 (53)



54 BULLETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.

exclusively human characteristic, but that it prevails to a
greater or less extent in the anthropoid apes and is antici-
pated at least in some of the quadrupedal mammals.

Up to the present time investigations upon the charac-
ter of the lumbar curve in man have been pretty exclu-
sively confined to Europeans and the peoples of the
Pacific and Indian Oceans ; scarcely any observations
have been made, so far as I know, on the spines of aborig-
inal Americans.

To attempt to supply this omission is the motive of
this paper. But, before turning to a direct examination
of the material in hand, it may not be out of place to
sum up the results of former investigators in this field.

The literature at my immediate command is not such
as to enable me to attempt anything like a complete his-
tory of the observations on the lumbar curve, and I can
only mention the most important papers on the subject.

In 1886, two papers, each preceded by an abstract,
appeared on the lumbar curve. The first was by Profes-
sor D. J. Cunningham of Dublin, in "Nature" (issue of
February 18th). This was an abstract of his researches
which were published in full in the same year under the
title "The Lumbar Curve in Man and Apes" (Dublin,
"Cunningham Memoirs," ii, 1886). The other paper was
by Professor W. Turner of Edinburg in the April num-
ber of the "Journal of Anatomy and Physiology." In
the same year appeared Vol. xvi of the "Challenger
Reports," in which Turner not only investigated the curve
in the skeletons collected by the Challenger expedition,
but incorporates also, to some extent, the results obtained
by Cunningham.

The acquisition of the fresh spine of an aboriginal
Australian was made the subject of another paper by



THE LUMBAR CURVE IN SOME AMERICAN RACES. 55

Cunningham before the Royal Society in 1888, which
was printed in full in Vol. 45 of the "Proceedings."

Other writers on this subject have been Huxley, Sym-
ington, Ravenel and Aeby. The brothers Sarasins have
reported the results of their investigations of the curve
among the Veddahs in their invaluable work "Die Weddas
von Ceylon." (Wiesbaden, 1893).i

In all of the above investigations the method of pro-
cedure is as follows. The anterior and posterior vertical
depth of each vertebral body is measured separately.
The anterior depth is taken as 100 and so the index of
each vertebra can be obtained. By taking the sum of
the anterior depths and the sum of the posterior depths
the Lumbo-vertehral or Lumbar Index is obtained by
this formula :

Sum of posterior measurements X 100

Sum of anterior measurements ~

The index, thus obtained, will be 100, when the sum
of the posterior measurements equals the sum of the an-
terior measurements ; less than 100, when the sum of
the anterior measurements exceeds the sum of the poste-
rior ; and more than 100 when the opposite condition
prevails.

To these three conditions Turner has applied the fol-
lowing terms: Orthorachic (straight spine) Index 98-
102, Kurtorachic (curve convex forwards) Index 98 — ,
Koilorachic (curve concave forwards) Index 102-|-.

To illustrate the method of procedure, I give the
measurements of the lumbar vertebra^ of the spine of a
European which may be regarded as fairly typical.

'A complete bibliography of the lumbar spine is to be found In the Cunningham
Memoir, pp. H3-11G.



56



BULLETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.





ANTERIOR DEPTH.
MM.


POSTERIOR DEPTH.
MM.


INDEX.


I. Lumbar Vertebra . . .
II. Lumbar Vertebra . . .

III. Lumbar Vertebra . . .

IV. Lumbar Vertebra . . .
V. Lumbar Vertebra . . .


27
27
27
26
28


28
27
25
24

20


103.6

100.0

92.5

92.3

71.4


Total


135


124


90.3



On analyzing this table it appears that in the first ver-
tebra, in this particular instance, the anterior measure-
ment exceeds that of the posterior, which is contrary to
the general rule in Europeans ; the anterior and posterior
depths are equal in the second vertebra ; while in the re-
maining vertebrae the anterior depth increases more and
more proportionately to the posterior depth until in the
fifth vertebra the anterior depth exceeds the posterior in
a very marked manner.

This it is which gives rise to the wedge-shape appear-
ance in the last lumbar so typical in European spines ;
and which, as Cunningham has pointed out, is not found
in so marked a degree in the lower races.

For the purpose of future comparisons and for the
reason that the original papers of Turner and Cunning-
ham are not always easily accessible in this country, I
take the liberty of reproducing here the most valuable
portions of their observations.

It will be seen at once that the results in the two
tables correspond very closely except in case of the
Andamanese and Negroes. In the case of the low index
(99) assigned to the Andamanese in Turner's table, it is



THE LUMBAR CURVE IN SOME AMERICAN RACES. 57



00

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ll;5.5

111.3

105.9
105.1
92.0


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58



BUI.LETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.



probably to be explained by the fact that both subjects
measured were females. This explanation is also mani-
festly good for explaining the difference between the two
sets of figures for the Negroes, for in Turner's tables two
of the three Negroes measured were females.

Cunningham investigated the influence of sex on the
curve and found a difference of .03 approximately, in
those races which he studied. Here are his^results :

Table hi (Cunningham).





IRISH.


ANDAMANESE.


NEGROES.




21 S


23$


U6


9?


'6


3?


Average Lumbar Index . .


96.2


93.5


106.3


102.4


106.


103.4





AUSTRALIANS.


TASMAN1AN8.




los


4?


25


1?


Average Lumbar Index


110.1


103.1


108.5


104.7



We now come to the question of the relation of the
umbar index to the lumbar flexure in the living subject.
Cunningham reached the conclusion that practically there
could be no inference as to the character of the curve
from lum bo- vertebral index. The facts which led him to
adopt this conclusion were : —

1 . "In European spines a high index is not infrequently
associated with a high degree of curvature.

2. In the chimpanzee, in which the lumbo-vertebral
index is so high as 117.5, the prominence of the lumbar


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