examined specimens procured at Sainbhar, Etawah, and Calcutta,
but from no point further south. Stoliczka, however, records it
from Cutch, and Dr. Fairbank from Khandala. On the east its
range extends from Assam down to Northern Teuasserim and Pegu.
A few birds of this species apparently breed in Kashmir, but the
majority retire to Central Asia.
//>tf>its, $c. Little is known of the nidification of this Wagtail.
Theobald found the nest in Kashmir in May, in a depression in
soft earth beneath a rock, with four eggs, which were pale grey
marked with greyish brown and greyish neutral tint, and measured
about -95 by 7.
Genus LIMONIDROMUS, Gould, 1862.
The genus Limonidromus contains one species of Wagtail some-
what resembling the Pied Wagtails in colour, but the whole upper
plumage is suffused with green. The structure of the tail in this
genus is peculiar, inasmuch as the middle pair of feathers is very
markedly shorter than the others and of a different colour. The
sexes are quite alike.
The Forest- Wagtail is found in well-wooded parts of the country
and frequently runs about under the shade of trees. On being
disturbed it has the habit of perching on a branch. It wags its
tail incessantly and does not differ from the other Wagtails in its
839. Limonidromus indicus. The Forest- Wagtail.
Motacilla indica, Gmel Syst. Nat. i, p. 962 (1788).
Nemoricola indica (Gm.), Ulytft, Cat. p. 136; Horsf. $ M. Cat. i,
p. 353 ; Jerd. B. 1. ii, p. 226 ; Stoliczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii, pt. ii,
Limonidromus indicus (Gm.), Hume fy Dav. S. F. vi, p. 364 ; Lecjc/e,
Birds Ceyl. p. 614; Hume, Cat. no. 595; Sharpe, Cat. B. M.'x,
p. 532 ; Gates, B. B. i, p. 164 ; Barnes, Birds Bom, p. 241.
The Black-breasted Wagtail, Jerd. ; Uzhalla-jitta, Tel.
Fig. 82. Head of L. indicus.
Coloration. Plumage above dull olive-green, the tail-coverts
dark brown or sometimes black ; ear-coverts and lesser wing-coverts
also olive-green ; a supercilium from the bill over the eye to the
nape, the cheeks, chin, throat, and all the lower plumage yellowish
white ; two black bands across the breast, the upper one entire,
the lower one broken in the middle ; median and greater wing-
coverts black, with broad yellowish- white tips forming two bands
across the coverts ; quills brown, the second to the seventh primaries
with a patch of yellowish white on the outer web near the base ;
all the primaries and secondaries with an abrupt margin of
yellowish white near the tip on the outer web ; tertiaries brown,
broadly tipped with olive-green ; middle pair of tail-feathers
similar to the back ; the next three pairs dark brown ; the next
pair brown with a large white tip ; and the outer pair all white,
except at their base, where they are brown.
Irides nearly black; upper mandible dusky brown, lower
mandible fleshy white ; legs and feet purplish white ; claws horny
Length about 6-5 ; tail 2-7 ; wing 3*1 ; tarsus -85 ; bill from
gape '75 ; hind toe and claw '6.
Distribution. A somewhat rare winter visitor to all parts of the
Empire except the portion lying west of a line drawn roughly
from the Sutlej valley to the head of the Gulf of Cambay. This
species extends to Ceylon and is also found in the Andamans. In
winter it ranges down the Malay peninsula to the larger islands
and eastward to Siain and Southern China. In summer this
Wagtail retires to Northern China and Eastern Siberia.
Genus ANTHUS, Bechst., 1807.
The genus Anihus contains the Pipits, which may be recognized
by their streaked upper plumage and comparatively short tail.
The Pipits are found over nearly the entire world. They
resemble each other greatly in their pattern of colour, and con-
sequently they are difficult to describe, and in fact long descriptions
of them are useless, their identification depending entirely on a
few characters which are easily learnt. Each species is very con-
stant to one type. The young are very much spotted beneath and
these spots become reduced in size and number at each successive
spring moult and in a few species disappear altogether, the lower
plumage in these adults becoming uniform. The difference be-
tween summer and winter plumage in the Pipits is very slight,
and in my opinion it is useless attempting to treat the two plum-
ages as distinct, although some authors do so. I have, therefore,
only described the bird in its fresh autumn plumage. In summer
this plumage becomes abraded and faded, and the black marks on
the upper plumage more pronounced. Those Pipits which have
bright colours about the head and breast assume this colour slowly
and permanently and not seasonally.
The Pipits frequent the ground, but a few species occasionally
perch on trees and even run along the larger boughs in pursuit of
insects. They build their nests on the ground and lay eggs which,
like those of the Wagtails, are much spotted with brown. The
sexes are invariably alike.
Key to the Species.
n. Hind claw not exceeding hind toe in length.
a'. Pale tip of inner web of penultimate tail-
feather very small, less than a quarter
the length of feather; next feather
a". Streaks on lower plumage large and
black, well defined ; light parts of
'". Upper plumage brown with very
large streaks ; supercilium fulvous
throughout A. trivialis, p. 302.
6'". Upper plumage suffused with green
with small ill-defined streaks :
supercilium white posteriorly .... A. maculatus, p. 304.
b". Streaks on lower plumage narrow and
brown; light parts of tail-feathers
c'". Upper plumage dark brown j streaks
on breast well defined A. cockburnice, p. 305.
d'". Upper plumage ashy brown ; streaks
on breast ill defined A. similis, p. 306.
b'. Pale tip of inner web of penultimate tail-
feather large, about one third the length
of feather ; next feather with a distinct
tip A. nilyiriensis, p. 305.
b. Hind claw exceeding hind toe in length,
c' Sides of body plain or very obsoletely
c". General colour of lower plumage sandy
buff or fulvous.
e"'. Breast spotted or streaked.
a 4 . Upper plumage brown with broad
dark centres to the feathers.
a 5 . Wing 3 '5 or more.
a G . Tarsus 1-2 to 1 '3 A. richardi, p. 307.
6. Tarsus 1 to M A. striolatus, p, 308.
I s . Wing about 3 A. rufulus, p. 308.
6 4 . Upper plumage sandy with faint [p.O).
centres to the feathers. A. campestris, juv.,
/"'. Breast plain A. campestris, ad., p. 309.
d". General colour of lower plumage vin-
ous A. spinoletta, ad., p. 312.
d'. Sides of body coarsely streaked with
black or dark brown.
e". Axillaries and under wing-coverts
yellow A. rosaceus, p. 311.
/". Axillaries and under wing-coverts
whitish or brownish.
*/'". Throat and breast cinnamon-red . . A. cervinus, ad., p. 310.
h'". Throat and breast whitish or pale
c 4 . Streaks on breast very broad, black
and well defined.
c 5 . Upper plumage black with ful-
vous margins A. cervinus, juv., p. 310.
d : \ Upper plumage olive-brown with
darker centres to the feathers . A.japontcus ) jii\ r .,p. 312.
d*. Streaks on breast narrow, pale
and ill-defined A. spinoletta, juv., p. 312.
840. Anthus trivialis. The Tree-Pipit.
Alauda trivialis, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 288 (1766).
Alauda plumata, P. L. S. Mull. Natursyst. Suppl p. 137 (1776).
Anthus arboreus, Bechst. Nattirg. DeutschL iii, p. 706 (1807) ; Horsf.
# M. Cat i, p. 354.
Anthus agilis, Sykes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 91 ; Brooks, S. F. iv, p. 278.
Dendronanthus trivialis (Linn.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 135.
Pipastea arborous (Bechst.), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 229 ; Hume $ Renders.
Lah. to Yark. p. 226.
Pipastea plumatus (Miill.), Hume, N. $ E. p 383.
Anthus trivialis (Linn.), Hume, Cat. no. 507 j Skarpe, Cat. B. M. x,
P- 043; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 242; Gates in Hume's N. * ^. 2nd
t ed. ii, p. 208.
Pipages trivialis (Linn.\ Oates, B. B. i, p. 172.
The European Tree-Pipit, Jerd.
Figs. 83, 84. -Head and foot of A. trivialis.
Coloration. Upper plumage sandy brown with large black streaks
or centres to the feathers except the rump and upper tail-coverts
which are very faintly marked ; coverts and quills of wing dark
brown margined with pale fulvous ; tail dark brown with narrow
pale margins, the outermost feather about half white, the white
and brown meeting diagonally ; the penultimate feather with a
small white tip ; a pale fulvous supercilium : sides of the head
mixed brown and fulvous ; lower plumage white tinged with ful-
vous; a short black moustachial streak ; the whole breast and the
sides of the throat with large, well-defined black streaks; the
sides of the body tinged with olivaceous and indistinctly streaked.
The young bird after the autumn moult resembles the adult, but
is tinged with bright fulvous, especially on the throat and breast.
Iris dark browu ; legs and feet flesh-colour ; bill dark brown
above, pale brown below tipped with dusky.
Length about 6'5 ; tail 2-7 ; wing 3*5 ; tarsus '85 ; bill from
gape '0 ; hind claw about '3.
Distribution. A winter visitor to the western portions of the
Empire. Judging from the specimens I have examined this species
is found as far south as Belgauin and as far east as Manbhoom
in Chutia Nagpur. Many years ago Hume identified a Pipit I
sent to him from Pegu as this species, but I remember that the
skin was a very bad one and I think it not improbable that some
mistake was made regarding it. This bird winters in South-
western Asia and in Africa, and summers in Europe and Northern
Asia. A few birds of this species appear to breed in the Hima-
Habits, ^v. A nest supposed to belong to this Pipit wa> a
circular, shallow saucer, made of grass, lined with a few hairs
and placed on the ground at the foot of a tuft of grass. It \\ a>
found at Kotgarh in May and contained three eggs, which were
greyish white, marked with dull purple and purplish brown, and
measured about -85 by -63.
Anthus pratensis (Linn.), the Meadow-Pipit, is not unlikely to
be found in the north-western parts of the Empire. It bears a
close resemblance to A. trivialis, but may be recognized at once
by its long hind claw.
841. Anthus maculatus, The Indian Tree-Pipit.
Anthus maculatus*, Hodys. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 83 (1844) ;
A. Anderson, S. F. iii, p. 353 ; Hume, Cat. no. 596; Sharpe, Cat.
B. M. x, p. 547; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 242; Oates in Hume's
N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 209.
Dendronanthus maculatus (Hodys.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 135.
Anthus agilis, Sykes, Horsf. Sf M. Cat. i, p. 354 (nee Sykes).
Pipastes agilis (Sykes), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 228 ; Hume. N. & E.
Pipastes maculatus (Hodys.}, Brooks, S. F. iii, p. 250 ; Anders.
Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 608 j Scully, S. F. viii, p. 316 ; Oates,
B. B. i, p. 171.
Coloration. Resembles A. trivialis, but has the whole upper
plumage strongly suffused with green, and the streaks and centres
to the feathers much narrower and less well-defined ; the super-
cilium is pale fulvous anteriorly and white posteriorly.
In the summer the green tinge is much subdued, and the super-
cilium becomes very white and distinct.
Bill bluish black, darker above, and yellowish at base of the
lower mandible ; iris brown ; legs and feet flesh-colour.
Generally smaller than A. trivialis, the wing being seldom so
much as 3*3, and frequently under 3-2 ; tail 2-5 ; tarsus '85.
Distribution. A winter visitor to the plains of the greater portion
of the Empire, being found as far west as the Sutlej valley in the
Himalayas and Kajputana and Gruzerat in the plains. This species
appears to breed in considerable numbers on the higher ranges of
the Himalayas. To the south this Pipit extends down to the Palni
hills, and probably to Cape Comorin. Its winter range extends
to China and Cochin China. In summer it is found in Siberia,
North China, and Japan.
Habits, fyc. Breeds in the higher parts of the Himalayas (7000
to 12,000 feet) from May to July, constructing a nest of moss or
grass on the ground under the shelter of a tussock of grass, and
laying four eggs, which are thickly marked with dark brown and
dingy purple, and appear to measure about '93 by *68.
This species and the preceding frequent gardens and localities
which are well wooded, feeding on the ground and flying up to a
branch when disturbed. They are somewhat social in the winter.
The males of both are fine songsters in the breeding-season .
* Hodgson never described this species himself, and I should reject this
name were a prior one available, which there is not.
MJ. Anthus nilgiriensis. The .\i/</iri ri t it.
Anthus riifr.-rnis*, J vr <l. Math: Jt/rn. L. S. xi, p. 34 (1840).
Anthus UK >nl 5m MS *, Jerd., Blyth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 435 (1847) ; id.
Cat. p. 136; Hume, S. F. vii, p. 4(51 : id. Cut. no. 598; Davison,
S. F. x, p. .W.
Pipastes montanus (Jerd.), Jerd. If. I. ii, p. 230 ; Hnmr, N. 8f E.
p. 383 ; Fairbank, S. F. v, p. 407.
Anthus nilofhiriensis, Sharpe, Cat. B. J/. x. p. 550 (1885) : Oates in
l[,<mJs N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 211.
The Hill Tree-Pipit, Jerd.
Coloration. Upper plumage fulvous, tinged with olivaceous, each
feather broadly streaked or centred with black, except on the ruinp,
w r here the marks are brown and less distinct; wings blackish mar-
gined with fulvous; tail black, edged with olivaceous, the t\v<>
outer pairs of feathers dull white on the terminal half or third of
their length, the next pair with a dull white tip ; a light rufous
supcrcilium ; lores brown ; sides of head mixed rufous and brown ;
lower plumage tawny fulvous, the sides of the neck, the whole
breast, and the sides of the body with short, narrow, but very
distinct and well-defined black streaks.
Upper mandible dull black, apical half of lower mandible dark
fleshy ; iris deep brown ; legs and feet fleshy ; claws pale brown
Length nearly 7 ; tail 2'6 ; wing 3*1 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape
7 ; hind claw about '35.
Distribution. The higher parts of the Nilgiri and Palni hills in
Southern India, where this Pipit is a permanent resident.
Habits, &fc. Breeds on the Nilgiris above 6000 feet in May,
making a nest of grass under shelter of a tuft or bush. The eggs
are greenish brown mottled with a darker sliadc, and measure about
85 by -6.
843. Anthus cockburniae, The Itufous ]li H -k-l*ipit.
Anthus similis, Jerd. 111. 2nd. Orn. pi. 45 (1847), nee Madr. Jonrn.
L. S. (1840).
Agrodroma cinnamomea (Itiipp.), apud Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 235.
Agrodruma similis, Jerd., Hume, N. $ E. p. 385 ; Fairbank, S. F.
i\. p. 260; Hume, Cat. no. 603; Darison, S. F. x, p. 397;
liii-ds Bom. p. 246.
Anthus sordidus, Itiipp., apud Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 5CO ; Oates
in Hume's N. Sf E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 212.
Coloration. Upper plumage dark brown, the feathers nnrrowh
margined with fulvous ; wings brown, broadly edged with bright
fulvous; tail Mack margined with fulvous, the outermo-t frail r
* Neither of the names given by Jerdon to this species can stand, as the first
had previously hem implied by Ti inniinck, and the second by Koch, to other
species of Pipits.
VOL. II. X
with the outer web and the terminal half of the inner pale rufous ;
the penultimate feathers tipped with pale rufous ; supercilium and
lower plumage fulvous or sandy buff ; a narrow black moustachial
streak ; the breast with small, narrow, but very distinct triangular
Iris wood-brown ; upper mandible black ; lower mandible fleshy,
with the tip blackish ; tarsus reddish fleshy, the feet darker ; claws
dark reddish brown ; gape yellow (Davison).
Length about 8 ; tail 3-1 ; wing 3'7 ; tarsus 1*1 ; bill from gape
9 ; hind claw "35.
There has been much confusion regarding the name of this Pipit.
It has been identified with two names of Riippell's, but wrongly
so. Jerdon figured it as A. similis in his ' Illustrations,' and in
the accompanying letterpress confounded it with that species. As
there is, so far as I can ascertain, no specific term that applies to
the present species, I have much pleasure in connecting this fine
Pipit with the name of Miss Cockburn, a lady who has for so many
years successfully worked the Nilgiri hills, and whose specimens
enrich the Hume Collection.
Distribution. A permanent resident in the Nilgiri hills, on the
higher portions of which this Pipit appears to be not uncommon,
frequenting grassy land and occasionally perching on bushes when
disturbed. This species appears to extend some distance north, as
the Hume Collection contains a specimen obtained at Ahmednagar
by Dr. 1'airbank.
Habits, $'c. A nest of this species was found in the Nilgiris by
Miss Cockburn in March. It was placed under a shelving rock,
and was composed of fine grass. The eggs are creamy white densely
speckled with yellowish brown and purplish grey, and measure
about *85 by *65.
844. Anthus similis. The Brown Rock-Pipit.
Agrodroma similis, Jerd. Madr. Journ. L. S. xi, p. 35 (1840).
Anthus similis (Jerd.), Blyth } Cat. p. 135 (pt.) ; &or*f. fy M. Cat. i,
Agrodroma sordida (Riipp.'), apud Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 236 ; Hume,
J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 119; Hume, Cat. no. 604; Barnes,
Birds Bom. p. 246.
Agrodroma jerdoni, Finsch, Trans. Z. S. vii, p. 241 (1870) ; Hume
& Renders. Lah. to Yark. p. 227, pi. xxi ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 386 ;
id. S. F. i, p. 203 ; Butler, 8. F, iii, p. 491.
Corydalla griseorufescens, Hume, Ibis, 1870, pp. 286, 400.
Anthus jerdoni (Finsch}, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x, p. 562 ; Oates in
Hume\ N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 212.
Coloration. Upper plumage ashy brown, the feathers narrowly
edged with fulvous, and with dark shaft-streaks ; wings brown,
broadly edged with bright fulvous ; tail brown or black margined
with fulvous, the outermost feather with the outer web and the
terminal half of the inner pale rufous; the penultimate pair of
feathers tipped with pale rufous ; supercilium and lower plumage
fulvous or sandy buff, the breast with a few ill-defined and pale
Iris dark brown ; legs and feet yellowish flesh ; bill dark brown
above, flesh-colour below (Hume Coll.).
Length about 8*5 ; tail #6 ; wing 4'1 ; tarsus 1*1 ; bill from
gape *9 ; hind claw about *45.
This species very closely resembles A. sordidus, Riipp., from
Palestine, Arabia, and Africa, but is much larger and more brightly
coloured than that bird.
Agrodroma similis of Jerdon was founded on a single specimen,
the locality of which was not mentioned in the original description,
but was subsequently, in the ' Illustrations of Indian Ornithology/
stated to be Jalna. In the 'Birds of India' the Jalna bird was
referred to A. sordida, the name there adopted for the present
Distribution. A winter visitor to the plains of the north-west of
India, extending to the east as far as the Sikhim terai and Mughal
Sarai, and to the south as far as Jvhandesh, Jalna, and Nagpur.
This Pipit retires in summer to the Himalayas, where it breeds
from Hazara to Sikhim, up to about 6000 feet elevation. The range
of this bird extends to Afghanistan, Baluchistan, and Persia.
Habits, fyc. Breeds at Murree and in Afghanistan, below
6000 feet, from May to July, making a rough nest of grass on a
hill-side, and laying four eggs, which are brownish or greyish white
marked with brown and purple, and measure about '85 by '63.
845. Anthus richardi. Richard's Pipit.
Anthus richardi, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xxvi, p. 491 (1818) ;
Blyth, Cat. p. 135 j Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 355 j Sharpe, Cat. B. M.
x, p. 5G4.
Corydalla richardi (Vieill.), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 231 ; Brooks, S. F. i,
p. 358 ; Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 606 ; Hume, Cat. no. 599 ;
Legge, Birds Ceyl p. 621 j Gates, B. B. i, p. 166.
The Large Marsh-Pipit, Jerd. ; Pulla puraki, Meta kdlie, Tam.
Fig. 85. Foot of A. rwhardi.
Coloration. Upper plumage fulvous-brown, llir leathers centred
with blackish, the rump more uniform; wings dark hrmvn mar-
gined with fulvous ; tail dark brown, with pale margins, the outer-
most feather almost entirely white, the penultimate with an oblique
portion of the inner web, about an inch and a half in length, also
white; superciliuni and lower plumage pale fulvous, the sides of
the throat and fore neck and the whole breast streaked with dark
brown ; sides of the body darker fulvous, with a few indistinct
Bill brown, yellowish at the base of lower mandible ; mouth
yellow ; iris brown ; legs flesh-colour ; the claws darker.
Length about 7*5 ; tail 3-4 ; wing 3'7 ; tarsus 1*2 ; bill from
gape '85 ; hind claw about -8.
Distribution. A winter visitor to the whole of the Eastern part
of the Empire from Assam to Tenasserim, extending along the
Himalayas as far west as the Sutlej valley, and southwards through
Bengal and Chutia Nagpur along the eastern side of India to
Ceylon. In winter this species is found in China on the one side
and in Europe on the other. It summers in Central and Northern
846. Anthus striolatus, ElyiKs Pipit.
Oichlops thermophilus, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 83 (1844,
Anthus striolatus, Bhjth; J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 435 (1847) ; id. Cat.
p. 136 j Blanf. J. A. S. B. xli, pt. ii, p. 61 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. x,
Anthus thermophilus (Hodgs. \ Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 356.
Corydalla striolata (Blyth), Jerd. B. 1. ii, p. 233 ; Brooks, S. F. i,
p. 359 ; Hume, Cat. no. 601 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl. p. 628 ; Oates,
J3. B. \, p. 167 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 245.
The Large Titlark, Jerd.
Coloration, llesembles A. richardi, but is considerably smaller,
the tarsus and feet being conspicuously smaller, and the hind claw
hardly longer than the hind toe ; the amount of white on the
penultimate tail-feathers is much less, varying from half to a whole
inch in length.
Length about 7 ; tail 3 ; wing 3'5 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape "75 ;
hind claw *5.
Distribution. Occurs in every portion of the Empire from the
Himalayas to Ceylon and the extreme south of Tenasserim, winter-
ing in the plains and retiring to the higher parts of the Himalayas
for the summer. This species is, however, met with in the plains
up to a very late date (June), and a few pairs may breed in suit-
able localities. Blanford observed this Pipit as high as 15,000 feet
in Sikhim in October. Its nest has not yet been discovered.
847. Anthus rufulus. The Indian Pipit.
Anthus rufulus, Vieill Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xxvi, p. 494 (1818) ;
Blyth, Cat. p. 135 Horsf. $ M. Cat. i, p. 356 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M.
x, p. 574 ; Oates in Hume's N. 8f E. 2nd ed. ii, p, 213.
Anthus ciunamomeus, ltiij>]). Xexe Wirb., Vb'yel, p. 103 ( 1 *'!">).
Anthus malayensis, Eyton, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 104; Horxf. # M. Cat.
i, p. 357.
Corvdalla nifula (Jleill.), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 232 ; Hume, N. Sf E.
p. 384 ; hi Cat. no. 600 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 317 ; Legge, Birds
Cryl. p. 625 ; Oales, B. B. i, p. 168 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 214.
Corvdalla malayensis (Eyton), Hume < Dav. S. F. vi, p. 366 ; Hume,
Cat. no. 600 bis.
Corydalla ubiquitaria (Hodgs.}, apud Anders. Yunnan E.rped., Aves,
The Indian Titlark, Jerd. ; Rugel, Chachari, Hind. ; Gurapa-madi jitta,
Tel. ; Meta kdlie, Tarn.
Coloration. An exact miniature of A. richardi, from which this
species differs in nothing but size. It has, however, a proportion-
ally larger bill.
Bill dark brown, yellowish at the base of lower mandible ; iris
brown ; legs flesh-colour ; claws brownish.
Length about 6-5 ; tail 2-4 ; wing 3 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape
7") ; hind claw -5.
Distribution. A permanent resident in every portion of the
Empire and Ceylon, ascending the Himalayas to about 6000 feet.
This species has not yet been found in the Andamans or Nicobars,
but probably occurs there. It extends through the Malay peninsula
and islands to Lombock and Timor and it is largely distributed in
Habits, $c. Breeds all over the Empire (up to 6000 feet in the
Himalayas) from March to July and perhaps later. The nest is a
small structure of grass placed on the ground under shelter of a
tuft of grass or clod of earth. The eggs, three in number, are
brownish or greenish stone-colour, thickly marked with brown and
purplish red, and measure about '8 by *6.
848. Anthus campestris. The Tawny Pipit.
Alauda campestris, Linn. sv/.f. Nat. i, p. 288 (1766).
Anthus campestris (Linn.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 136; Sharpe, Cat. B. M.
x, p. 5i il).