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Houseleek prospereth notably. Hollyhock, Sparagus,
Satin, — 'we call this herb in Norfolke Sattin' — says Gerard,
and among our women it is called Honestie, Garden
Sorrel and Sweet Bryer or Eglantine. English Rose? very
pleasantly, Celandine."

There are very many plants which we have omitted,
but the principal familiar ones have been given. We can
see that much progress had been made and that the gar-
dens were well stocked. When Josselyn made his first
visit in 1638-9, he was treated with " half a score very fair
pippins " from the Governor's Island in Boston Harbor,
though there was then he says, " not one apple tree, nor
pear planted yet in no part of the country but upon that
island.""* But he has a much better account to give in
1671. "The quinces, cherries, damsons, set the dames
a work. Marmalad and preserved damsons is to be met
with in every house. Our fruit trees prosper abundantly.
Apple trees, pear trees, quince trees, cherry trees, plum
trees, barberry trees. The countrey is replenished with
fair and large orchards." Here end our quotations from
the "Rarities " and with one more item, this paper must be
brought to a close. " Sebastian Raslis, a missionary from
the Society of Jesuits to the Indians in North America,
1689, in speaking of the method of illuminating his
chapel, observes that he had found an excellent substitute
for wax, by boiling the berries of a kind of laurel in
winter and skimming ofi" the thick, oily substance which
rose to the top. Twenty-four pounds of this beautiful
green wax, and an equal amount of tallow will make one
hundred wax candles of a foot long."

* Probably Josselyn was mistaken. The Governor Endecott pear-tree is thought
to have been planted where it now stands, in 1G30.— Memoir of John Endecott,
by Chas. M, Endlcott, p. 23, note.— Editor,



\



88 BULLETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.

mate. Gilly Flower will continue two years. Fennel
must be taken up and kept in a warm cellar all winter.
Houseleek prospereth notably. Hollyhock, Sparagus,
Satin, — 'we call this herb in Norfolke Sattin' — says Gerard,
and among: our women it is called Honestie, Garden
Sorrel and Sweet Bryer or Eglantine. English Rose? very
pleasantly, Celandine."

There are very many plants which we have omitted,
but the principal familiar ones have been given. We can
see that much progress had been made and that the gar-
dens were well stocked. When Josselyn made his first
visit in 1638-9, he was treated with " half a score very fair
pippins " from the Governor's Island in Boston Harbor,
though there was then he says, " not one apple tree, nor
pear planted yet in no part of the country but upon that
island."^ But he has a much better account to give in
1671. "The quinces, cherries, damsons, set the dames
a work. Marmalad and preserved damsons is to be met
with in every house. Our fruit trees prosper abundantly.
Apple trees, pear trees, quince trees, cherry trees, plum
trees, barberry trees. The countrey is replenished with
fair and large orchards." Here end our quotations from
the "Rarities " and with one more item, this paper must be
brought to a close. " Sebastian Raslis, a missionary from
the Society of Jesuits to the Indians in North America,
1689, in speaking of the method of illuminating his
chapel, observes that he had found an excellent substitute
for wax, by boiling the berries of a kind of laurel in
winter and skimming oflf the thick, oily substance which
rose to the top. Twenty-four pounds of this beautiful
green wax, and an equal amount of tallow will make one
hundred wax candles of a foot long."

* Probably Josselyn was mistaken. The Governor Eudecott pear-tree is thought
to have been planted where it now stands, in 1G30.— Memoir of John Endecott,
by Chas. M. Endlcott, p. 23, note.— Editok.



BuT^LBTrV OK THE EsSEX INSTITUTE.



Volume XXV 11.




()B,TECTS FROM PHE-HISIORK GRAVES. RlWERL¥v MASS.



liUl^hETIS OV TIIK EISSKX INSTITUTE.



Volume XX VH.







OH.FECTS FH(B[ PKP]-HISTORIC GRAVES, BEVERLY', ilASS.



PRE-HISTORIC RELICS FROM BEVERLY.
(with two plates.)



CONTRIBUTED BY JOHN ROBINSON.



On July 21, 1871, a very interesting collection of pre-
historic objects was obtained l)y the Peabody Academy
of Science from three graves, accidentally discovered on
Lovett street, Beverly, l)y workmen engaged in digging
a trench. Some account of these objects will be found
on page 125 of the Bulletin of the Essex Institute for
1871, Vol. Ill, as announced by Mr. F. W. Putnam at
an Institute field meeting held at Ship Rock, Peabody,
Aug. 2, 1871, It was intended to give a fuller descrip-
tion of this collection, witli illustrations, in the "American
Naturalist" magazine, but this was never done. Professor
Putnam also intended to contribute, to the memoirs of the
Peabody Academy, an article on the pre-historic graves
in Essex County ; but, later, this plan was relinquished.
For this last purpose, however, two excellent lithographic
plates were prepared by Mr. G. M. White, and printed.
It is now thought well t^o use these plates for the Institute
Bulletin, and they are introduced here as supjilementary
to the article of 1871, Vol. Ill, pp. 123-5, above men-
tioned.

The plates cover the moie interesting objects found in
the three graves at Beverly and may be described as
follows : —

(89)



Fig.


2.


Fig.


3.


Fig.


4.


Fig.


1.


Fig.


2.


Fig.


3.


Fig.


4.



90 BULLETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.

Plate I.
Fig. 1. Pipe, peridotite ; very probably made of the
rock, commonly called soapstone, from the
Andover outcrop.
Knife blade of Marblehead felsite.
Spear-head of Marblehead felsite.
Celt or skin dresser of diorite.

Plate II.

Slate stone marked as shown.

Slate tablet, very probably made of the Brad-
ford rock.

Slate tablet, as last.

Tablet of porphyritic dyke rock. It shows
indication of the beginninsr of a hole at the
smaller end as in figure 2.

All of the objects are drawn actual size. In addition
to the objects figured, there are in this collection from the
Beverly graves, another tablet, similar to fig. 2, Plate If,
but of a lighter colored slate ; a porphyritic d>ke rock
pebble, with indentations on the edge ; two flat pieces of
sandstone, evidently used for rubbing or sharpening imple-
ments ; a flat slate stone and two pebbles showing traces
of ochre upon them ; and several thin pieces of nmscovite
mica of the Andover form of this mineral. The identi-
fication of the rock materials has been made by Mr. Sears.
There is no reason to suppose that these implements
originated outside of Essex County ; for, in each case, a
rock of precisely the same character as the object is found
within the limits of the county.

There are, in the county collections of the Peabody
Academy, a large number of interesting objects obtained
from pre-historic graves, or graves of the people of the



PRE-HISTORIC RELICS FROM BEVERLY. 91

pre-historic race which occupied this region, although from
the finding of European beads and copper trinkets in
connection with aboriginal stone implements, these latter
burials must have been made after the year 1500, when
Europeans had visited our shores. In the case of the
Beverly graves from which the objects figured were ob-
tained, unless the pipes are of European workmanship,
or were made with tools obtained from the early voyagers,
the age may be placed at more than 850 years. If, how-
ever, the pipes were made by Europeans or with tools
obtained from them, then 270 to 350 years would be a
safer estimate for the age of the objects found ; they
undoubtedly antedate the permanent settlement of the
region in 1626,

Peabody Academy of Science,
Jan. 19, 1897.



NOTE TO ARTICLE OF REV. WM. P. ALCOTT

Since pages 92-94 were in print I have other items as to
the history of this Ilex from Mrs. Horner. The bush
originally stood by the roadside in the edge of No.
Andover. It was transplanted l)y Mr. P. B. Folansbee
to his nursei} at Raggett's Pond, and a rooting from it is
growing at the Arnold Arboretum. Professor Gray con-
sidered this plant simply a freak, like the white huckle-
berry, etc.

In his "November Chromcle" A flcmtic Monthly, Nov.
1888, Mr. Bradford Torrey mentions finding — perhaps
in a wider range of conditions — 73 species blooming
during Nov. 1887.



BOTANICAL NOTES.



BY REV. WM. P. ALCOTT, BOXFORD.



The writer's duties have called him to drive in different
directions nearly every day of November, 1896. He has
noted the roadside flowers seen on these rides, together
with such as he could tind about his own premises. Per-
sons having opportunity for systematic search may have
found many more during such a favoral)le month, and I
shall be happy if my own list may serve to call forth
longer catalogues. Certain plants which I have not found
must surely have been observed, while some mentioned
are evidently exceptional cases. Quite a list of Crypto-
gams might be added and possibly a few belated grasses.

The vigor and beaut}'' of Aster undulatus, even so late
as the 18th, was very interesting. It will be noted that
fifteen of these brave twenty-eight were Compositie.

Flowering plants of the following were abundant :

Capsella bursa-pastoris, L.

Lepidium Virginicum, L.

Brassica canipestris, L.

Stellar ia media ^ L.

Malva rotundifolia, L.

Trifolium pratense, L.

Hamamelis Virgimca, L.

Aster undulatus, L.

Aster miser, L.

Erigeron Canadense, L.

Solidago cassia, L.

Solidago altissima, L.
(92)



BOTANICAL NOTES. 93

8oUdago memoralis, Ait.
Achillea millefoUum^ L.
Gnaphalium polycejphalnm, Mchx .
Leontodon autm7inale, L.
Taraxacum dens-leonis, Desf.
Lobelia injlata, L.

Two or three specimens were seen of these : —
Solidago bicolor, L.
Maruta cotula, D. C.
Erecthites hieracifolia, Raf.
Gentiana crinita, Froel.

Of six only single flowering specimens were observed :
Ranuncidus acris, L.
Sinapis nigra, L.
Viola sagittato , L.
Potent ilia argentea, L.
Aster dumosus, L.
Aster longifolius, Lam.

Early this last summer Mrs. C. N. S. Horner called
my attention to a strange plant found somewhere in
Geoigetown, which proved to be an emigrant froiu West-
ern Eur()i)e, Hieracium aurantiacum, var. bicolor. Later
in the season, during a carriage ride, this plant was seen
to be very abundant at a place near East Templcton,
Worcester County, and also in Florida, Berkshire County,
along the main road over Hoosac Mountain. It thus
grows "in high pastures" here, as across the Atlantic.
Should it Honrish at lower altitudes it might prove another
of those beautiful but most troublesome weeds which the
Old World has so often sent us. If memory is correct, I
have seen this plant on the high ground of Mr. T. C.
Thurlow's Nursery, at West Newbury.

Other interesting " finds," by that most observing bota-

KSSKX INST. BULLETIN VOL. XXVII 10*



94 BULLETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.

nist, Mrs. Horner, have been Salvia virgata and Trifo-
Uum tomentosum, L., both of Southern Europe. The
latter was found ten years ago and from the place of its
discovery in Georgetown, is evidently to be added to the
list of " Woolen Mill Plants." I am not aware that it has
been collected there since. The Salvia appeared this
summer, or last, among the seedling flowers of a garden.

A small-flowered pink, Silene gallica, var. quinque-
vulnera, has bloomed for me two years, coming with
"wild garden" seed, probably imported from France.
Botanists who know our native weeds from strange ones
may often get rare things in this way.

What one might call persistent local attachment is
remarkably manifested in some plants. Crocuses and
Star-of-Bethlehem ( Ornithogaluni) blossom every year
in the dense sward near my house, where they must have
been planted twenty-five years ago, perhaps much more,
having never in that time been cultivated. Probably
some readers can far overmatch these instances. Poly-
gonum historta, L., also grows, and often flowers, in the
same grass, in spite of having been mown close, once or
twice a summer for many years. No doubt it is a relic of
some ancient garden.

In August a white-flowered form of Linaria Canaden-
sis, Spreng., was somewhat abundant near Milwood
P. O., Rowley. Years ago specimens of "white-fruited"
black alder. Ilex verticillata. Gray, were given to the
Boxford Natural History Society, from a bush on the
land of a Mrs. Cole, of West Boxford. The berries
were rather of a yellow ccjlor. One specimen of Hous-
tonia purpurea, L., var. longifolia, with white flowers,
was also brouglit to our Society from near the center of
the town, sown perhaps with grass seed, which so often
brings into our soil transient and extra-limital specimens.

For ii note appended to the above, see p. 91.



ON A NEW GENUS AND TWO NEW SPECIES
OF MACRUROUS CRUSTACEA. ^



BY J. S. KINGSLEY.



1 owe to Professor Hermon C. Biimpus, of Brown Uni-
versity, the privilege of examining a small shrimp which
he obtained from the Island of Naushon, one of the Eliza-
beth Islands, on the sonthern coast of Massachusetts.
Under ordinary circumstances the publication of isolated
descriptions is to ))e deplored, but in this case the pro-
cedure seems to have some justification. In the first
place the whole Vineyard Sound region has been so thor-
oughly explored by the various parties of the U. S. Fish
Commission and by the members of the Marine Biologi-
cal Laboratory at Woods Holl, that novelties among the
Deca[)()d Crustacea are extren»ely rare. Again, the form
in (jtiestion is unique in several of its features, combining
as it does the cliaractcrs of seveial other orenei'a or even
of so-called families.

The specimen, which is the basis of the following de-
scription, was found July 13, 1893, in the sand of the
small channels — the so-called gutters — ot the island.

Genus Naushonia. Body somewhat depressed; mandi-
bles stout, incurved, the cutting edge excavate anteriorly,
the edge itself serrate ; a two-jointed palpus present.



1 Contrihutions from the Biological Lsiliorntories of Tufts Oi)llc>:i', uiidpr the
(liruction of .1. S. Kingsley, No. xvi.

(96)



96 BULLETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.

First pair of feet larger than the second, the first pair
being sub-chelate, the second non-chelate, and with sim-
ple carpus. Antenniilffi biflagellate, the inner flagellum
about half the length of the outer. Antennae long ; an-
tennal scale small, not reaching to the external spine.

This genus resembles the Crangoninse in the larger
first pair of pereiopoda ; in the sul)-chelate character of
the anterior hand, and the non-annulate carpus of the
second pair of pereiopoda. It dififers, however, from this
sub-fann'ly, and from all the CrangonidoB as limited by
Dana, in the excavate mandible and in the possession of a
mandibular palpus. The cutting edge of the mandible
recalls somewhat that of the Atyidee, but the palpus is
not present in that family. Mandibular characters also
exclude it from all known Palasmonida?. Subsequent
investigations may show that it will be necessary to erect a
new 'family' for its reception.

jSTaushonia crangonoides n. sp. Carapax somewhat
cylindrical, depressed in front, the rostral region being
down curved. The I'ostrum flattened, tip broadly trian-
gular, extending forward slightly beyond the eyes. Su-
pra-orbital and antennal spines present ; branchiostegal,
hepatic and pterygostomian spines lacking. Cervical
groove well marked in the middle but not reaching the
antero-laleral margin of the carapax. A well-marked
impressed line extends from the antero-external angle on
either side to the posterior margin of the carapax. With
these exceptions the carai)ax is smooth and is without
pubescence. The abdomen is about a third longer than
the carapax ; is smooth and without carinas, spines, etc.
The telson is a third longer than broad, its tip regularly
and broadly rounded, with a spine at each external angle.
The eyes are on short peduncles, not visible from above,
and with a minute pigment spot. The antennuloe are



NEW CRUSTACEA. 97

biflagellate, the flagella short, the inner ramus being
about half the length of the outer. The antennae are
provided with a small basal scale, the external spine of
which reaches to the middle of the last joint of the
peduncle, while the laminate portion of the scale falls
short of the external spine. The external maxillipeds
are pediform, elongate and furnished with extremely long
hairs. The mandibular palpus bears simple hairs on its
inner, and stiff bristles on its outer margin. The pereio-
poda are provided with small exopodites. The first pair
(only the left present in the specimen) are much the
larger, and recall strongly the corresponding appendage
in the Crangonids, but the occludent margin is more
oblique than in most of the genera of that group. The
meros is about twice as long as the ischium, and both
these joints have the external margin acute. The short
carpus is approximately an equilateral triangle in outline.
The hand is flattened, the propodus being twice as long as
broad, and externally with an acute edge. A long acute
'thumb' directed obliquely forward, at about the middle
of the inner margin of the propodus, limits the occludent
margin of the palm. This margin is acute and is pro-
vided with one large and several smaller teeth, the dis-
tribution of which is shown in the figure. The dactylus
is bent, proximally, at a right angle, the distal portion
being regularly arcuate and the tip acute. Its margins
are sharp and the outer one is provided with a fringe of
long hairs. The second pair of feet are the shortest, the
carpus is simple, without annulations, and the dactylus
is flattened and covered with a pul^escence of long hairs.
The remaining pereiopoda are slender, pediform and ter-
minated by acute, slightly curved dactyli. The total
length from the tip of the rostrum to the end of the
telsoQ is 26 mm.



98 BULLETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.

Caradina pasadence n. sp. Carapax smooth, ecarinate
above, rostrum long, three -fourths the length of the cara-
pax, and exceeding by a third of its length the antennular
peduncle. It is smooth above, its apex minutely bifid, and
occasionally a small tooth beneath at about the level of the
extremity of the antennular peduncle. Pterygostomian
spine present, rather obtuse ; external angle of the orbit
spiniform. Antennula with external spiniform scale on
the outer margin of the basal joint, reaching slightly in
advance of the extremity of the joint, a small spine on the
inner margin of the joint. Antennal flagella subequal in
length, the length about equal to that of the carapax with-
out the rostrum. Antennal scale about four times as
long as broad, extending slightly beyond the antennular
peduncle ; its external margin straight, its apex obliquely
rounded ; antennal flagelluni about two-thirds the length
of the ])ody. External maxillipeds pediform, the ischium
strongly arcuate ; the terminal joints partly fused and
armed with two rows of spines ; exopodite slender, filiform,
joints obsolete. First pair of pereiopoda short, rather
stout, the meros about equal to the propodus in length ;
hand of regular Atyid character, the fingers excavate and
furnished with pencils of hairs. Second pair of pereio-
poda about twice the length of first, the carpus simple,
slightly obconical, and longer than any other joint ; fin-
gers excavate and pencilled. Remaining pereiopoda elon-
gate, pediform, with moderate, slightly curved dactyli,
spinulose beneath. Telson with straight, converging sides,
its apex truncate and spinulose. Total length from tip of
rostrum to end of caudal pleopoda 32 to 39 mm.

This species, which was sent me by Professor A. J.
McClatchie of Throop University, is stated by him to be
common in the streams about Pasadena, California. This
species differs from O. multidentata, serrata, acuminata,



NEW CRU8TACRA. 99

brevirostris, exilirostris and typus in its elongate rostrum.
From O. grandimstris and leucosticta it differs in the lack
of teeth upon the upper margin of the rostrum ; from C.
americana m the almost total lack of teeth on the lower
surface of the rostrum, while C. denticulata is thrown out
by similar characters. C. tenuirostris is a species of
Virbius.

[PubUehed, March, 1897.]



EXPLANATION OF PLATE III.
Figs. 1-7. Caradina pasadenoe. Figs. 8-10. Naushonia crangon-

Fig.



1-7


. Caradina pasadence. Figs. 8-10.




oides.


1.


Carapax.


2.


Second pereiopod.


3.


First pereiopod.


4.


External maxilliped.


5.


Base of antennae.


6.


Mandible.


7.


Antennal scale.


8.


Mandible.


9.


Carapax, etc., from above.


10.


Side view.



BULLETIN ESSEX INSTITUTE, VOL. XXVII.



PLATE III.




KINGSLEY. NEW CRUSTACEA.



THE NASAL ORGANS OF PIPA AMERICANA.i



BY IRVING REED BANCROFT.



The investigations recorded in the following paper were
undertaken at the suggestion of Professor Kingsley, who
pointed out to me that the nasal structures of the Surinam
toad differed considerably from those described by Seydel
as occurring in other Batrachia ; and that aside from a short
reference by Stewart Lee, no account of the olfactory
organ of Pipa americana was accessible.

The whole work was done by means of sections and
plastic models, the slides being the same as those which
formed the basis of Arnold's paper on the cranial nerves.
The animals were from 9 to 12 mm. in body length and
in their general features were much like the adult. The
systematic position of Pipa as a member of the Aglossate
group of the Anura renders all facts regarding its struct-
ure especially interesting.

For convenience of comparison in my description, I
have followed Seydel ('95) in beginning my account at
the choana or posterior nasal aperture. The choana opens
from the back and upper part of the oral cavity as in
other amphibians. It almost immediately shows clearly
two main divisions, fig. 9, plate IV. Of these the supe-
rior or cavum nasale, c, figs. 2-9, has an ovoid section with
the narrow end directed outward. The second division, the

' Contribution.s from tlie Biological Laboratories of Tufts College, under the
direction of J. S. Kingsley, No. xvii.

ESSKX INST. BULLETIN, VOL KXVII 11 (101)



102 BULLETIN OF THE ESSEX INSTITUTE.

inferior or lateral nasal canal, In, is a long, flattened out-
pushing and lies more externally. The walls of the cavum
nasale become thickened immediately and the epithelium
is specialized for sensory purposes. The walls of the
lateral nasal canal are thinner and contain no specialized
cells except at its external end.

As we go farther forward, the lateral nasal canal sud-
denly widens laterally, still retaining its flattened condi-
tion, fig. 8, plate IV, and the external part becomes cut ofi"
from the main canal, forming a small and short blindsac.
The epithelium of this posterior blindsac is not thickened
or specialized, but is of the simple columnar type. This
blindsac occurs in each series of sections and is apparently
a constant structure. It is shown in outline in plate V
and fig. 7 cuts through its anterior end.

The thickening seen to bound it internally in fig. 7 is
merely the oblique section of the wall of the lateral nasal
canal, which is here extending itself outward to connect
with Jacobson's organ, and has nothing to do with the
posterior blindsac itself.

In front of the posterior blindsac, the walls of the lat-
eral portion of the lateral nasal canal become greatly
thickened and its epithelium in this region assumes the
same specialized condition as was found in the cavum
nasale. This lateral portion now assumes a more nearly
cylindrical shape and almost immediately leads away from
the lateral nasal canal and forms the duct for the organ
of Jacobson. From this duct, the organ of Jacobson ex-
tends forward, figs. 6, 5, 4, its anterior end being a little
posterior to the middle of the whole nasal apparatus,
plate V. It is the most external of the cavities connected
with the nasal organ and lies on a lower plane than the
rest. It is a rounded cone, viewed from below, and its
outer walls have a flattened cylindrical section while its
ulmen is broad and low.



THE NASAL ORGANS OF PIPA AMERICANA. 103

The sensory epithelium is very thick, consisting of cells
of an extreme columnar condition. The nuclei are scat-
tered at various depths in the basal two-thirds of the cells
while the free ends of the cells present the appearance
familiar in this region in all Amphibians.

A little in front of the point of union of the duct of


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