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BJOLOOY
LIBRARY

S



/. , : i'- : "'" 5 -r-
- ':::..''>?. vi.V

^p ^






THE FAUNA OF BRITISH INDIA,



INCLUDING



CEYLON AND BURMA.



PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE SECRETARY OF
STATE FOR INDIA IN COUNCIL.

EDITED BY W. T. BLANFORD,



BIRDS Vol. II.

BY

EUGENE W. GATES.



LONDON:
TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET.

CALCUTTA : I BOMBAY :

THACKER, SPINK, & CO. THACKEK & CO., LIMITED.

BERLIN:

B. FRIEDIANDER & SOHX, 11 CARL8TBA8SE

1890.



BIOLOGY
LIBRARY

G




PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS,
RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET.



PREFACE.



THE appearance of the second volume of ' Birds ' with fewer
pages than are contained in other volumes belonging to the
e Fauna of British India ' requires a brief explanation.

When the ' Birds ' were undertaken by Mr. Gates in 1888,
he knew that it would not be possible to complete them
within the two years of furlough to which he was entitled,
but it was hoped both by him and by myself that he would
obtain additional leave of absence. This has not proved
to be the case, and within the time available Mr. Gates
has only found it practicable to finish the Passerine Order,
comprising about five ninths of all the species of birds
found in India. As will easily be understood by those who
have been engaged in similar scientific work, constant
application has been necessary in order to accomplish this
within the period mentioned.

The first volume of the 'Birds' having appeared in
December of last year, there was, when Mr. Gates left
England in August last, considerably less than another
volume ready in manuscript. To have waited for a full
volume to be prepared would have entailed considerable
delay, and, under the circumstances, it has been thought
best to publish at once a second volume of less bulk at a
reduced price, and to leave the remaining birds to be

358259



IV PREFACE.

described in a thicker third volume, the cost of which will
be proportionately greater, so that the price of the two
volumes together will remain unaltered. By this means
descriptions of all Indian Passerine birds, which are more
numerous than those of all other orders together, and
which afford the greatest difficulties in identification, are
placed at once in the hands of Indian ornithologists, whilst
Mr. Gates' s work is kept distinct from that of any other
writer. I can only express my regret that Mr. Gates has
been unable to finish the work he has so well begun.

The present is the second volume of the ' Fauna of British
India ' published in the current year, Mr. Boulenger's
( Reptilia and Batrachia' having been issued in August.
The only part now wanting to complete the Vertebrata of
the Indian Fauna, besides the third volume of Birds, is the
second half of the volume containing Mammalia ; and this
half -volume, the greater portion of which is written, will, I
hope, be completed early in 1891. It is not probable that
the Birds can now be finished next year, but I propose to
undertake the third volume as soon as the Mammalia are
completed.

W. T. BLANFORD.

October, 1890.



SYSTEMATIC INDEX.



Fam. MUSCICAPIDJE



Page



1. Muscicapa, Briss 4

1. grisola, Linn 4

2. Hemiclielidon, Hodys. .

1. sibirica (Gm.)

2. ferruginea, Hodgs

3. Siphia, Hodys

1. strophiata, Hodys

2. parva (Bechst.)

3. albicilla (Pall.) 10

4. hyperythra, Cab 10

4. Cyorms, Blyth 11

1. cyaneus (Hume) .... 13

2. hodgsoni (Terr.) .... 14

3. hyperythrus (Blyth) . . 15

4. leucoinelanurus

(Hodys.) 16

5. superciliaris (Jerd.) . . 17

6. melanoleucus (Hodys.) 18

7. astigma (Hodys.) 19

8. sapphira (Tick.) 20

9. oatesi (Salvad.) 20

10. pallidipes (Jerd.) 22

11. unicolor, Blyth 22

12. rubeculoides (Vig.) .. 23

13. tickelli, Blyth 2o

14. magmrostris, Blyth . . 26

5. Nitidula, Jerd. $ Blyth . . 27

1. hodgsoni (Moore) .... 27

6. Stoparola, Blyth 27

1. melanops (Vig.) 28

2. sordida(JFaW.) .... 29

3. albicaudata (Jerd.) . . 30

7. Muscitrea, Blyth 30

1. grisola (Blyth) 31

8. Anthipes, Blyth 31



1. moniliger (Hodys.)

2. leucops (Sharps) . . .

3. submoniliger, Hume,

4. poliogenys (Brooks) .

5. olivaceus (Hume) . . .



9. Alseonax, Cab 34

1. latirostris (Raffi.) 35

2. ruficandus (Swains.) . . 36

3. muttui (Layard) .... 36

10. Ochromela, Blyth 37

1. nigrirufa (Jerd.) .... 37

11. Culicicapa, Sivinh 38

1. ceylonensis (Swaitis.) . 38

12. Niltava, Hodga 39

1. grandis (Blyth) 40

2. sundara, Hodys 41

3. macgrigorice (Burt.) . . 42

13. Philentoraa, Eytan.. ...... 42

1. velatum (Temm.) .... 43

2. pyrrliopterum(7eww.) 43

14. Terpsiphone, Gloyer .... 44

1. paradisi (Linn.) 45

2. affinis (Hay) 47

3. nicobarica, Dates .... 48

15. Hypothymis, Boie 48

1. azurea (Bodd.) 49

2. tytleri (Beavan) 50

16. Chelidorlayiix, Hodys. . . 51
1. hypoxanthum (Blyth) . 51

17. Rhipidura, Vig. $ Horsf. 52

1. albifrontata, Frankl... 52

2. albicollis ( VieiU.) .... 53

3. javanica (Sparnn.) . . 64

4. pectoralis (Blyth) .... oo

Fam. TUKDID^E 56

Subfam. Saxicolinee 57

1. Pratincola, Koch 58

1. caprata (Linn.) 59

2. atrata, Kelaart 60

3. maura (Pall.) (51

4. leucura, Blyth (53

5. macrorhyncha, Stol. . . 63

6. insignis (Hodys.) .... 64



VI



SYSTEMATIC INDEX.



Page

2. Oreicola, Bonap 66

1. jerdoni, Blyth 66

2. ferrea (Hodgs.) 66

3. Saxicola, Bechst 67

1. monacha, Riipp 69

2. albinigra, Hume .... 70

3. picata, Blyth 71

4. cajtistrata, Gould .... 72

5. opistholeuca, Strickl. . 73

6. pleschanka (Lepech.) , 73

7. barnesi, Oates 75

8. vittata, Hempr. $ Ehr. 75

9. penanthe (Linn.} .... 76

10. isabellina, Cretzschm. . 77

11. deserti, Temm 78

12. montana, Gould .... 78

13. chrysopygia (De

Filippi) 79

4. Cercomela, Bonap 79

1. fusca (Blyth) 80

Subfam. Rutidttince 81

1. Henicurus, Temm 82

1. maculatus, Vig 83

2. guttatus, Gould 84

3. schistaceus, Hodgs. . . 84

4. irnmaculatus, Hodgs. . 85

5. leschenaulti (Vieill.). , 86

2. Hydrocichla, Sliarpe 86

1. frontalis (Blyth) .... 87

2. ruficapilla ( Temm.} ..87

3. Microcichla, Sharpe .... 88

1. scouleri ( Vig.) 88

4. Chimarrhornis, Hodgs. . . 89
1. leucocephalus ( Vig.) . . 89

5. Ruticilla, Brehm 90

1. frontalis (Vig.) 91

2. scbisticeps, Hodgs. . . 92

3. aurorea (Pall.) 93

4. erythronota (Eversm) 94

5. hodgsoni, Moore .... 95

6. rufiventris (Vieill.) .. 95

7. erythrogaster (Gilkl) . 97

6. Khyacornis, Blanf. 97

1. f uliginosus ( Vig.) 98

7. Cyanecula, Brehm 99

1. suecica (Linn.) 99

2. wolfi (Brehm) 100

8. Daulias, Boie 100

1. golzi (Cab.) 101

9. Calliope, Gould 101

1. camtschatkensis

(Omel.) 102



Page

2. pectoralis, Gould ____ 103

3. tschebaiewi, Prjev. . . 104

10. Tarsiger, Hodgs ......... 104

1 . chrysaeus. Hodgs ..... 104

11. lanthia, Blyth .......... 105

1. rufilata (Hodgs.) ____ 106

2. indica ( Vieill.) ...... 107

3. hyperythra, Blyth . . 108

12. Adelura, Bonap ......... 108

] . caemleicephala ( Vig.) . 108

13. Grandala, Hodgs ....... 110

1. coelicolor, Hodgs ..... Ill

14. Notodela, Less ......... Ill

1. leucura (Hodgs.) ____ 112

15. Callene, Blyth ..... ..... 113

1. frontalis (Blyth) ____ 113

16. Thamnobia, Swains ..... 113

1. cambaiensis (Lath.) . . 114

2. fulicata (Linn.) ...... 115

17. Copsychus, Way 1 ....... 11(5

1. saularis (Linn.) ...... 116

18. Cittocincla, Gould ...... 118

1. macrura (Gmel.) .... 118

2. albiventris, Blyth ____ 120

Subfam. Turdina .......... 120



1. Merula, Leach ..........

1. maxima, Seebohm ....

2. simillima (Jerd.) ....

3. kinnisi, Kelaart ......

4. bourdilloni, Seebohm . .

5. erythrotis, Dav .....

6. nigripileus (Lafr.) . .

7. albicincta (Royle) ____

8. castanea, Gould ......

9. fuscata (PaU.) ......

10. ruficollis (PaU.) ____

11. bonlboul (Lath.) ____

12. atrigularis (Temm.) . .

13. unicolor (Tick.) ......

14. protomomeleena (Cab.)

15. obscura (Gmel.) ____

16. subobscura, Salvad. . .

17. fese, Salvad. ........

2. Geocicnla, Euhl .........

1. wardi (Jerd.) ........

2. sibirica (Pall) ......

3. cyanonotus (Jard. $



.

4. citrma (Lath.) ......

5. innotata, Blyth ......

6. albigularis, Blyth ____

7. andamanensis, Wald. .



121
123
124
124
125
126
126
127
128
129
130
130
131
132
133
134
135
135
130
137
133

139
140
141
142
142



SYSTEMATIC INDEX.



Vll



3. Petrophila, Swains 142

1. erythrogostra (Vig.). . 143

2. cinclorhyncha ( Vig.) . . 144

3. solitaria (Mill.) 146

4. cyanus (Linn.) 146

4. Monticola, Boie 147

1, saxatilis (Linn.) .... 147

5. Turdus, Linn 148

1. viscivorus, Linn 148

2. pilaris, Linn 150

3. iliacus, Linn 150

G. Oreocincla, Gould 151

1. dauma (Lath.) 152

2. varia (Patt.) 153

3. nilgiriensis, Blyth . . .153

4. imbricata (Lay.) . . . 154

5. inollissiina (Blyth) . 154

6. dixoni (Seebohm) . . . 155

7. spiloptera, Blyth . . . ]55

7. Zoothera, Vig 15G

1. monticola, Vig 157

2. marginata, Blyth .... ] 57

8. Cochoa, Hodgs 158

1. purpurea, Hodgs 159

2. viridis, Hodgs 160

Subfam. Cinclince 161

1. Cinclus, Bechst 162

1. kashmiriensis, Gould. . 162

2. asiaticus, Sivains 163

3. pallasi, Temm 164

4. sordidus, Gould 165



Subfam. Accentorince 165

1. Accentor, Bechst 166

1. nepalensis, Hodgs. . . 166

2. himalayanos, Blyth . . 168

2. Tharrhaleus, Kaup 168

1. immaculatus (Hodgs.) 169

2. rubeculoides (Hodgs.). 169

3. atrigularis (Brandt) . . 170

4. fulvescens (Sev.) .... 171

5. strophiatufl (Hodgs.) . 17]

6. jerdoni (Brooks) 172



Fani. PLOCEIDJE 173

Subfam. Ploceincc 174

1. Ploceus, Guv 174

1. baya, Blyth 175

2. megarhynchus, Hume . 176



3. bengalensis (Linn.) . . 177

4. manyar (Horsf.) .... 179
2. Ploceella, Gates 179

1. javanensis (Less.). . . . 180

Subfam. Viduince 181

1. Munia, Hodgs 181

1. malacca (Linn.) .... 182

2. atricapilla(F.) .. 183

2. Uroloncha, Cab 183

1. acuticauda (Hodgs.) . . 184

2. striata (Linn.) 185

3. semistriata (Hume) . . 186

4. fumigata (Wold.). ... 186

5. leucogastra (Blyth) . . 186

6. pectoralis (Jerd.) 187

7. kelaarti (Blyth) 187

8. nmlabarica (Linn.) . . 188

9. punctulata (Linn.) . . 189

3. Erythrura, Sivains 190

1. prasina (Sparrm.). . . . 190

4. Stictospiza, Sharpe 190

1. formosa (Lath.) 191

5. Sporaegintkus, Cab 192

1. amandava (Linn.). . . . 192

2. flavidiventris (Wal-

lace) 193



Fani. FRINGILLIDJE . , 194

Subfam. Coccothraustince .... 196

1. Coccothraustes, Briss. . . 196
1. humii, Sharpe 196

2. Pycuorhaniphus, Hume. . 198

1. icteroides (Vig.) 198

2. affinis (Blyth) 199

3. carneipes (Hodgs.) . . 200

3. Mycerobas, Cab 200

1. melanoxanthus

(Hodgs.) 201

Subfam. Frini/iUinee 202

1. Pyrrhula, Briss 204

1. aurantiaca, Gould .... 204

2. erythrocephala, Vig.. t 205

3. erithacus, Blyth 206

4. nepalensis, Hodgs 206

2. Pyrrhoplectes, Hodgs. . . 207

1. epauletta (Hodgs.) . . 207

3. Loxia, Linn 208

1. hiinaljiy.-iiia, Hodgs. . . 208

4. Hajmatospiza, Bli/th . . , . 209

1. eipahi (Hodgs.) 209



Vlll

5.

6.

7.



SYSTEMATIC INDEX.



Propyrrhula, Hodgs 210

1. subhimalayensis

(Hodgs.) 210

Pyrrhospiza, Hodgs 211

1. punicea, Hodgs 21 1

Propasser, Hodgs 212

1. thui&(Bonap4Schleff.) 213

2. pulcherrimus, Hodgs. . 215

3. ambiguus, Hume 215

4. grandis (Blyth) 216

5. rhodochrous ( Vigors) . 217

6. rhodopeplus ( Vigors) . 217

7. edwardsi ( Verr.} . . . . 218



8. Carpodacus, Kaup . . 219

9.
10.



219
220
221
221
222
223
223
224



1. erythrinus (Pall.) .

2. severtzovi, Sharpe. .
Erythrospiza, Bonap. . .

1. githaginea (Temm.)

2. niongolica (Swinh.)
Procarduelis, Hodgs. . .

1. nepalensis (Hodgs.}

2. rubescens, Blanf.

11. Carduelis, Briss 225

1. caniceps, Vigors 225

12. Callacanthis, Reichenb. . . 226

1. burtoni (Gould) 226

13. Acanthis, Bechst 227

1. fringillirostris (Bonap.

8f Schleg.) 228

2. brevirostris (Gould) . . 229

14. Metoponia, Bonap 230

1. pusilla (Pall.) 230

15. Hypacanthis, Cab 231

1. spinoides ( Vig} 231

16. Chrysomitris, Boie 232

1. tibetana, Hume 232

17. Fringilla, Linn 233

1. montifringilla, Linn. . . 233

18. Gymnorhis, Hodgs. . . .

1. flavicollis (Frankl.) .

19. Passer, Briss

1. domesticus (Linn.) .

2. pyrrhonotus, Blyth ..

3. hispaniolensis(remw.) 238

4. montanus (Linn.) .... 24C

5. cinnamomeus (Gould). 24C

6. flaveolus, Blyth 242

20. Petronia, Kaup 243

2. stulta (Gmel.) 243

21. Montifringilla, Brehm . . 244

1. blanfordi, Hume 24

2. ruficollis, Blanf. .... 245

3. adamsi, Moore ..... 24(

22. Fringillauda, Hodgs 24^

1. nemoricola, Hodgs. . . 247



235
235
236
236

238



Page



2. sordida, Stol

3. brandti (Bonap.)



Subfam. Emberizince ........ 249

1. Einberiza, Briss. . . ......

1. schoeniclus, Linn .....

2. fucata, Pall .........

3. pusilla, Pall .........

4. leucocepliala,^. G. Gm

5. stewarti,, Blyth ......

6. stracheyi, Moore ....

7. buchanani, Blyth ....

8. hortulana, Linn. . . .

9. aureola, Pall ........

10. spodocephala, Pall. .

11. melanocephala, Scop.

12. luteola, Sparrm. . . .

13. rutila, Pall. .......

14. striolata (Licht.) . . .
2. Melophus, Swains ......

1. melanicterus (Gm.) .



250

251

252

254

254

256

257

258

259

259

260

261

262

263

264

265

265

, 267



Fam.

1. Chelidon, Forst 268

1. urbica(i/m.) 269

2 kashmiriensis, Gould. . 269

3. lagopus (Pott.) 270

4. nepalensis (Hodgs.) . . 271

2. Cotile, Boie 271

1. rip aria (Linn.) 272

2. sinensis (Gray) 273

3. Ptyonoprogne, Reichenb. . 273

1 . rupestris (Scop.) 274

2. concolor (Sykes) .... 275

3. obsoleta ( Cab.) 275

4. Hirundo, Linn 276

1. rustica, Linn 277

2. gutturalis, Scop 277

3. tytleri, Jerd 278

4. erythrogastra, Bodd. . . 279

5. javanica, Sparrm 279

6. smithii, Leach 280

7. fluvicola, Jerd 280

8. striolata, Temm 281

9. daurica, Linn 282

10. nepalensis, Hodgs 282

11. erythropygia, Sykes . . 283

12. rufula, Temm 284

13. hyperythra, Lay 284

Fam. MOTACILLID^B 285

1. Motacilla, Linn 285

1. alba, Linn 287



SYSTEMATIC INDEX.



IX



2. leucopsis, Gould ....

3. ocularis, Swinh .......

4. personata, Gould ....

5. hodgsoni, Gray ......

G. maderaspatensis, Gmel.

7. melanope, Pall .......

8. borealis, Sitndev .....

9. flava, Linn .........

10. beema, Sykes ........

11. feldeggi, Michah .....

12. citreola,PW.........

13. citreoloides(lT<%*.) . .

2. Limonidroinus, Gould. . . .

1. indicus (Gmel.) ......

3. Anthus, Bechst .........

1. trivialis (Linn.) ....

2. maculatus, Hodgs. . .

3. nilgiriensis, Sharp* . .

4. cockburniaB, Oates . .

5. similis (Jerd.) ......

(',. richardi, VieiU .......

7. striolatus, Blyth ....

8. rufulus, Vieill. ......

9. campestris (Linn.) . .

10. cervinus (Pall.) ......

11. rosaceus, Hodgs .....

12. spinoletta (Linn.) - -

13. japonicus (Tenmi.

Schley.) ..... .....

4. Oreocorys, Sharpe ......

1. sylvanus (Hodys.) ____



Page

288
289
290
291



293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
300
301

302 ;

304 !

305 |

305 I

306 i

307 !

308 I
308
309
310
311
312

312
313
313



Fam. ALAUDIDJE .......... 315

1. Algernon, Keys, ft Bias.. . 317

1. deserter um (Stanl.) . . 318

2. Otocorys, Bonap ....... 319

1. penicillata (Gould) . . 319

2. longirostris, Gould . . 320

3. elwesi, Blanf. ...... 321

3. Melanocoryplia, Boie .... 322

1. maxima, Gould ...... 322

2. bimaculata (Menefr.) . 323

4. Alauda, Linn ......... 324

1. arvensis, Linn ....... 324

2. gulgula, Frankl ..... 326

5. Calandrella, Kaup ...... 327

1. brachydactyla (Leisl) 327

2. dukhunensis (%&).. 328

3. tibetana, Brooks .... 329

4. acutirostris, Hume . . 329
<>. Alaudula, Blyth ........ 330

1. raytal (IJuch. Ham.). . 330

'2. adamsi (Hume) ...... 331

3. porsica, Mharpr ...... '!'! I

VOL. Tl.



7. Mirafra, Horsf. 332

1. cantillans,' Jerd 333

2. assamica, McCkll. . . 334

3. erythroptera, Jerd. . . 334

4. affinis, Jerd 335

5. microptera, Hume . . 336

8. Galerita, Boie 336

1. cristata (Linn.} 337

2. deva (Sykes) 338

3. malabarica (Scop.) . . 339

9. Ammomaiies, Cab 339

1. phcenicura(jyaw&/.).. 339

2. phcenicuroides (Blyth) 340
10. Pyrrhulauda, Smith 341

1. grisea (Scop.) 341

2. melanauchen (Cab.).. 343

Fam. NECTAEINIIDJE 343

Subfam. Nectariniince 345

1. Chalcostetha, Cab 345

1. pectoralis (Temm.) .. 345

2. ^Ethopyga, Cab 346

1. seheri^ (Tick.) 348

2. andersoni, Oates .... 349

3. cara, Hume 349

4. nicobarica, Hume .... 350

5. vigors! (Sykes) 350

6. ignicauda (Hodgs.) . . 351

7. gouldi(Ft>.) 352

8. dabryi ( Verr.) 353

9. saturata (Hodys.). . . . 354

10. sanguinipectus, Wald. 354

11. nepalensis (Hodgs.) . . 355

12. horsfieidi (Blyth).... 356

3. Arachnechthra, Cab 357

1. lotenia (Linn.) 358

2. aaiatica (Lath.) 359

3. hasselti (Temm.) 360

4. pectoralis (Horsf.) . . 361

5. liammaxillaris (Blyth) 262

6. andauianica, Hume . . 363

7. minima (Sykes) 363

8. zeylonica (Linn.) .... 364

4. Anthothreptes, Swains. . . 365

1. hypogrammica(J1f//.) 365

2. malaccensis (Scop.) . . 366

3. rhodolajnia, Shell. 367

4. simplex (Miill.) 367

Subfam. Araclmothennce . . 36S

1. Arachnothera, Temm. . . 368
1. nijiiriiH (J/tn?;/x.) .... :'.)!>



SYSTEMATIC INVDEX.



Page

2. aurata, Jilyth 370

3. modesta (Jfytm) 370

4. longivostris (Lath.) . . 371

5. clirysogenys (Temm.). 371



[Fain. CBATKROPODIDJE.

Subfam. Liotrichince.

6 a. Chalcoparia, Cab ....... 373

]. phoenicotis(7Vwm.).. 373]



Fain.



374



1. Dicaeuin, Cuv ........... 375

1. cruentatum (Linn.} . . 376

2. trigonostigma (Scop.). 377 !

3. chrysorrhceum, Temm. 378

4. ignipectus (Hodgs.) . . 378

5. concolor, Jerd ....... 379

6. olivaceum, Wald ..... 380

7. virescens, Hume .... 380

8. erythrorhynchiLs

(Lath.} .......... 381



2. Acinonorliynclius, Oates. . 381
1. vincens (Scl.) ...... 382

'). Piprisoma, Blytli ...... 382

1. squalidum (Burt.) . . 382

2. modestum (Hume) . . 383

4. Prionochilus, Strickl ..... 384

1. ignicapillus (Eytori) . . 384

2. maculatus (Temm.) . . 385

5. Pacliyglossa, Hodys ..... 385

1. melanoxantha, Hodys. 386



Fam.



386



1. Anthocincla, Blyth 387

1. phayrii, Blyth 387

2. Pitta, Vieill. 388

1. nepalensis (Hodys.) . . 389

2. oatesi (Hume) 390

3. cserulea (Raffl.) 390

4. cyanea, Blyth 391

5. cyanoptera, Temm. . . 392

6. megarhyncha, Schley. 393

7. brachyura (Linn.} . . 393

8. coccinea, Eyton .... 394

9. cucullata, Hartl 395

10. gurneyi, Hume 395




Fig. 1 . Terpsiphone paradisi.



Family MUSCICAPID.E.

The intrinsic muscles of the syrinx fixed to the ends of the
bronchial semi-rings ; the edges of both mandibles smooth, the
upper one simply notched ; hinder aspect of tarsus smooth, com-
posed of two entire longitudinal lamina) ; wing with ten pri-
maries ; tongue non-tubular ; nostrils clear of the line of forehand,
the lower edge of the nostril nearer to the commissure than the
upper edge is to the culmen ; plumage of the nestling mottled or
squamated ; nostrils covered more or less by long curly hairs ;
rectrices twelve ; tarsi short ; an autumn moult only.

The Muscicapidce, or flycatchers, constitute a large family of
birds, which is well represented in India. Sonic :uv resident ; but
the majority are migratory to a greater or less extent.

The Flycatchers may be known by the mottled plumage of the

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nestling, and by the presence of numerous hairs stretching from
the forehead over the nostrils. These hairs lie horizontally, and
in all cases reach beyond the nostrils, and not unfrequently nearly
to the end of the bill. They are not to be confounded with the
rictal bristles, which are stiff and strong and lie laterally, nor are
they to be confounded with the lengthened shafts of the frontal
feathers, which in some of the Thrushes resemble hairs. These
latter, moreover, are never horizontal, nor do they extend over the
nostrils except in cases where this is brought about by accident,
such as careless preparation of the preserved specimen.

The amount of mottling or squamation in the plumage of the
nestling varies considerably, but is present in every species in
a more or less marked degree. This character is perhaps least
developed in the genus Terpsiphone, the most typical of Fly-
catchers so far as structural characters are concerned ; but even in
this genus the mottled breast is unmistakable.

The Flycatchers may further be recognized by their very feeble
tarsi and feet, which quite incapacitate them from walking on the
ground; and this character will by itself be sufficient to separate
them from the Thrushes, in which the tarsi are long and the feet
strong.

Young Flycatchers moult into adult plumage in most cases the
first autumn ; but Terpsiphone differs in this respect, the males
retaining an intermediate plumage for two or more years.

Those Flycatchers which have abandoned their migratory habits
and have become resident are well differentiated by generic cha-
racters ; but others which are still migratory resemble each other
structurally very closely, and generic characters by which to
separate them into convenient groups are not easy to be found.
In the following key, therefore, I have had recourse to types
of colour, which appear to work well and to bring allied birds
together into natural groups.

The Flycatchers feed on insects, which they either catch on the
wing, starting from a perch to which they usually return several
times, or by running with the aid of their wings along the limbs of
trees. They seldom or never descend to the ground. The majority
construct their nests in holes of trees or banks, and some of the
species build very beautiful cup-shaped nests in the branches of
trees. Few of these birds have any song, and on the whole the
Flycatchers are remarkably silent. They are found solitary or in
pairs, and they are frequently familiar birds.



Key to the Genera.

a. Tail considerably shorter than wing.
'. Second primary equal to the fifth.

a". Closed wings not reaching- beyond

middle of tail MUSCICAPA, p. 4.

b . Closed wings reaching nearly to tip

of tail HEMICHELIDON, p. 5.



MUSCICAP1DJE.

b'. Second primary very much shorter than

fifth.
c". Frontal feathers of ordinary structure,

not concealing the nostrils.
'". Rictal bristles short and few in

number, generally less than six.
4 . Sexes different.

a 3 . In both sexes base of tail white,
upper tail-coverts black, upper
plumage brown or rufescent,

never blue nor black SIPHIA, p. 7.

b 5 . Males with whole upper plu-
mage blue or black ; lower
plumage never entirely blue
or greeii. Females brown or
rufescent above, never com-
bined with black upper tail-
coverts and white on tail.

a 6 . Bill wide at base and strong. CYORNIS, p. 11.
b 6 . Bill narrow throughout, and

feeble NITIDULA, p. 27.

c 5 . Both sexes with the entire
plumage suffused with blue

or green STOPAROLA, p. 27.

6 4 . Sexes alike ; plumage plain brown

or rufous throughout.
d s . First primary never less than

half second.
c 6 . Bill laterally compressed ;

lower mandible pale MUSCITREA, p. 30.

d 6 . Bill flattened ; lower man-
dible dark ANTHIPES, p. 31.

e 5 . First primary much less than

half second ALSEONAX, p. 34.

b'". Rictal bristles very long and nume-
rous, about ten on each side.
c 4 . Tail much rounded; first primary

much longer than half second . . OCHROMELA, p. 37.
d*. Tail quite even ; first primary

much less than half second .... CULICICAPA, p. 38.
d". Frontal feathers lengthened and very

dense, concealing the nostrils.
c'". Bill carinated and narrow; both

sexes with a brilliant neck-spot . . NILTAVA, p. 39.
if". Bill broad and flattened ; no neck-
spot in either sex PHILENTOMA, p. 42.

b Tail as long as, or longer than, wing.

c . Head crested TERPSIPHONE, p. 44.

d'. Head not crested.

e". Tail about equal to wing.

e'" '. Length of culmen about twice the

breadth of bill at forehead HYPOTHYMIS, p. 48.

/'". Length of culmen about equal to

breadth of bill at forehead CHKLIDORHYNX, p. 51.

f". Tail considerably longer than wing . . RHIPIDURA, p. 52.



B2



MUSCICAPIim



Genus MUSCICAPA, Brisson, 1760.

The genus Muscicapa contains the Spotted Flycatcher, a common
summer visitor to England and Europe.

In this genus the sexes are alike : the culmen of the bill is about
as long as twice the breadth of the bill at the forehead ; the rictal



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