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curve exceeds that found in the European spine."



THE LUMBAR CUKVE IN SOME AMERICAN RACES. 59

Cunningham has further concluded that "the form
adaptation of the vertebral bodies must be regarded as the
consequence, and not as a cause, of the curve ; at the
same time it cannot be due to an immediate and mechan-
ical influence operating upon the vertebral bodies during
the life of the individual. If it were so, the same char-
acters would be present in the lumbar vertebrae of the
low races, and even of the anthropoid apes. It is an
hereditary condition."

As to the causes of such great variations among different
races Cunningham says — " The European, who leads a
life which early necessitates his forsaking the erect atti-
tude, except as an intermittent occurrence, and then for
short periods, has sacrificed in the lumbar part of the
vertel)ral column flexibility for stability. It is evident
that the deeper the bodies of the vertebrje grow in front,
the more permanent, stable and fixed the lumbar curve
will i)ecome, and the more restricted will be the power
of forward-bending in this region of the spine.

The savage,. in whose life agility and suppleness of
body are of so great an account, who pursues game in a
prone condition, and climbs trees for fruit etc., pre-
serves the anthropoid condition of vertebr;e, and in con-
sequence possesses a superior flexibility of the lumbar
part of the spine."'

In 1888, in a paper by Cunningham, the title of which
has already been given, he carried his investigations still
farther by examining the fresh spine of an Australian
girl, a full account of which is there given. In this he
investigates the indices of the intervertebral disks. The
results are self-explanatory and show at once the deter-
mining factor in the curve of the living individual.

' "Nature," Fel). 18, ia-*6, p- 379.



60



BULLETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.



TABLE rv.





INDEX OF
VERTEBRAL BODIES.


INDEX OF
INTERVERTEBRAL DISKS.


Australian Spine, ? . . . .


101.4


49.5


European Spine, $ ....


91.0


80.3



THE LUMBAR CURVE IN AMERICAN RACES.

The skeletons examined for the preparation of this
paper come from the following localities :
I. North-west Coast Indians, 36 :

1. Songish, seven males, seven females.

2. Kwakiutl, seven males, ten females.

3. Chinook, one male, four females.
Iroquois, two males, one female.
Mounds of Ohio, 22 :

1. Oregonia, four males, two females.

2. Fort Ancient, ten males, six females.
Peru, 35 :

1. Ancon, fifteen males, fourteen females.

2. Cuzco, four males, two females.



II.
Ill,



IV.



The skeletons from the North-west Coast, except the
Chinook, were collected by Dr. Franz Boas. The
Chinook skeletons are from old graves on the upper
Columbian River, and were collected by Mr. D. Scott
Moncrieff. The Iroquois skeletons were collected by
F. M. Noe from ancient graves in New York State. All
of the Ohio skeletons were collected by Mr. W. K. Moore-
head. Those from Oregonia are from a mound on the
Taylor Farm, and those from Fort Ancient, from the
village site. The Peruvian skeletons from Ancon were



THE LUMBAR CURVE IN SOME AMERICAN RACES. 61

■collected by the writer, and those from Cuzco were col-
lected by Sr. Emelio Montez in the tombs atHuaracondo,
near Cuzco.

I greatly regret that other localities are not represented
by sufficient material in this Museum so that the paper
might be made more complete. It will be evident, how-
ever, that at least three regions, widely separated from
each other, are well represented.

It is l)elieved that the material from the North-west
Coast is sufficient to enable us to draw conclusions which
shall be applicable to that entire region.

The Ohio material may be regarded as typical of the
older populations of the Ohio Valley. Whether it will
be found to be similar to that of the modern red-skins of
the Ohio Valley and of the eastern United States in gen_
era) remains to be seen — the number ot Iroquois skele-
tons examined not being sufficiently large to enable us to
draw any satisfactory conclusion.

The two peoples of ancient Peru, the Yuncas of the
coast and the Quichuas of the interior ])lains and valleys,
are fairlj'^ well represented ; the former it is believed to
an extent quite satisfactory.

Observations on the luml)ar curve among the peoples
of the east coast of South America are especially desir-
able, for it seems to me not unlikely that the results
from that region may equal or even surpass those of
Australia in the height of the lumbo-vertebral index.
It may be further stated that only the spines of normal
adults, unless otherwise indicated, have been used in the
preparation of this paper.

ESSEX INST. BCLLKTIN VOL. XXVII 8*



62 BUL.LETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.

I. North-west Coast tribes :

1. KWAKIUTL. TABLE V. SEVEN MALES, TEN FEMALES.



Kwakiutl




MEAN SPECIAL


INDEX.




MEAN
GENERAL




I


II


III


IV


V


INDEX.


Males


117.8


110.1


109.8


99.9


88.7


105.0


Females


111.2


106.8


100.8


90.7


84.8


98.1


Both sexes ,


114.5


108.4


105.3


95.3


86.5


101.5



The average total of the sura of the anterior depths in
the males is 125 mm., the highest single sum being lo5
mm., the lowest, 118 mm. ; of the sum of the posterior
measurements, the highest is 143 mm., lowest 125 mm.,
mean average 132 mm. In the females the highest ante-
rior sum is 136 mm., the lowest 119 mm., mean average
128 mm. ; posterior sums, highest 138 mm., lowest 119
mm., mean average 126. Of the mean general index for
the males the highest 110, the lowest 101.6; for the
females the highest 105, the lowest 90.3. It is interest-
ing to note that although the gap separating the index of
males from the females is considerable, yet no general
male index falls below 100, while forty per cent, of
the females indices are above 100.

2. SONGISH. TABLE VI. SEVEN MALES, FIVE FEMALES.



Songish




MEAN SPECIAL


INDEX.




MEAN
GENEKAL




I


II


III


IV


V


INDEX.


Males


115.7


Ul.ii


107.9


96.5


82.5


102.2








Females


111.3


108.


102.


92.


82.8


99.1


Both sexes


113.5


108.8


104.9


94.5


82.6


100.6



THE LUMBAIt CURVK IN SOME AMERICAN RACES.



63



Of this mean general index of 100.6 it is worth while
to note that in only one instance does any male index
fall below this figure ; while no female index equals it-
In fact the range in both sexes among the Songish is
very slight, the highest index in the males being 104.7,
and in the females the lowest is 98.2. The sum of the
anterior measurements in the males averages 126 mm. ;
the maximum being 150 mm., the minimum 115 mm.



3. CHINOOK. TABLE VII. ONE MALE, FOUR FEMALES.



Cbinook




MEAN SPECIAL


INDEX.




MEAN
GENERAL




1


II


III


IV


V


INDEX.


Males


IIG.


115.2


111.5


103.6


80.


104.4


Females


107.1


103.9


99.8


89.5


85.5


98.7


Both sexes


lll.j


109..5


105.0


96.5


82.7


101.5



Of course it is barely possible that the mean geiieial
index, 101.5, would be slightly raised if there had not
been such a disproportionately large number of females
to the males ; but a larger number of measurements of
the spines of both sexes would not, in all probal)ility,
have raised the index above 102.

The variations in the four Chinook females are very
slight, the highest general index being 100, the lowest
97.7. The average sum of the anterior measurements in
the male is 134 mm., of the posterior 140 mm. The aver-
aire sum of the anterior measurements of the females is
127 mm. ; the highest being 137 mm., the lowest 126nim.
Of the sum of the posterior measurements, the average is
125 mm., the highest being 127 mm., and the lowest
120 mm.



64



BULLETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.



II. Iroquois :

TABLE VIII. TWO MALES, ONE FEMALE.



Iroquois




MEAN SPECIAL


INDEX.




MEAN
GENERAL




I


II


Ill


IV


V


INDEX.


Males


110.


108.


105.6


102.9


94.4


105.


Females


112.5


108.


100.


92.5


74.


96.8


Both sexes


111.1


108.


102.8


97.7


84.2


100.9



The sum of the anterior measurements of the lumbar
vertebras in the two males is 128 mm., and 129 mm.,
the sum of the posterior measurements 131 mm., and
139 mm. ; similar measurements in the female are 129
and 125 mm. In both males the anterior depths of the
first, second, third and fourth lumbars are less than the
posterior depths ; in the female this is true of the first
three vertebra? only.



III. Mounds of Ohio



1. OREGONIA. TABLE IX. SEVEN MALES.



Oregoni.a




MEAN SPECIAL


INDEX.




MEAN
GENERAL




I


11


III


IV


V


INDEX.


Males


109.9


107.5


103.2


100.5


85.9


101.2



The variation in the o-eneral lum])ar index for Oreso-
nia skeletons is very small, the maximum index being
103.4, the minimum 98. As in the North-west Indians



THE LUMBAR CUKVE IN SOME AMERCIAN RACES. 65

the special index of the first, second, third and fourth
vertebrae are in every single instance 100 or above, ex-
cept in two cases where the index of the fourth vertebra
is 96. In the sums of the measurements of the anterior
and posterior depths there is remarkable uniformity, the
averao-e beino; 144 mm. for the sum of the anterior and
145 mm. for the sum of the posterior measurements ;
the range is from 137 mm. to 150 mm., and from 138
mm. to 152 mm. for the sums of the anterior and poste-
rior measurements respectively.



i. FORT ANCIENT. TABLE X. TEN MALES, SIX FEMALES.



Fort .Ancient




MEAN SPECIAL


INDEX.




MEAN

GENERA




I


II


III


IV


V


INDEX.


Males


114.3


111.4


106.5


100.0


89.0


104.0


Females


110.1


106.1


102.5


92.5


83.0


98.7


Both sexe(<


112.2


108.6


104..i


96.2


86.0


101.3



The Fort Ancient skeletons resemble those of Orego-
nia in the remarkably small amount of variation in the
lumbar measurements. In the males the variation of the
lumbo- vertebral index varies from 100.7 to 108.9. The
special index of the first, second and third lumbars are
all over 100, of the fourth three fall below 100. The
averages of the sums of the anterior and posterior
measurements, 187 mm., and 143 mm., respectively, are
very high and the range of variation is small, the maxi-
mum and minimum sums being 130 mm. and 145 mm.
for the anterior measurements and 135 mm. and 148mm.



QQ



BULLETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.



for the posterior. No general lumbar index among the
females exceeds 99.2, while the minimum index is 97.5,
a remarkably narrow range of variation. Curiously
enough the average of the sums of the anterior measure-
ments in the females, 138 mm., exceeds by a single
millimetre the average sum of the anterior measurements
of the ten males. The posterior average in the female is
136 mm. ; the range of variation being 131 mm. to 148
mm., and 127 mm. to 146 mm., for the anterior and
posterior sums respectively.



IV. Peru :

1. ANCON. TABLE XI. ELEVEN MALES, EIGHT FEMALES.



Ancon




MEAN SPECIAL


INDEX.




MEAN
GENERAL




I


II


III


IV


V


INDEX.


Males


115.2


110.9


107.2


99.2


85.2


102.9


Females


110.1


104.8


101.8


94.7


81.0


97.9


Both sexes


112.6


107.8


104.5


96.9


83.0


100.4



In this table for the first time the average of the
special indices of the 4th vertebra in the males falls
considerably below 100. Eight of the indices are ex-
actly 100, one is 92.3, another 96 and the other one
104.1. The averages of the sums of the measurements
of the lumbars in this group of skeletons falls below any
so far recorded in this paper. This is what might be ex-
pected from the fact that the coast tribes of Peru were of
very short stature. In fact some of those of the south
of Peru may almost be called dwarfs. The average of



THE LUMBAR CUllVK IN SOME AMERICAN RACES.



67



the sums of the anterior measurements of the five lum-
b.irs in the males is 124 mm., highest 138 mm , lowest
114 mm.; average for the females, 120 mm.; highest
126 mm., lowest 113 mm. The general average of the
sums of the posterior depths in the males is 130 mm.,
highest 140 mm., lowest 119 mm. ; females, average 117
mm. ; highest 121 mm., lowest 110 mm.

In addition to the nineteen skeletons from A neon
which were examined for the preparation of the above
table, there were twelve other skeletons which showed
marks of senility to such a degree as to necessitate a
separate treatment. In the preceding sections such
skeletons have not been sufficiently numerous to deserve
special notice, and they have consequently been excluded
along with the skeletons of children and partially grown
individuals- But it is believed that these nine Ancon
skeletons may throw some light on the changes produced
by old age on the lumbar curve.



ANCON. TABLE XII. FIVE MALES, SEVEN FEMALES. SENILE CONDITION.



Ancon




MEAN SPECIAL


INDEX.




MEAN
GENERAL




I


II


III


IV


V


INDEX.


Males


122.1


ll.'j.S


112.5


105.2


90.3


109.4


Femjiles


120..T


122.0


107.5


105.6


87.9


106.1


Both sexes


121.3


118.1


110.0


105.4


89.1


107.7



In the next table the results brought out in tables xi
and XII nre contrasted.



68



BULLETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.



TABLE XIII.



Ancon


MEAN SPECIAL INDEX.


MEAN
GENERAL




I


II


III


IV


V


INDEX.


C Normal . . .


115.2


110.9


107.2


99.2


85,2


102.9


[ Senile . . .


122.0


115.5


112.5


105.2


90.,3


109.4


f Normal - . .


110.1


104.8


101.8


94.7


81.0


97.9


I Senile ....


120.5


112.8


107.5


105.6


87.9


106.1


Both [Normal . . .


112.6


107.8


104.5


96.9


83.0


100.4


'''''' I senile . . .


121.3


118.1


110.


105.4


89.1


107.7



There are several interesting points brought out in this
comparative view. Perhaps the most striking one iis the
amount of difference for the two mean general averages.
Whether there is any significance in the fact that this
difference is greater in the figures for the females than in
the males I am unable to determine.

Another interesting point is that the two sexes are
more nearly alike for the fifth lumbar than they are for
the first lumbar. That is, the amount of difference in
the curve for the normal spine and the senile spine is
greater at the upper part of the curve than it is at the
lower portion. The increased age shows itself especially
plain in the spine on the fifth lumbar, which no longer has
a distinct wedge-shape, as is shown by the average index
89 for the senile group, as contrasted with the index 83,
for the normal group.

It is interesting to note also the marked decrease of
the total length of the lumbar region of the spine in the



THE LUMBAR CURVE IN SOME AMERICAN RACES.



69



senile skeletons. In the males the highest total ol the
anterior depths is but 124 mm., the average is 117 mm.,
and the lowest is 118 mm.

Similar measurements for the females are : maximum
118 mm., average 112 mm., minimum 106 mm. To
make more cleai- the comparison between the normal
adult and senile condition of the length of the spine, at
any rate as fai- as thf lumbar region is concerned, I give
the figures in the following table :

TABLE XIV. HEIGHT OF LUMBAR VERTEBRA:.



A neon


MALES.


FEMALES.


BOTH


3EXE8.




NORMAL.


SENILE.


NORMAL.


SENILE.


NORMAL.


SENILE.


Average puni of an-
terior rte])tlis . .


mm.
124


mm.
117


mm.
12(1


mm.
112


mm.
122


mm.

114


Averajre sum of pos.
terior depths . . .


130


128


117


Hi)


123


123



2. rUZCO. TABLE XV. THREE MALES, THREE KKMALE.S.



(Juz<ro




MEAN SPECIAL


INDEX.




MEAN
GENERAL




I ,


II


III


IV


V


INDEX.


Males


ua.-

1 12.2


107.5


107.1


9.1.0


81.8
80.4


103.3


Females


107.7


104.4


!t.j.4
9.').2


99.4


Moth sexeii


113.})


107.6


iai.5


81.1


1011.3



In this table, as in the one for Ancon, it may be noted
that the break in the curve in the males is between the
fourth and fifth lumbars and not between the third and
fourth lumbars as is the case in the North American

ESSKX INST. BULLKTIN VOI,. XXVII 9



70



BULLETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.



skeletons. As the Quichuas of the Cuzco region are
taller than the coast Peruvians, we may expect an increase
in the anterior and posterior lengths of the lumbar spine.
In the males, the average anterior length is 133 mm.,
posterior, 135 mm. in the females, the anterior length is
121 mm., posterior 119 mm. Averages for both sexes
are, anterior and posterior, 127 mm.

Summary.

From the fact that the length of lumbar region of the
spine is a fairly reliable factor in computing the height
of the skeleton, I have summed up in one table the
average of the sums of the anterior measurements of the
five lumbar vertebrae for both sexes, and have arranged the
table in a serial order beg-inning; with the longest lumbar
spine.

TABLE XVI. HEIGHT OF LUMBAR VERTEBKjE.



ANTERIOR HEIGHT OF TRUE LUMBAR VERTEBRAE.


MM.


Oregonia, Ohio


144


Fort Ancient, Ohio


138


Cuzco, Peru


131


Chinook, Britisli Columbia


130


Iroquois, New York .... . .


129


Songish, British Columbia


129


Kwakiutl, British Columbia


128


Ancon, Peru


122



If this table shows nothing else, it at least explains
what is already pretty generally known and that is that
the ancient inhabitants of the Ohio Valley were very tall



THE LUMBAR CURVE IN SOME AMERICAN RACES. 71



people and that the coast people of Peru are among, if
not the shortest people, on the American continent.

The table further emphasizes the great difference in
stature between the coast people and those in the moun-
tain valleys of Peru. This difference extends to every
part of the skeleton and I am convinced of the utter
worthlessness of any observations on the osteology of
the "Peruvians" in which the two races are not sharply
separated.

It is now time to gather into one table the results so
far obtained :

TABLE XVII.



America


MEAN SPECIAL INDEX.


MEAN
GENERAL




I


II


III


IV


Y


INDEX.


(75

Kwakiutl 1

( 10 9


117.8
111.2


110.1
106.8


109.8
100.8


99.9
90.7


88.7
84.3


105.0
98.1


( T 6

Songisli I

(39 .....


115.7
111.3


111.6
108.0


107.9
102.0


96.5
92.0


82.5
82.8


102.2
99.1


(16

Chinook?

(49


IIK.O
107.1


115.2
103.9


111.5

99.8


103.6
89.5


80.0
85.5


104.4
98.7


. { 26

Iroiiuois <

(19


112.5
111.1


108.0

108.0


105.6
100.0


102.9
92.5


94.4

74.0


105.0
%.8


Oiegonia, 76


109.9


107.5


103.2


100.5


85.9


101.2


( 10 6 • • •

Fort Ancient {

6 9 ...


114.3
110.1


111.4
106.1


106.5
102.5


100.0
92.5


89.0
83.0


104.0
98.7


(116

.\ncon {

(89


115.2
110.1


110.9
104.8


107.2
101.8


99.2
94.7


85.2
81.0


102.9
97.9


(36

Cuzco {

(89


115.7
112.2


107.5
107.7


107.1
104.4


95.0
95.4


81.8
80.4


101.3
99.4



72



BULLETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.



Arranging this table in another manner so as to bring
out more clearly the average or general lumbar vertebrae
index of the various American races examined, we have :



TABLE XVIII.





a)


a

OS
IN a

O
CO




O
§


<




H

o
fa


<


d




I

II
III
IV

. V


114.5


113.5


111.5


111.1


109.9


112.2


112.6


113.9


Mean Spec


108.4


108.8


109.5


108.0


107.5


108.6


107.8


107.6


ial Index of
Lumbar


105.3


104.9


105.6


102.8


103.2


104.5


104.5


105.5


Vertebrae


95.3


94.5


96.5


97.7


100.5


96.2


96.9


95.2




86.5


82.6


82.7


84.2


85.9


86.0


83.0


81.1


Mean General
Index.


101.5


100.6


101.5


100.9


101.2


101.3


100.4


100.3



Takino^ the averag^e index of these eisrht general indi-
es c? o o

ces we have an index of 100.9 for American aborigines.
I confess to some astonishment at the result. The lack of
variation from 100 is striking und more or less puzzling.
One thing should be borne in mind, viz., that although
the tribes represented above are widely separated, yet
they all are good examples of the better sort of Indians
found on this continent at its discovery ; all of them
were semi-barbarians dwelling in more or less permanent
homes and depending chiefly upon agriculture for their
food supply, although the North-west Coast people were,
to a great extent, hunters and fishers. Perhaps it is not
wholly without significance that in those two races which



THE LUMBAR CURVE IN SOME AMERICAN RACES.



73



were most civilized and most fixed in their abode we find
the lowest lumbo-vertebral index.

Notwithstanding the remarkable uniformity shown in
the above results I am ahiiost persuaded, from what I
have seen of the osteological characters of the Brazilian
and other east coast tribes of South America, that there
we shall find a lumbar curve which will approximate that
of the lowest races yet examined.

Accepting Turner's classification of the lumbar index
we may make the following grouping of those tribes and
races which so far have been examined.



KCRTOKACHIC,


ORTHORACHIC,


KOILORACHIC,




INDEX, OS-


INDEX, 98-102.


INDEX, 102—




European, . . 96


American :


Hawaiians, .


104




Northwest Coast,


Anciamaneee, .


104.8




Iroquois,


Negroes,


105.4




Mounds of Ohio,


Bushmen, .


106.6




Peru . 100 9


Tasmanians,


107.2






Australians,


107.8



The following conclusions can, it seems to me, be
drawn in regard to the Lumbar Index : ( 1 ) In any
individual race or tribe, it is an important means of deter-
mining sex ; (2) It bids fair to become one of the most
valuable ethnic tests known in determining the physical
superiority or inferiority (so-called) of any tribe or race.



THE FLORA OF COLONIAL DAYS.



BY MISS MARY T. SAUNDERS.



In these days of historical research, it is interesting to
look back and see what records the colonists left of the
plants growing upon these New England shores, and also
what efforts they made to promote the growth of many of
the home plants which they brought with them. We think
of them as a band of men caring little for the gentler
side of life and it is pleasant to see that in many instances
they had eyes for the beautiful in Nature and rejoiced
in the noble trees, waving grass and lowly wayside flow-
ers, as well as in the abundance of fish and game which
would minister to their physical needs. The first record,
of which we find mention, was made by Gabriel Archer,
a gentleman who accompanied Capt. Gosnold in his
voyage to the north part of Virginia, in 1(502. He says :
"May 15, we had again sight of land, which made ahead,
being, as we thought, an island, by reason of a large
sound that appeared westward, between it and the main,
for coming to the west end thereof we did perceive a
large opening ; we called it Shoal Hope. Near this Cape
we came to anchor in fifteen fathoms, where we took great
store of cod fish, for which we altered the name and called
it Cape Cod. The captain went ashore and found the
ground to be full of pease, strawberries, whortleberries,
etc., as then unripe.

(74)



THE FLORA OF COLONIAL DAYS. 75

May 21. The place (Martha's Vineyard) most pleas-
ant, for the two-and-twentieth we went ashore and found
it full of wood, vines, gooseberry bushes, whortleberries,
raspberries, eglantines, etc. The fire-wood then by us
ta^en in, was cypress, birch, witch-hazel and beech."

"In June, 1603, Martin Pring, with two small vessels,
arrived on the American coast, between the forty-third
and forty-fourth degrees of north latitude among a multi-
tude of islands. Following the coast south in search of
sassafras, he entered a large sound and, on the north side,
built a hut and enclosed it with a barricade, where some
of the party kept guard while others collected sassafras in
the woods. The natives were treated with kindness
and the last of the two vessels departed, well-freighted,
on the ninth of August."

We next find a record that Edw^ard Winslow, writing
from Plimmouth, Dec. 11, 1621, says : "All the spring-
time the earth sendeth forth naturall}^ very good salad
herbs ; here are grapes, white and red, and very sweet


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