banks of the Nerbudda river, but I have seen no specimens from
Habits, fa. Breeds from March to May or June, making a small
cup-shaped nest of grass or leaflets in a hollow on a sand-bank,
under shelter of a shrub or stone, and laying two or three eggs,
which are greyish white, speckled with yellowish brown, and
measure about '75 by '55.
867. Alaudula adamsi. The Indus Sand-Lark.
Alauda adamsi, Hume, Ibis, 1871, p. 405.
Alaudula adamsi (Hume), Hume, S.F.\, p. 213 ; id. N. $ E. p. 482 ;
id. Cat. no. 702 ter : Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 280 ; Sharp*, Cat. B.
M. xiii, p. 592; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 226.
Coloration. Resembles A. raytal, but has a very much smaller
bill, and, generally, a shorter wing and tail*.
Bill fleshy, dark brown on culmen and tip, with a slight shade
of horny blue on lower mandible ; legs and feet brownish flesh ;
iris brown (Butler}.
Length about 5'5 ; tail 1-8 ; wing 3'2 ; tarsus '75 ; bill from
gape '55 ; bill from tip to forehead *4.
Distribution. Sind, and along all the large rivers of the Punjab,
as far east as the Jumna.
Habits, <$fc. Breeds in March, April, and May : the mode of
nidification of this species does not appear to differ in any
important particular from that of A. raytal.
868. Alaudula persica. Sharpens Sand-Lark.
Alauda pispoletta, Pall., Hume, Ibis, 1870, p. 531.
Alaudula pispoletta (Pall.), Hume, S. F. vii, p. 528 ; id. Cat. no. 762
Alaudula persica, Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 590 (1890).
Coloration. Upper plumage sandy fulvous, each feather with a
narrow dark brown shaft-streak ; wings dark brown margined with
sandy fulvous ; middle pair of tail-feathers brown broadly margined
\\ilh fulvous ; the next three pairs dark brown with narrow mar-
gins ; the penultimate dark brown on the inner web, white on the
outer ; the outermost feather white, with the inner half of the inner
* A. adamsi is said to be larger than A. raytal, but a series of measurements
of both taken by me has convinced me that the contrary is the case.
web black ; lores, superciliuin, and sides of the liead pale buff ;
lower plumage fulvous white, rather darker on the breast and flanks ;
breast distinctly streaked with brown ; flanks indistinctly streaked ;
the cheeks frequently streaked with brown.
The colours of the soft parts of this Lark do not appear to have
Length about 6 ; tail 2'6 ; wing 4 ; tarsus '8 ; bill from gape
5 ; bill from forehead to tip *4.
Sharpe has quite properly bestowed a name on this hitherto
unnoticed and well-defined species, but in doing so he has selected
a Persian example as his type, a bird collected by Blanford at Niriz
in Persia. The Larks of this type found in India, although agree-
ing with this Persian bird in general size, structure, and coloration,
differ from it immensely in the size of the bill. The former have
the culmen measuring -4 and the latter -6. Having seen only one
Persian bird I do not wish to insist too much upon this difference
in size of bill, otherwise I should be disposed to keep the Indian
Distribution. The Punjab, extending west through Afghanistan
to Persia. This species is probably only a winter visitor to the
plains of the Punjab.
Genus MIRAFEA, Horsf., 1821.
The genus Mirafra contains the Bush-Larks, which are found
in well-wooded districts. They frequently perch on bushes and
low trees and they take short flights in the air. Their song is
pleasant but weak.
In Mirafra the bill is thick and short and the nostrils are quite
exposed to view ; there are ten primaries in the wing, the first of
which is about a half or a third the length of the second ; the hind
claw is much longer than the hind toe and gently curved.
Key to the Species.
a. Inner web of outer tail-feather largely
white M . cantittans, p. 333.
b. Inner web of outer tail-feather dark
a'. Rufous on inner and outer webs of pri-
maries not reaching to shaft.
a". General tone of upper plumage ashy
brown M. assamica, p. 334.
b". General tone of upper plumage
a'". Wing 3-2 to 3-5 M. affinis, p. 335.
V". Wing 2-7 to 3 M. microptera, p. 336.
b'. Rufous on inner and outer webs of pri-
maries reaching to shaft and confluent. M. erythroptera, p. 334.
869. Mirafra cantillans. The Sinyiny Bush-Lark.
Mirafra cantillans, Jrrd, Myth, J. A. S. B. xiii, p. 960 (1844) ; id.
Cat. p. 134 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 476; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 420;
Hume, N. $ E. p. 476 ; id. Cat. no. 757 ; Barnes, Birds Bom.
p. 275 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 605 j Oates in Hume's N. # E.
2nd ed. ii, p. 227.
Aylmn, Ay/tin, Hind. ; Burutta pitta, Aghin pitta, Tel.
Coloration. After the autumn moult the whole upper plumage
is dark brown, each feather with rufous lateral margins and a
whitish terminal band ; wing-coverts and tertiaries brown margined
with rufous ; primary-coverts, primaries, and secondaries with nearly
the entire outer web deep rufous or chestnut ; middle pair of tail-
feathers brown broadly margined with rufous, the next three pairs
Fig. 95. Head of M. cantillans.
almost entirely brown, the penultimate brown on the inner web,
white on the outer, the outermost white with a blackish band on
the inner margin of the inner web ; lores and supercilium very pale
fulvous ; sides of the head mottled with fulvous and brown ; chin
and throat white ; remainder of lower plumage fulvous, the sides
of the neck and the whole breast streaked with triangular brown
Shortly after the autumn moult the whitish terminal bands or
fringes of the feathers of the upper plumage become worn away.
Iris brown ; legs, feet, and lower mandible fleshy ; upper mandi-
ble horny brown (Butler}.
Length nearly 6 ; tail 2-1 ; wing 3'2 ; tarsus *75 ; bill from
Distribution. Locally distributed over a considerable portion of
the Indian Peninsula. This species is found in the Punjab, Kaj-
putana, the North- West Provinces, and Western Bengal, extending
south to about the latitude of Madras. It appears to ascend the
slopes of the Himalayas in suitable spots, as Stolic/ka records it from
the Sutlej valley.
Habits, $c. Breeds from March to August, probably having
1 \\ o broods in the year, and laying four eggs, which are dull white
thickly marked with various shades of brown, and measure about
81 by '62. This species is less frequently found amongst bushes
than other members of the genus, and it is commonly met with
on grass-land about cultivate^ tracts. It is often kept caged for
the sake of its song,
870. Mirafra assamica. The Bengal Bush-Lark.
Mirafra assamica, McCleU. P. Z. 8. 1839, p. 162 ; Horsf. $ M. Cat.
ii, p. 476 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 416 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 473 ; Ball, S.
F. vii, p. 223 ; Cripps, S. F. vii, p. 294 ; Hume, Cat. no. 754 ;
Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 6C6 ; Oates, B. B. i, p. 375 ;
Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 609 ; Hume, S. F. xi, p. 287 ; Oates in
Hume's N. fy E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 229.
Mirafra assamensis, McCleU., Blyth, Cat. p. 134.
Mirafra immaculate, Hume, S. F. i, p. 12 (1873).
Affffta, Hind. ; Bhiriri at Bhagalpur.
Coloration. The whole tipper plumage dark ashy browo with
blackish streaks on all parts except the rump ; wing-coverts blackish
margined with pale ashy ; primary-coverts externally rufous ; quills
dark brown, most of them externally margined with chestnut and
all of them with a large portion of the inner web chestnut ; tail
brown margined with ashy rufous, the penultimate and outer feathers
with the greater part of the outer web pale rufous ; lores and an
indistinct supercilium fulvous ; sides of the head fulvous barred
with brown; chin and throat pale fulvous white; remainder of
lower plumage darker fulvous, the breast coarsely streaked with
triangular marks of brown ; under wing-coverts and axillaries
Bill dusky above, fleshy white below ; legs fleshy white ; iris
yellowish brown (Hume}.
Length rather more than 6 ; tail 2 ; wing 3*3 ; tarsus 1 ; bill
from gape *75.
Distribution. The north-eastern part of the Indian Peninsula,
north and east of a line drawn roughly from Garhwal to Cuttack,
extending through Bengal into Assam and thence south on the
one hand to the neighbourhood of Bhamo and on the other to
Habits, fyc. Breeds from March to July, laying four or five eggs,
which are greyish white speckled with brown of different shades,
and measure about -82 by -61.
871. Mirafra erythroptera. The Red- winged Hush-Lark,
Mirafra erythroptera, Jerd. Madr. Journ. L. S. xiii, pt. 2, p. 136
(1844) ; Blyth, Cat. p. 133 ; Jerd. III. 2nd. Orn. pi. 38 ; Horsf.
$ M. Cat. ii, p. 474 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 418 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 475;
Ball, S. F. vii, p. 223 ; Hume, Cat. no. 756 ; Barnes, Birds Bom.
p. 274 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 612 j Oates in Hume's N. fy E.
2nded.'ii, p. 231.
Jungli aaffia, Hind. ; Chinna eeli-jitta, Tel.
Coloration. The whole upper plumage fulvous-brown streaked with
dark brown or black ; middle pair of tail-feathers pale brown mar-
gined with fulvous ; the others blackish, the outermost feather with
the outer web entirely pale rufous, and the inner web tipped with the
same colour ; wing-coverts brown edged with fulvous ; quills brown
with a large portion of both webs chestnut ; lores and a supercilium
pale fulvous ; cheeks and ear-coverts fulvous speckled with brown ;
chin and throat whitish ; remainder of lower plumage pale fulvous,
the breast spotted with triangular marks of brown or black ; under
wing-coverts pale rufous.
Bill horny brown above, fleshy below ; legs flesh-colour ; iris
Length about 5'5 ; tail 2-1 ; wing 3 ; tarsus '85 ; bill from gape
Distribution. The whole of India from the foot of the Himalayas
to about the latitude of Nellore and east to the longitude of Cal-
cutta. This Lark appears to be rare in Siud and the western parts
of Eajputana and the Punjab.
Habits, fyc. Breeds from March to September. The eggs, four
or five in number, are speckled with various shades of red and brown,
and measure about -76 by -59.
872. Mirafra affinis. The Madras Bush-Lark.
Mirafra affinis, Jerd. Madr. Journ. L. S. xiii, pt. 2, p. 136 (1844) ;
id. Ill 2nd. Orn. text to pi. 38; Bh/th, Cat. p. 133; Horsf. '<
M. Cat. ii, p. 475 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 417 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 474;
Ball, S. F. vii, p. 223 ; Hume, Cat. no. 755 ; Legge, Birds Ceyl.
p. 634 ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 404 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 614;
Oates in Humes N. # E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 233.
Eeli-jitta, Tel. ; Chirchira, Hind. ; Leepee, in Central India ; Gomarita,
Coloration. Upper plumage rufous-brown with very broad
median dark brown streaks to all the feathers ; tail dark brown
narrowly margined with rufous, the outer web of the outermost
feather being very broadly margined with this colour ; wing-coverts
and quills dark brown, margined with rufous, most of the quills
with a large band of rufous on the inner web; lores and superci-
lium pale fulvous; ear-coverts rufous mottled with brown; chin
and throat very pale fulvous ; remainder of lower plumage deeper
fulvous, the breast streaked with large triangular patches of dark
brown ; under wing-coverts and axillaries rufous.
Legs, feet, claws, lower mandible, and edges of upper mandible
fleshy white ; rest of upper mandible horny brown ; iris sienna-
Length about 6 ; tail 1-8 to 2-1 ; wing 3-2 to 3-5 ; tarsus 1 ; bill
from gape '7.
Distribution. Ceylon and Southern India, extending north to
Midnapore in Bengal on the eastern side of the Peninsula and to
the Nilgiris on the western.
Habits, c. Little is known about the uidification of this Lark.
It appears to lay in May and June and its nest and eggs are not
likely to differ in any respect from those of the other species, the
habits of which are well known.
873. Mirafra microptera. The Burmese Bush-Lark.
Mirafra microptera, Hume, S. F. i, p. 483 (1873) ; id. N. $ E. p. 475 ;
id. S. F. iii, p. 159 ; id. Cat. no. 755 bis ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii,
p. 615 ; Oates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 233.
Mirafra affinis, Jerd. apud Oates, B. B. \ } p. 376.
Coloration. Resembles M. affinis, but is considerably smaller.
Iris hazel ; lower mandible and margin of upper very pale
pinkish fleshy ; remainder of upper mandible dark horny ; legs
light fleshy ; claws pinkish.
Length 5'5; tail 1-55; wing 2'7 to 3 ; tarsus -85 ; bill from
Distribution. The northern part of Pegu about the district of
Thayetmyo. Specimens of a Bush-Lark from Saigon appear re-
ferable to this species.
Habits, fyc. A nest of this bird that I found in Pegu in July
contained two eggs and one young bird, and was placed on the
ground in a hoof-mark. It was partially domed and constructed
of grass and fibres. One egg measured '83 by *6 and was thickly
marked with brown.
Genus GALERITA, Boie, 1828.
The genus Galerita contains the Crested Lark, and two other
Larks which have hitherto been placed in the genus Spizalauda.
These two genera appear to ine to be identical and I therefore
In Galerita the bill is about half the length of the head and
pretty strong ; the head is furnished with a few long feathers
forming a conspicuous crest ; the nostrils are completely covered
by plumelets ; there are ten primaries in the wing, the first
of which is very small ; the hind claw is about the same length
as the hind toe and very slightly curved ; and the sexes are quite
The Crested Larks resemble the Sky-Larks closely in their
Key to the Species.
a. Bill at front about '7 ; general colour above
earthy brown - G. cristata, p. 337.
b. Bill at front about '5 ; general colour above
a. Wing about 3'4 ; pectoral streaks few
and narrow G. deva, p. 338.
b'. Wing about 3'8 ; pectoral streaks numer-
ous and broad G. malabarica, p. 339.
874. Galerita cristata. The Crested Lark.
Alauda cristata, Linn. Syst. Nat. i, p. 288 (1766).
Alauda chendoola, Frankl. P. Z. S. 1831, p. 119.
Galerida chendoola (Frankl.), Blyth, Cat. p. 133.
Galerida cristata (Linn.), Horsf. $ M. Cat. ii, p. 465; Jerri. B. I. ii,
p. 436 ; Hume, N. $ E. p. 488 j id. S. F. i, p. 214; Butler, S. F.
vii, p. 185 ; Hume, Cat. no. 769 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 283 ;
Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 626 ; Gates in Hume's N. & E. 2nd ed.
ii, p. 233.
Galerida magna, Hume, Ibis, 1871, p. 407 ; id. fy Senders. Lah. to
Yark. p. 270, pi. 30 ; Scully, S. F. iv, p. 175.
The Large Crested Lark, Jerd. ; Chendul, Hind. ; Chendul, Jutu-pitta,
Fig. !)().- -Head of 6r. cristata.
Coloration. Upper plumage earthy brown, with blackish streaks
or centres to most of the feathers ; tail-feathers brown, with sandy
margins and tips, the penultimate feather with the greater portion
of the outer \veb pale rufous, the outermost all pale rufous except
the inner portion of the inner web, which is brown; wing-coverts
and quills brown with sandy margins, the quills with a largo patch
of rufous on the inner web ; lores brown ; supercilium pale ful-
vous ; ear-coverts pale fulvous white, mottled with brown ; entire
lower plumage pale fulvous with some brown spots on the cheeks
and numerous brown streaks on the breast ; the sides of the body
obsoletely streaked ; under wing-coverts and axillaries rufous.
Bill yellowish ; feet pale brown ; iris dark brown (Jerdon).
Length about 7*5 ; tail about 2'7 ; wing 3'5 to 4'3 ; tarsus 1-05;
bill from gape about '9.
The Crested Lark varies as much as the Common Sky-Lark both
in size and colour, and it is as difficult in the case of the one as of
the other to subdivide it into two or more races.
Distribution. The north-western portion of India, extending east
as far as the 85th degree of east longitude, and south as far gene-
rally as the 23rd degree of north latitude, but occasionally further
south in favourable localities, this species having been recorded from
Kaipur in the Central Provinces. Many Larks of this species are
resident and breed in India, but the majority appear to migrate in
TOL. II. Z
spring to Central Asia. This Lark, in a more or less variable
form, has an immense range, being found in Europe and Northern
Africa and the greater part of Asia, as far east as China.
Habits, fyc. Breeds in India from March to June, constructing
a small nest of grass on the ground under shelter of a stone or clod
of earth. The nest is usually lined with cotton, hair, fibres, and
feathers. The eggs, usually three in number, are dull white marked
with brown and purple, and measure about *87 by '65.
875. Galerita deva. Sykes's Crested Lark.
Alauda deva, Sykes, P. Z. S. 1832, p. 92.
Mirafra hayii, Jerd. Madr. Journ. L. S. xiii, pt. 2, p. 136 (1844) ;
Blyth, Cat. p. 133.
Spizalauda deva (Sykes), Horsf. fy M. Cat. ii, p. 477 ; Jerd. B. I.
ii, p. 432; Hume, Cat. no. 7(35; Davison, S. F. x, p. 704; Barnes,
Birds Bom. p. 281 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 621.
Alauda simillima (Hume), J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 120 (1870).
Spizalauda simillima (Hume), Hume, N. fy E. p. 484.
Alauda (Spizalauda) deva, Sykes, Blanf. S. F. iv, p. 240.
Galerita deva (Sykes}, Gates in Hume's N, 4* E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 236.
The Small Crested Lark, Jerd. ; Chinna chandul, Tel.
Coloration. Upper plumage rufous, with dark brown streaks or
centres to all the feathers ; the upper tail-coverts more uniformly
rufous ; tail dark brown edged with rufous, the penultimate feather
with the outer web entirely rufous, the outermost feather all rufous
except a small portion of the inner web ; wing-coverts and quills
brown, edged with rufous, all the quills with a large amount of
pale rufous on the inner web ; a broad and well-defined pale rufous
supercilium ; sides of the head pale rufous mottled, with brown ;
the entire lower plumage rufous, with a few spots on the cheeks
and a few narrow black streaks on the breast ; under wing-coverts
and axillaries rufous.
Bill horny brown above, pale flesh-colour below ; legs and feet
yellowish brown ; iris dark brown (Butler).
Length about 6; tail 2'1 ; wing 3'4; tarsus '8; bill from
Distribution. A considerable portion of the peninsula of India,
where this species is a permanent resident. It occurs in Cutcb,
Kajputana, the eastern portion of the Punjab, the North-west Pro-
vinces and Central India, extending south to about the latitude of
Bangalore and Madras. Its eastern limits are not known with any
precision, but it does not seem to be found east of the 80th degree
of longitude. To the west it is found everywhere as far as the
Habits, fyc. Breeds from June to August, making its nest at the
foot of a tuft of grass or bush, and laying three eggs, which are
speckled with reddish brown and purplish, and measure about 77
876. Galerita malabarica. The Malabar Crested Lark.
Alauda malabarica, Scop. Del. Flor. et Faun. Insubr. ii. p. 94 (1786) ;
Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 436.
Spizalauda malabarica (Scop.), Hume, N. 8f E. p. 483 ; id. Cat. no. 765
bis ; Davison, S. F. x, p. 405 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 282.
Alauda (Spizalauda) malabarica, Scop. Blanf. S. F. iv, p. 241.
Galerita malabarica (Scop.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 633 ; Oates
in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 237.
The Crested Malabar Lark, Jerd.
Coloration. Resembles G. deva very closely, but is considerably
larger, has the streaks on the breast very broad and coarse and the
light pattern of the tail much deeper rufous.
Iris dark brown ; legs and feet livid flesh ; bill horny brown
above, whitish flesh below (Butler).
Length nearly 7 ; tail 2-3 ; wing 3-8 ; tarsus -85 ; bill from
Distribution. A permanent resident in the western part of the
peninsula of India from Guzerat to Travancore, occurring up to
the summit of the hill-ranges of those parts.
Habits, fyc. Breeds from March to September, having two broods.
The mode of nidification of this species appears to be quite the
same as that of G. deva, but the eggs are larger and more distinctly
marked and measure about "87 by '65.
Genus AMMOMANES, Cabanis, 1850.
The genus Ammomanes contains those Finch-Larks which are
characterized by a general rufous tone of plumage and by the
sexes being alike in colour.
In Ammomanes the bill is thick and slightly curved and resembles
that of Galandrella very closely; the nostrils are covered by
plumelets ; the wing has ten primaries, the first being small but
exceeding the primary- coverts considerably, and the second quill
is much shorter than the third ; the hind claw is short and curved.
The Larks of this genus are found in open plains and arid spots.
They rise singing in the air for a short distance and descend with
a sudden drop.
Key to the Species.
a. Tail deep rufous broadly tipped black. . . . A. phoenicura, p. 339.
b. Tail brown throughout, merely tinged with
rufous A. phomicuroides, p. 340.
^77. Ammomanes phcenicura. T7ie Rufous-tailed Finch-Lark.
Mirafra phoenicura, Frankl P. Z. S. 1831, p. 119 ; Bluth, Cat. p. 134
Ammomanes phoenicura (Frankl.), Horsf. ty M. Cat. ii, p. 477
Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 421 ; Hume, N. 8? E. p. 477 ; id. Cat. no. 758
Ball, S. F. vii, p. "223 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 276 ; Sharpe, Cat.
B. M. xiii, p. 642 ; Gates in Hume's N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 240.
Aggiya, Eetal, Hind. 5 Ambali-jori-gadu, Dowa-pitta, Tel.
Coloration. Upper plumage dark brown, with slightly darker
shafts and obsolete pale margins to all the feathers, those of the
head with blackish streaks ; upper tail-coverts deep rufous ; tail
deep rufous with a broad black tip ; wing-coverts and quills brown
margined with sandy brown, the quills with a large amount of
rufous on the inner web ; a very indistinct supercilium pale rufous ;
sides of the head rufous streaked with brown ; entire lower plum-
age rufous, the chin, throat, and breast streaked with brown.
Bill horny brown above, fleshy at the base beneath ; legs fleshy ;
iris brown (Jerdon).
Length about 6-5; tail 2-4; wing 4-1; tarsus -9 ; bill from
Distribution. A permanent resident over a considerable portion
of the peninsula of India. The western limit of this species
appears to be a line drawn from the head of the liann of Cutch to
Delhi and thence produced to the Granges ; the northern boundary
would appear to be the Ganges itself as far as Dinapore, and thence
this Lark is spread over the entire country, in suitable localities,
down to Coimbatore.
Habits, fyc. Breeds from February to April, making its nest of
grass on the ground and laying three or four eggs, which are
speckled with yellowish and reddish brown and measure about '85
878. Ammomanes phoenicuroides. The Desert Finch-Lark.
Mirafra phoenicuroides, Blyth, J. A. S. B. xxii, p. 583 (1853).
Ammomanes phoenicuroides (BlytJi), Horsf, fy M. Cat. ii, p. 478 ;
Sharps, Cat. B. M. xiii, p. 647 ; Gates in Hume's N. $ JE. 2nd ed.
ii, p. 242.
Ammomanes lusitanica (Gmel.), Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 422 ; Hume, N. fy E.
p. 478; id. 8. F. i, p. 211.
Ammomanes deserti (Licht.), Hume, Cat. no. 759; Barnes, Birds
Bom. p. 276.
The Pale-rufous Finch-Lark, Jerd.
Coloration. Upper plumage greyish brown, tinged with rufous
on the upper tail-coverts and slightly streaked with blackish on
the crown ; tail brown margined with pale rufous, the outer web
of the outer tail-feather entirely of this colour, the bases of all the
feathers tinged reddish ; wing-coverts and quills brown margined
with pale fulvous, the inner web of all the quills largely pale
rufous ; lores brown ; a ring round the eye and a line above and
below the lores fulvous white ; ear-coverts greyish brown ; chin
and throat pale fulvous white, with a few brown spots on the
lower throat ; remainder of lower plumage fulvous grey, with a few
brown streaks on the breast ; under wing-coverts and auxiliaries
Bill dusky above, yellowish beneath ; feet pale yellow-brown
Length about 7 ; tail 2-6 ; wing 4-1 ; tarsus -9 ; bill from
Distribution. A permanent resident throughout Bind and the
northern part of the Punjab, ranging west to the Persian Gulf.
Habits, <fr. Breeds in April, May, and June, making its nest on
the ground and surrounding it with a circle of small pieces of
stone. The eggs, three or four in number, resemble those of
A. plicenicura and measure about *83 by *6.
Genus PYRRHULAUDA, Smith, 1839.
The genus Pyrrhulauda contains those Finch-Larks in which
the sexes are very different, the males being black beneath and the