llnme.j Cat. no. 720 ter ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 480.
Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the forehead,
crown, and nape are black, each feather broadly margined with
fulvous ; a broad collar round the hind neck white, the feathers
with broad fulvous-ashy tips, which conceal the white bases of the
feathers; the whole upper plumage and wings dark brown, each
feather broadly margined with rufous or chestnut, the rump and
upper tail-coverts strongly tinged with ashy ; the four middle
pairs of tail-feathers very dark brown, margined with rufous; the
two outer pairs mostly white, the bases and a longitudinal streak
along the shaft being brown or black ; sides of the head rufous
with concealed black bases ; a broad white moustachial band more
or less dimmed by rufous tips ; chin, throat, and fore neck black,
with broad white edges ; sides of the neck and remaining lower
plumage dull white, the sides of the body streaked with ochraceous
Soon after the moult the margins and tips of the feathers begin
to wear away, and in full breeding-plumage the moustachial band
and the collar round the hind neck become pure white ; the fore-
head, crown, nape, sides of the head, chin, throat, and fore neck
become deep black ; the margins of the feathers of the upper plu-
mage decrease in size, causing the plumage to become much blacker.
Female. Closely resembles the male after the moult, but has no
concealed black bases to the feathers of the head, chin, throat, and
fore neck, these parts being rufous or fulvous, more or less streaked
and mottled with black ; the moustachial band, which is pale
fulvous, is bordered below by another blackish band, and the
breast and sides of the body are boldly streaked with rufous.
The young resemble the adult female closely.
In winter the bill is dark brown, the lower mandible paler and
whitish ; legs and feet dark bronze-brown ; claws black ; iris
brown (Hume Coll.} ; in the summer the bill of the male becomes
Length about 6 ; tail 2'7 ; wing 3'1 ; tarsus *75 ; bill from
Distribution. A winter visitor to the north-west of the Empire.
This species occurs in Gilgit from December to March, and a
specimen in the Hume collection was obtained at Eohtak in the
Punjab in December.
This Bunting has a very wide range, being found over the whole
of Europe and Central and Northern Asia.
790. Emberiza fucata. The Grey-headed Bunting.
Emberiza fucata, Pall. JReis. Russ. Reichs, iii, p. 698 (1776) ; Jercl
B. 1. ii, p. 375; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Avcs, p. 603; Hume,
Cat. no. 719 ; Oatcs, B. B. i, p. 35] ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii,
p. 493; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 269; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 279;
Oates in Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 166.
Euspiza fucata (Pall.), Blyth, Cat. p. 129 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii,
Citrinella fucata (Pall}, Hume, N. fy E. p. 465.
Emberiza arcuata, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 494 (1888).
Coloration. Male. After the moult the forehead, crown, nape,
and sides of the neck are ashy streaked with black; back and
scapulars reddish brown, with broad black streaks ; rump reddish
brown, with obsolete brown streaks ; upper tail-coverts fawn-brown,
streaked with brown; lesser and median wing-coverts chestnut
with concealed dark bases; greater coverts and tertiaries black,
with broad rufous edges ; quills dark brown edged with rufous ;
lores and round the eye fulvous mottled with ashy ; ear-coverts
chestnut; cheeks fulvous, continued as a baud under the ear-
coverts ; a moustachial baud black, gradually widening and reaching
to the lower throat, where it meets the other moustachial streak,
thus forming a gorget which on the fore neck is more or less
interrupted by fulvous streaks ; chin and throat fulvous ; a band
of chestnut across the upper breast; remaining lower plumage
pale fulvous, the sides of the breast and of the body streaked with
dark brown ; tail dark brown edged with rufous, the penultimate
feather with a triangular patch of white at the tip, the outer
feather with the outer web almost entirely white and half of the
inner, next the shaft, also white.
In spring the chin, throat, and streaks on the gorget become pure
white, the rufous pectoral baud becomes broader and brighter by
the wearing away of the tips of the feathers \vhich partially overlie
the band, and the sides of the body become uniform bright
chestnut ; the ashy parts of the head become purer ashy, and the
upper plumage in general becomes a richer rufous. The difference
between breeding and non-breeding plumage in this species is not
very marked or noteworthy.
Female, lleseinbles at all seasons the male after the moult ; is
perhaps a trifle duller in colour.
The young bird resembles the female.
Bill dark fleshy brown, the lower mandible paler ; iris brown ;
feet and claws pinkish.
Length about 6 ; tail 2'7 ; wing 2-8 ; tarsus -8 ; bill from
The Himalayan Buntings of this type differ from the true
E. fucata of Siberia, and from those which visit the Eastern portion
of the Empire in having the scapulars and lesser wing-coverts and
the whole of the sides of the body uniform chestnut. Should this
form be distinct, it will bear Sharpe's name E. arcuata.
Distribution. A resident species in the whole of the Himalayas
from Kashmir to Assam, and a fairly common winter visitor to all
parts of the Eastern portion of the Empire from Assam down to
about the latitude of Houlmeiu.
According to Jerdon, this species is spread sparingly through
Northern and Central India and it has been found near Calcutta,
Jalna in the Deccan, Mhow, Saugor, and Nagpur. Barnes re-
cords it from Neemuch. There is, however, no specimen of this
Bunting from any part of the plains of India proper either in the
Hume or Tweeddale collections, nor have I ever seen a specimen
from those parts.
This species, if the same as E. fucata, ranges over the greater
part of Northern and Eastern Asia.
Habits, $c. Breeds from 6000 to 8000 feet in May, June, and
July, constructing a saucer-shaped nest of dry grass on the ground
under shelter of a bush or stone. The eggs, four in number, are
pale greenish grey speckled all over with dull reddish or purplish
brown, and measure about "83 by *6.
791 . Emberiza pusilla. The Dwarf Bunting.
Emberiza pusilla, Pall Reis. Russ. Reichs, hi, p. 697 (1770) ; Jerd.
B. I. ii, p. 376; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 603; Oatet,
B. B. i, p. 353 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 487 ; Hume, Cat.
no. 720 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 280.
Euspiza pusilla (Pall.), Blyth, Cat. p. 130.
Ocyris oinopus, Hodgs., Horsf. Sf M. Cat. ii, p. 488.
Coloration. Male. After the moult a broad rufous band over
the crown from the forehead to the nape, some of the feathers
with a brown mesial streak ; a broad dark brown band on either
side of the coronal band, all the feathers broadly margined with
rufous ; a distinct pale rufous supercilium ; lores and ear-coverts
chestnut ; upper plumage and wings dark brown or blackish, each
feather margined with rufous ; tail dark brown margined paler, the
penultimate feather with a streak of white near the tip, the outer
feather largely white on both webs ; cheeks pale fulvous, produced
as a band under the ear-coverts ; chin and throat white ; sides of
the throat, the whole breast, and the sides of the body white,
sullied with fulvous and densely streaked with dark brown ; abdo-
men, vent, and under tail-coverts white without streaks.
In spring, the broad coronal band becomes richer rufous, and
the broad lateral bauds pure deep black, in consequence of the
rufous margins getting worn away, and the supercilium becomes
very well defined and somewhat broader.
Female. Resembles the male in winter plumage very closely, but
apparently never acquires the deep black coronal bands.
The young resemble the adults in winter but are paler.
Bill horny ; legs pale fleshy brown ; iris brown (Jerdon}.
Length about 5*5 ; tail 2*4 ; wing 2'8 ; tarsus *7 ; bill from
Distribution. The Himalayas from the Sutlej valley to Assam.
This species has been observed at numerous localities in the
Eastern part of the Empire from Assam through the hill-ranges to
Bhamo. It has also been obtained in Karennee and on Muleyit
mountain in Tenasserim. This Bunting does not appear to be
found in the plains of the Indian Peninsula, but Jerdon records it
from the Purneah district. A specimen from the Andamans is
in the Tweeddale collection.
The Dwarf Bunting visits the Empire in the winter only. In
the summer it is found throughout Northern Asia and China.
792. Emberiza leucocephala. The Pine-Bunting.
Emberiza leucocephala, S. G. Gm. N. Comm. Acad. So. Imp. Petrov.
xv, p. 480, tab. xxiii, fig. 3 (1770) ; Hume $ Henders. Lah. to
Yark. p. 254 ; Hume, Cat. no. 712 ; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 79,
1882, p. 282 ; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 574 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii,
Emberiza pithyornis, Gm. Syst. Nat. i, p. 875 (1788) ; Horsf. fy M.
Cat. ii, p. 482 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 370.
Emberiza albida, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xviii, p. 811 (1849); id. Cat.
The White-crowned Bunting, Jerd.
Coloration. Male. After the moult the forehead and crown are
ashy, streaked with brown, the base of the feathers white, but not
showing at first ; lores, round the eye, and a short but broad
Bupercilium, cheeks, chin, throat, and sides of the neck chestnut,
each feather margined with white ; ear-coverts brown, divided down
the middle by a band of white which extends under the eye to the
gape ; hind neck ashy, turning to rufous on the back and scapulars,
the feathers of which are streaked with black ; rump and upper tail-
coverts chestnut, margined with white ; tail dark brown, narrowly
margined with pale rufous, the two outer pairs of feathers with
the terminal two-thirds of the inner web, and a margin on the
outer web, white ; lesser coverts pale rufous ; median and greater
coverts and tertiaries black, with broad rufous margins ; quills
brown, narrowly margined with pale rufous ; a large patch of white
on the lower throat ; breast chestnut, margined with white ; abdo-
men white ; sides of the body white, streaked with chestnut.
In the spring the crown and nape become pure white, bounded
on each side and on the forehead by a black band ; the chestnut
on the sides of the head and on the chin and throat becomes pure,
owing to the white margins wearing off ; the breast and sides of
the body also become purer chestnut, but the white on these parts
never entirely disappears.
Between the two extreme plumages described every intermediate
stage is to be found.
Female. The forehead, crown, and nape ashy streaked with
brown, and without any white at the base of the feathers ; the
remaining upper plumage, wings, and tail as in the male, but
duller ; the white band on the side of the head and all chestnut on
this part and the chin and throat are wanting the former part
being more or less plain brown, and the two latter whitish streaked
with brown ; breast and sides of the body rufous, streaked with
brown and varied with white; abdomen white.
The young bird appears to resemble the male.
Upper mandible very dark brown, the base from gape to nostril
yellowish ; lower mandible very pale horny bluish ; legs yellowish
fleshy, feet slightly tinged brown ; iris dark brown (Hume
Length about 7 ; tail 3-4 ; wing 3-6 ; tarsus '75 ; bill from
Distribution. A winter visitor to GHlgit, Kashmir, and the Hima-
layas down to Garhwal. At this season the Pine-Bunting is also
found in Afghanistan and Europe, but in the summer it is con-
fined to Northern Asia.
793. Emberiza stewarti. The White-capped Buntiny.
Emberiza stewarti, Bhjth, J. A. S. B. xxiii, p. 215 (1854) ; Horsf. #
M. Cat. ii, g. 485 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 374 ; Stolicxka, J. A. S. B.
xxxvii, pt. ii, p. 58; Hume, Cat, no. 718; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881,
p. 81, 1882, p. 282 ; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 575 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M.
xii, p. 547 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 269 ; Oates in Hume's N. fy E.
2nd ed. ii, p. 167.
Citrinella stewarti (Blyth), Hume, N. # E. p. 465.
Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the forehead, crown,
nape, and ear-coverts are grey, with brownish tips to the feathers ;
a broad black supercilium, each feather tipped with grey ; the whole
upper plumage and scapulars chestnut with pale fulvous margins
to the feathers ; lesser and median wing-coverts dull chestnut, edged
paler ; greater coverts and quills dark brown, edged with rufous ;
tail brown margined with rufous, the two outer pairs of feathers
almost entirely white, the bases and the shafts with a narrow por-
tion of the outer webs only being brown ; chin and upper throat,
produced laterally down the sides of the lower throat, black, each
feather margined with whitish ; lower throat and fore neck white ;
breast chestnut, margined with white ; remaining lower plumage
pale fulvous, the sides of the head streaked or blotched with
In spring the margins and tips to the feathers of the crown,
supercilium, upper plumage in general, chin, throat, and lower breast
disappear in part or wholly by abrasion, leaving each part entirely of
one colour or nearly so.
Female. Forehead, crown, nape, hind neck, back, and scapulars
ashy brown, streaked with blackish, the scapulars tinged with
chestnut ; rump and upper tail-coverts chestnut, with paler edges
and blackish shafts ; tail as in the male, but with rather less white
on the two outer pairs of feathers ; wings brown, each feather
margined with pale rufous or fulvous ; lores and round the eye
fulvous ; ear-coverts and sides of the neck brown ; lower plumage
pale fulvous streaked with brown.
The young resemble the female.
Bill brown, paler on lower mandible ; iris slightly reddish brown ;
legs and feet pinkish fleshy ; claws pale brown (Hume}.
Length about 6*5 ; tail 3 ; wing 3'3 ; tarsus *75 ; bill from
Distribution. The Himalayas from the Hazara country, Gilgit, and
Kashmir to about Almora ; the Punjab, Sind, Rajputana, and the
N. W. Provinces as far east as Etawah. This species is found in the
plains on the lower ranges of the Himalayas in winter only and on
the higher parts of the latter (up to 6000 or 8000 feet) in summer.
It extends into Afghanistan.
Habits, $c. Breeds in June and July, constructing a deep cup-
shaped nest, of fibres and grass, in low bushes, or on the ground by
the side of a road or bank. The eggs, usually four in number, are
white mottled with purple, and measure about -78 by -59.
794. Emberiza stracheyi. The Eastern Meadow-Buntl^j t
Kuspi/i cia (Linn.}, ajntd Bli/t/i, Cat. p. loO.
Emberiza stracheyi, Moore, P. /. -V. 18-V">, p. i>|r, f pi. 112;
Emberi/.a cia, Linn. apudJerd. B. I. ii, p. 371 ; StoliczJca, J. A. S. H.
xxxvii, pt. ii, ]). 57 ; Hume $ Holders. La/i. fo Ytirk. p. -00.
Citrinella cia (Linn.), Hume, N. $ E. p. 401.
Coloration. Mole. After the autumn moult a longitudinal broad
coronal band from the bill to the nape is bluish grey with a few
black streaks ; a broad lateral band on each side of the crown black
with rufous tips, succeeded by a distinct pale fulvous eyebrow reach-
ing from the nostrils to the nape; lores and band through the eye
black ; cheeks and ear-coverts pale fulvous ; a narrow black mou-
stachial streak passing under and behind the ear-coverts and joining
the eye-band ; back and scapulars chestnut-brown, streaked with
black ; lesser wing-coverts bluish grey ; median and greater coverts,
secondaries and tertiaries black, broadly margined with chestnut-
brown ; primaries brown, narrowly edged with rufous ; rump chest-
nut with paler edges ; upper tail-coverts chestnut-brown, with
black shaft-streaks ; middle pair of tail-feathers black, broadly edged
\\i1h chest nut-brown, the next two pairs entirely black, with narrow
pale margins ; tin* next pair black with a white tip ; the outer two
pairs white on the terminal half with black shafts ; chin whitish ;
throat and breast bluish grey, each feather with an indistinct
triangular brownish tip; remainder of lower plumage and the sides
of the neck plain chestnut-brown.
In the spring the tips and margins of the feathers become
abraded, and the mesial coronal band becomes pure bluish grey ; the
lateral bands, the eye-baud, and the moustachial streak deep black ;
the eyebrows, cheeks, and ear-coverts pure white ; the throat and
breast lose all traces of the triangular tips to the feathers.
Female. Resembles the male in every respect, but is perhaps a
little paler ; undergoes the same seasonal change of colour.
The young bird is rufous-brown above, everywhere densely
streaked with black, and the lower plumage is pale rufous,
deepening on the abdomen and densely streaked with black on the
throat, breast, and sides of the body.
Bill dark plumbeous above, light plumbeous below; iris dark
brown ; legs and feet fleshy yellow (Hume).
Length (r5 ; tail 3-1 ; wing 3-2 ; tarsus *7 ; bill from gape '5.
This Bunting may be looked upon as a race of K. cia of Kin-ope.
/,'. da differs in wauling the pure black and white marks on the
head which are so conspicuous in /:'. *//<///< ///', the while in />'. rin
being always tinged with grey aiul the black olemvd by rufous
tints. In E. cia the median and greater wing-COVertfl are tipped
with a more or less pure white, whereas in the Indian bird the
YOL. II. 8
tippings to these parts are chestnut-brown of the same colour as
the back. Lastly, iuE. da the rufous of the lower parts is much
Distribution. The Himalayas, from the Hazara country and Gil-
git to Kumaun. This species is resident on the Himalayas, moving
vertically according to season. A few Buntings of this species
appear to visit the plains of the Punjab in the winter. The range
extends into Baluchistan.
Habits, fyc. Breeds in the Himalayas from 4000 to 9000 feet,
making a loose cup-like nest of grass on the ground. The eggs
are pale greenish white or grey mottled with purplish, and covered
by a series of delicate lines and scrawls which are dark brown or
black. They measure about *83 by *63.
795. Emberiza buchanani. The Grey-necked Bunting.
Emberiza buchanani, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xiii, p. 957 (1844), xvi,
p. 780 ; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 150 ; id. Cat. no. 716 ; Sharpe, Cat.
B. M. xii, p. 533 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 268.
Euspiza huttoni, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xviii, p. 811 (1849).
Emberiza huttoni (Blyth), Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 485 j Jerd. B. 1.
ii, p. 373 ; Hume, J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 121.
Citrinella huttoni (Bl.}, Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 247.
Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the whole upper
plumage is ashy brown, each feather with a dark brown shaft-
streak, the back slightly tinged with rufous ; lesser wing-coverts
ashy brown ; the remaining coverts and quills dark brown, broadly
margined with rufous; tail brown, the middle pair broadly, the next
three pairs narrowly, margined with rufous ; the two outer pairs
with the terminal half of the inner web white, as also a small
portion of the outer web of the outermost feather ; lores and a
ring round the eye fulvous ; sides of the head and neck ashy brown ;
an indistinct black moustachial streak; entire lower plumage
rufous, palest on the chin and darkest on the breast, most of the
feathers with pale fulvous margins.
In the spring the fulvous margins on the lower plumage get
Female. Hardly distinguishable from the male, but slightly
Iris dark brown ; legs and feet yellowish brown j bill fleshy
Length about 6-5; tail 2-8; wing 3'3; tarsus '75; bill from
Distribution. A winter visitor to the whole of the North-western
portion of the plains of India, extending south as far as Khaudala
and Chanda and east as far as Etavvah. This species migrates
through Kashmir and has been observed in Gilgit in September,
and our Indian birds probably summer in Turkestan and Persia.
Its range extends westwards to the Caucasus.
7'. "5. Emberiza hortulana. The Ortolan Bunting.
Emberiza hortulana, Linn. Si/sf. Nat. i, p. 309 (17GG) ; Horsf. $ M.
Cat. ii, p. 4S4 ; Jcnl B. L ii, p. 372 ; JJtnn^ Cat. no. 715; Bid-
dvlph, Hi*, 1S81, p. 80; Scully, Ibis, 1881, p. 574; Sharpe, Cat.
B. M. xii, p. 530.
Euspiza hortulana (Linn.}, Hlyth, Cat. p. 129.
Emberiza shah, JtotKtp. Conxp. Av. i, p. 465 (1850).
Coloration. Male. Forehead, crown, and nape dusky olive-green ;
back and scapulars pale rufous, with broad black streaks ; rump
and upper tail-coverts pale rufous, with less distinct black streaks ;
tail dark brown celled with rufous, the two outer pairs of feathers
white on the terminal half of the inner web ; lesser wing-coverts
ashy ; remaining coverts and quills brown with rufous margins ;
feathers on the eyelids, lores, cheeks, chin, and throat yellow ; sides
of the head and neck dusky olive ; a moustachial streak pale brown ;
upper breast dull olive-yellow; remainder of lower plumage
The above is the full breeding- plumage. I have not been able
to examine freshly moulted autumn birds, but these are said to have
pale margins to the feathers of the head and breast as in the other
species of Buntings.
Female. Hesembles the male very closely but is much paler on
chin and throat, and the upper breast is frequently streaked with
brown, which may, however, be only remains of the immature
The young bird is pale rufous throughout, densely streaked with
dark brown both above and below.
Bill dsirk flesh-colour, rather darker above than below ; iris
brown ; legs pale fleshy red (Dresser}.
Length about 6*5; tail 2*8 ; wing 3'6 ; tarsus *75 ; bill from
Distribution. A rare visitor to Gilgit, where this species has
been obtained in May. This Bunting is found in Afghanistan
and Turkestan and extends westwards throughout Europe.
797. Emberiza aureola. The Yellow-breasted Buntwy.
Emberiza aureola, Pall. Eeis. Euss. Eeichs, ii, p. 711 (1773);
Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. G02; Oates, B. B. i, p. 355;
Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xii, p. 509.
Mirafra flavicollis, McClell. P. Z. S. 1839, p. 163.
Euspiza aureola (Pali.), Blylh, Cat. p. 129; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii.
p. 487 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 380 ; Hwne, Cat. no. 723 ; id. S. F. xi, p. 282.
Euspiza flavogularis, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xviii, pp, 86, 811 (1849) j
id. Cat. p. 129.
Colon/ fin/i. Mul,. After the autumn moult the whole upper
plumage is a dull rhestnut, each feather margined with ashy ; tail
brown, margined with dull rufous, the outermost feather with abroad
diagonal white band across the inner web, the penultimate with a
narrow white tip ; lesser wing-coverts chestnut edged with ashy ;
median coverts almost entirely white ; greater coverts and quills dark
brown, margined with chestnut-brown ; a distinct supercilium, lores,
cheeks, and ear-coverts ashy yellow ; a band above the ear-coverts
and another below chestnut-brown ; the whole lower plumage
yellow, with a chestnut band across the breast, and the sides of the
body streaked with chestnut-brown ; the under tail-coverts paler
than the other parts.
In the spring the margins on the upper plumage become worn
away and the general colour becomes rich maroon chestnut, and in
a similar manner the lower plumage becomes rich yellow and the
pectoral band broader and deeper chestnut. A change takes place
in the colour of the head, but this is effected by a complete moult
of the feathers of the parts affected : these parts are the forehead,
anterior part of crown, lores, ear-coverts, cheeks, chin, and a small
portion of the throat, which become deep black.
The plumage of the males varies a good deal, as does also the
time at which the black on the head is assumed.
Female. Head chestnut-brown, with dark brown streaks ; nape
and back of the neck olive-brown, with indistinct brown streaks
and the centres of the feathers tinged with chestnut ; back and
scapulars olive-brown, with broad distinct dark brown streaks ;
rump pale chestnut, edged with grey ; upper tail-coverts brown,
centred darker ; lesser wing-coverts brown ; median ones brown,
very broadly tipped with white ; greater coverts and all the quills
brown, edged on the outer webs with pale rufous-brown ; tail as in
the male ; a broad supercilium reaching to the nape yellowish white ;
sides of the head mixed brown and yellowish white; chin and
throat whitish ; breast, sides of neck, and abdomen bright yellow,
tinged with brown across the breast, which is also faintly streaked