broad supercilium pale buff; ear-coverts rufous; remainder of
the sides of the head mixed brown and buff ; chin and throat white ;
remainder of the lower plumage very pale buff, somewhat deeper on
the breast ; under wing-coverts white mottled with black ; axillaries
white, with blackish bases.
The sexes appear to be alike in the winter, but may probably
differ in the summer.
The above is the plumage of adults of both sexes during the
winter. I have not been able to examine birds in summer
plumage ; but the skins most advanced towards this plumage in the
Hume Collection have a dark blackish streak from the bill down the
sides of the throat and breast, expanding in width gradually and
leaving the throat narrowly white. The sandy margins of the upper
plumage are probably at this season much reduced in extent, leaving
the upper plumage blacker.
The young resemble the adults in winter plumage, but there is
no white on the tail, which is brown with fulvous margins, and the
white on the wing-coverts is either absent or very much reduced.
Legs and feet black : iris brown ; bill black (Hume).
Length nearly 6 ; tail 2-2 ; wing 3 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from
Distribution. A winter visitor to the Punjab, Rajputana, Northern
G-uzerat, Cutch, and Sind. The summer-quarters of this species
are unknown. No one has met with it in Central Asia, and
Hume's conjecture that it may be a resident in the above provinces
of India may prove to be correct. Natives of Jodhpur assured him
that these birds remained in this State and bred there during the
Habits, fyc. Hume states that this species was extremely abun-
dant in the thin, stunted, scrub-jungle that here and there studs
the sandy, semi-desert, waterless tracts which occur all round
Jodhpur. It has the ordinary habits of P. maura.
613. Pratincola insignis. Hodgson s Bush-Chat.
Saxicola insignis, Hodgs. in Gray's Zool. Misc. p. 83 (1844, descr.
Pratincola insignis, Hodgs., Bhjth, J. A. S. B. xvi, p. 129 (1847) ;
Jerd. B. 1. ii, p. 127 ; Hume, 8. F. v, pp. 132, 496, vii, pp. 454,
619; id. Cat. no. 485 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 183.
Pratincola robustior, C. H. T. and G. F. L. Marshall, S. F. iii,
The Large Bush- Chat, Jerd.
Coloration. Male. In winter the lores, under the eyes, and the
whole of the ear-coverts are deep black ; forehead, crown, and nape
black with small fulvous edges ; mantle, back, and rump black with
broad fulvous edges ; upper tail-coverts white dashed with rusty ;
wing-coverts white next the body, black elsewhere ; the lesser
coverts near the edge of the wing fringed with fulvous ; primary-
coverts with the basal half black, the terminal half white ; quills
blackish, all of them broadly white at base, except the last two or
three primaries and the first secondary, the primaries and secon-
daries narrowly, the tertiaries broadly, edged with fulvous ; tail
black, with conceal ed -white bases to the inner webs ; point of the
chin and a narrow stripe along the base of the mandible black ;
throat, extending laterally to the sides of the neck, white, more or
less marked with rusty ; remainder of the lower plumage rusty
ferruginous, the breast marked with some broad black streaks, the
abdomen paler ; under tail-coverts pale fulvous-white ; under wing-
coverts black edged with white ; axillaries white, with the bases of
the feathers blackish.
In summer, judging from the only specimen I have seen (one
collected by Hodgson at Segowlie, and figured by him), the fulvous
margins on the upper plumage are cast and this part becomes black,
the black streaks on the breast are absent, and there is no rusty
either on the throat or the upper tail-coverts. Hodgson's bird
appears to have been obtained on the 10th January, but it seems
nevertheless to be in full well-worn summer plumage, and there
may be some mistake about the date.
Female. In winter, and probably in summer also, the upper
plumage is brown, each feather margined with dull fulvous ; upper
tail-coverts rusty; tail brown, with fulvous margins and tips and
with no white at the base ; wing-coverts dark brown, margined and
tipped with fulvous ; the innermost greater coverts and the last
tertiary chiefly white ; quills dark brown, with small dull white
bases and margined with fulvous ; sides of the head and neck, lores,
and above the eye dull fulvous, the ear-coverts rufescent; the
whole lower plumage rusty brown, darker on the breast, which
sometimes has a few dark-brown streaks.
A young male obtained in December has the wings, tail, and
upper plumage similar to the same parts of the adult male in
winter, but the lower plumage is that of the female and the ear-
coverts are nearly black.
The male has the iris deep brown, the bill and legs black ; the
female has the bill blackish brown, horny at base of the lower
Length about 6-5; tail 2-4; wing 3-6; tarsus 1-1; bill from
Distribution. A. rare species, occurring on the plains of Northern
India from Cawnpore to the Bhutan Doars. The Marshalls pro-
cured it near Cawnpore in February ; Mr. Cleveland in the
Gorakhpur and Basti districts in October and December ; Hodgson
at Segowlie, as already mentioned ; and Mandelli in the lower hills
of Sikhim and the Bhutan Doars in April. The summer-quarters
of this species are not known, but lie probably in the Central hills
of Nepal and Sikhim.
Habits, <Sfc. This Bush-Chat is found in flat open country thickly
dotted with cane-fields, which appear to be its favourite haunts.
VOL. II, F
Genus OREICOLA., Bonap., 1854.
This genus differs from Pratincola in having a much longer tail,
which is also very much more graduated.
Key to the Species.
a. Whole upper plumage, wings, and tail
black O. jerdoni $ , p, 60.
b. Upper plumage ashy and black; wing-
coverts largely white; tail margined
white O. ferrea <$ , p. 66.
c. Upper plumage rufous-brown or rufous-
a'. With no supercilium O. jerdoni $ , p. 66.
b'. With a supercilium O. ferrea $ , p. 66.
614. Or eicola jerdoni. Jerdon's Bush-Chat.
Rhodophila melanoleuca, Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 128 (1863, nee VieilL),
App. p. 872 j Godw.-Aust. J. A. S. B. xxxix, pt. ii, p. 270.
Oreicola jerdoni, Blyth, Ibis, 1867, p. 14; Blanf. Ibis, 1870, p. 466;
Hume] Cat. no. 487 ; Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 264 ; Oates, B. B.
i, p. 282 ; Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Gen. (2) iv, p. 590; Hume,
S. F. xi, p. 193.
Pratincola jerdoni (Blyth), Anders. Yunnan Exped., Aves, p. 616.
Coloration. Male. The whole upper plumage, wings, tail, and
sides of the head and neck deep black ; the whole lower plumage
white ; under wing-coverts black slightly tipped with white.
Female. The whole upper plumage brown tinged with rufous,
especially on the rump and upper tail-coverts ; tail brown, edged
paler ; wings and coverts brown edged with rufous ; sides of the
head mixed ashy and brown ; chin and throat white j remainder of
the lower plumage pale fulvous.
Bill and legs black ; iris dark brown (Jerdon).
Length about 6; tail 2-7; wing 2-7; tarsus -85; bill from
I have not been able to examine a young bird of this species.
Distribution. Purneah inBehar; Eastern Bengal ; Dibrugarh in
Assam ; Sylhet ; Cachar ; Manipur ; the neighbourhood of Bhamo ;
Bassein district ; Leppadau on the Rangoon and Promo Eailway,
where I lately observed this species in March in thick grass on the
banks of the Leppadan river. It is not known whether this Bush-
Chat is migratory or not.
615. Oreicola ferrea. The Dark-grey Bush-Chat.
Saxicola ferrea. Hodgs. in Gray's Cat. Mamm. fyc. Nep. pp. 71, 153
Pratincola ferrea (Hodgs.}, Blyth, Cat. p. 170; Horsf.fyM. Cat.
i, p. 286 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 127 ; Stohczka, J. A. S. B. xxxvii,
pt. i, p. 41; Hume, N. $ E. p. 318; Hume Sf Henders. Lah. to
Yark. p. 205, pi. xii j Andei-s. Yunnan E.vped., Avcs, p. 017 j
Hume, Cat. no. 486 ; Scully, S. F. viii, p. 301.
Oreicola ferrea (Hodgs.), Sharpe, Cat. B. M. iv, p. 26G ; Gates, 13. E.
i, p. 283 ; id. in Humfs N. $ E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 50.
Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the whole upper
plumage is dark ashy grey, all the feathers except those of the
rump centred with black and margined with a varying amount of
rusty ; coverts and quills black edged with grey, which inclines to
white on the tertiaries ; the inner greater coverts entirely white ;
tail black, the feathers increasingly margined with white, the outer
web of the outermost feather being entirely white ; a white super-
ciliuui from the forehead to the nape ; sides of the head black ;
lower plumage white, tinged with ashy across the breast and on the
The margins of the feathers of the upper plumage get worn
away rapidly, and later on in the winter almost disappear, leaving
the upper parts black during the summer.
Female. The whole upper plumage rufous ashy, the centres of
the feathers dark, but not very distinctly visible till the spring,
when the edges of the feathers are reduced in extent ; upper tail-
coverts chestnut ; tail brown, broadly edged with chestnut ; wings
brown, narrowly edged with rufous ; a pale grey supercilium ; sides
of the head reddish brown speckled with brown ; chin and throat
whitish ; remainder of lower plumage rufous ashy.
The young are dark rufous-brown, with streaks and spots of
fulvous, and broad rufous edges to the tail and wings.
Iris brown ; tail black ; legs dark brown.
Length nearly 6 ; tail 27 ; wing 2'7 ; tarsus -8 ; bill from
Distribution. The Himalayas, from Murree and the Indus valley
in Kashmir to the extreme east of Assam. This species is found
up to 9000 feet in summer, and it descends to the valleys in the
winter. It extends in the winter from Assam through the hill-
ranges and Burma as far as Karennee, Central Tenasserim, and
the Thoungyeen valley. This Bush-Chat is found in China.
Habits, fyc. Breeds in the Himalayas from April to July, con-
structing a nesfc of grass, moss, and hair in a hole in the ground
or under the shelter of a stone or clod of earth. The eggs, four
or five in number, are pale green marked with reddish brown, and
measure about '72 by "57. It is not improbable that this species
may breed in some of the hill-ranges of Burma.
Genus SAXICOLA, Bechst., 1802.
The genus Saxicola contains a large number of species which
are essentially birds of deserts and waste lands, and they are most
developed in the dry parts of: South-western Asia and Northern
Africa. The majority of them are migratory to a greater or less
extent, and a few appear to be resident. The sexes are usually
dissimilar, and both sexes undergo a seasonal change of plumage,
which in some species causes a very great alteration in their
appearance. In all the species and in both sexes the tail is
marked with two colours, generally black and white and occasion-
ally black and chestnut.
In Saxicola the bill is about half the length of the head, slender,
and not widened at the base j the rictal bristles are few and weak ;
the wing is sharp, the first primary being about one third the
length of the second ; the tail is shorter than the wing and nearly
square, and the tarsus is moderate.
The young of Saaricola are in general like the adult female, but
each feather of the plumage has a terminal dark bar and a pale
centre, causing a mottled appearance. This plumage at the first
autumn gives place to that of the adult.
Key to the Species.
a. Tail white or buff and brown ; the lateral
feathers immaculate or merely obliquely
marked with black S. monacha, p. 69.
b. Tail white and black ; the laterals with a
broad band at the tip.
'. Band on lateral tail-feathers not exceed-
ing 1 inch in breadth.
a". Second primary shorter than sixth,
a'". Sexes alike; plumage black and
white ; wing 4 inches or longer. . S. albiniyra, p. 70.
b'". Sexes different ; males black and
white ; female brown ; wing under
a 4 . Abdomen white, and crown
black S. picata tf , p. 71.
b\ Abdomen and crown white .... S. capistrata tf , p. 72.
c 4 . Abdomen black S. opistholeuca tf , p. 73.
d l . Throat and breast dark brown,
contrasting with the pale ab-
domen S. picata $ , p. 71.
e 4 . Throat and breast buff, blending
softly with the paler buff of the
abdomen S. capistrata , p. 72.
/ 4 . Throat, breast, and upper abdo-
men sooty brown S. opistholeuca $ , p. 73.
b". Second primary between the fifth and
sixth ; sexes different *.
c'". Chin and throat black.
^r 4 . Back and scapulars of the same
colour S. pleschanka tf , p. 73.
A 4 . Back buff, scapulars black .... S. barnesi <$ , p. 75.
* I am not acquainted with the females of 8. barnesi and 8. vittata, and con-
sequently I do not enter either of these in the Key, nor the female of 8. ples-
chd.ika, which comes into this same section.
^ d'". Chin and throat white S. vittata <$, p. 75.
c". Second primary equal to or longer
than fifth ; throat never black.
e'" . Sexes different ; band on tail '8
inch ; under wing-coverts and ax-
illaries black edged with white, or
brown edged fulvous S, oenanthe, p 76.
f '. Sexes alike ; band on tail 1
inch ; under wing-coverts and ax-
illaries uniform fulvous S. isabellina, p. 77.
//. Band on lateral tail-feathers more than
1 inch in breadth.
(?". Wing 3-7; inner webs of quills of
wing narrowly margined white .... *S'. deserti, p. 78.
e". Wing 4; inner webs of quills of wing
nearly entirely white S. montana, p. 78.
c. Tail chestnut and black ; the lateral fea-
thers with a broad band at the tip * . . S. chrysopyyia, p. 79.
616. Saxicola monacha. The Hooded Chat.
Saxicola monacha, Riipp., Temm. PL Col. no. 359, fig. 1 (1825) ;
Blanf. # Dresser, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 227 ; Secbohm, Cat. B. M. v,
p. 369 ; Hume, Cat. no. 490 bis ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 203.
DromolaBa monacha (Riipp.}, Hume, S. F. i, p. 186.
Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult the forehead, crown,
nape, hind neck, rump, upper tail-coverts, abdomen, vent, and
under tail-coverts are pure white ; tail white, the terminal two-
thirds of the middle pair and a dash or two on the laterals brown ;
remainder of plumage black, the back and breast with a few whitish
fringes, the secondaries, under wing-coverts, and axillaries with
white tips. In summer the white fringes on the back and breast
Female. Upper plumage buffi sh brown ; wings and coverts brown
edged with buffy white ; lower rump and upper tail-coverts buff ;
tail as in the male, but the white replaced by buff and with more
brown on the laterals ; lower plumage pale buff.
Legs, feet, and bill black (Hume Coll.}.
Length about 7 ; tail 2'9 ; wing 4-2 ; tarsus '9 ; bill from
Distribution. The hills dividing Sind from Khelat, extending
1 * Saxicola hi a ens, Licht., has been recorded from Daulatpur in Sind by
Mr. Murray, but under circumstances which render it doubtful whether the
specimen uuon which the statement is based was really obtained in Sind. This
( lint resembles S. plcschanka, but has the under tail-coverts a deep buff, and
the inner webs of the quills of the wing very largely white. (Cf. S. F. vii,
pp. 118, 527, where this bird is referred to under the name of S. leucomela )
This species occurs in Persia and westwards to Palestine and Northern Africa.
S. persica, Seebohm, is also allied to 8. plcschanka and S. lugens, and differs
from the latter in having the inner webs of the quills of the wing merely mar-
gined with white. In the former the whole wing is black. 8. persica occurs in
Persia in summer.
east to Sehwan, whence *! have seen a specimen procured by Brooks
in January. This species is said to be a winter visitor to Sind,
but this statement requires confirmation. It extends westwards
to Baluchistan and Afghanistan, and on to Palestine, occurring
also in Nubia.
617. Saxicola albinigra. Hume's Chat.
S axicola alboniger, Hume, S. F. i, p. 2 (1873) ; Blanf. $ Dresser,
P. Z. S. 1874, p. 226 ; Blanf. East. Pers. ii, p. 153, pi. xi ; Seebohm,
Cat. B. M. v, p. 366; Hume, Cat. no. 489 bis; Barnes, Birds
Bom. p. 202; Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 58; Scully, Ibis, 1881,
Dromolgea alboniger (Hume), Hume, S. F. i, p. 185.
Coloration. The sexes are alike. The whole head, neck, back,
scapulars, sides of breast, axillaries, and under wing-coverts deep
black ; wings dark brown, the coverts edged with black ; remainder
of the plumage white, except the terminal half of the middle tail-
feathers and a terminal band on .the laterals, which are black.
Bill, legs, and feet black (Hume Coll.).
Length about 7 ; tail 2'8 ; wing 4 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from gape '9.
Distribution. The hills dividing Sind from Khelat, ranging west
to Sehwan and Larkana; Gilgit at 5000 feet; extending east to
This species is no doubt resident in Sind and GilgJt, as it pro-
bably is in the other parts of its somewhat limited range. I have
seen specimens killed on the following dates : Gilgit, January
and June ; Sind, November to January ; Baluchistan and Mekran
Coast, February, April, August, and November; Afghanistan,
August and December ; Persia, May.
The- next two species are united by Hume and some other orni-
thologists, but I consider them distinct on the following grounds :
S. picata, a species with the crown black, visits the plains of India
only in the winter, and retires for the summer to the mountains
of Afghanistan and Kashmir. S. capistrata, a species with the
crown white, is a constant resident in the plains of India and the
lower parts of Afghanistan, and is never found on the mountains.
The females of both species when in good plumage, from Septem-
ber to April, are quite distinct, and may be recognized without
difficulty by their colour.
A few birds obtained in Gilgit have the crown largely white,
but they were shot just before the autumn moult, when the feathers
of that part are extremely \vorn and ragged, and this may be the
result of bleaching. I do not think too much importance should
be attached, to the occurrence of these abnormal specimens among
a very large series of typical S. picata. In the same way a few
specimens from the plains of India exhibit some black among
the white feathers of the crown. These variations are no doubt
puzzling, but their cause will probably be solved hereafter without
having recourse to the theory of interbreeding, which in this
instance is singularly inapplicable, since the breeding-areas of the
two species are totally distinct one from the other. One point is
quite clear from the immense series of these Chats in the National
Collection : the white or the black crown, or the intermixture of
black and white, is not due to age.
618. Saxicola picata. The Pied Chat.
Saxicola picata, Blyth, J.A.S. B. xvi, p. 131 (1847) ; id. Cat. p. 167;
Horsf. fy M. Cat. i, p. 287 ; Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 131 ; Blanf. $
Dresser, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 227 ; Hume, S. F. iii, p. 475 ; id. Cat.
no. 489 ; Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 367 ; Barnes, S. F. ix, p. 217 ;
~'ddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 56; Sadly, ~
Ibis, 1882, p. 236 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 202; Gates' in Hume's
Biddulph, Ibis, 1881, p. 56; Sadly, Ibis, 1881, p. 441 ; Biddulph,
N. E. 2nd ed. ii, p. 52.
Dromolrea picata (Blyth), Hume, S. F. i, p. 184 ; Ball, S. F. iii,
The Pied Stone-CJiat, Jerd.
Coloration. Male. The whole head and neck all round, back,
scapulars and wings, under wing-coverts and axillaries deep black ;
remainder of lower plumage with the rump and upper tail-coverts
white ; tail white, except the terminal half of the middle pair of
feathers and a broad band at the tip of the others, which are
black. There is hardly any difference between the summer and
Female. Upper plumage brown ; rump and upper tail-coverts
white ; tail as in male, but black replaced by brown ; wings brown,
all the feathers broadly edged with rufous ; chin, throat, and breast
dark ochraceous brown ; remainder of the lower parts very pale
buff or pinkish white.
The young resemble the female but are mottled below, and the
crown is always of the same colour as the back.
A few adult males have sometimes a small amount of white on
the crown or over the ear-coverts, and occasionally in birds about
to moult nearly the whole crown is white.
Bill and legs black ; iris dark brown (Binnhani).
Length about 7 ; tail 2-7 ; wing 3'5 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from
Distribution. The Pied Chat summers in Gilgit and the moun-
tains of Afghanistan and Baluchistan, extending at this season to
Persia. In winter it visits the plains of the Punjab, Sind, Guze-
rat, Rajputana as far east as Deesa and Sambhar, and the North-
west Provinces down to Allahabad. At this season it is also
found in the low country of Baluchistan and Afghanistan.
J /> (frits, 6fc. Breeds from March to July, constructing a nest of
grass, lined with feathers, in a hole of a wall or a cleft of a rock.
The eggs are greenish blue, with very pale marks of rusty brown
round the larger end, and measure about *81 by *56.
619. Saxicola capistrata. The White-headed Chat.
Saxicola leucomela (Pall.}, apud Jerd. B. I. ii, p. 131.
Saxicola capistrata, Gould, Birds Asia, iv, pi. 28 (1865) ; Hume,
8. F. iii, p. 475 ; Seebohm, Cat. B. M. v, p. 368.
Saxicola morio (Hempr. fy JEhr.), apud Hume, Cat. no. 490 ; Barnes,
Birds Bom, p. 203.
The White-headed Stone-Chat, Jerd.
Fig. 25. Head of 8. capistrata.
Coloration. Male. After the autumn moult, the forehead, crown,
nape, and hind neck are greyish white, somewhat whiter over the
eye and ear-coverts ; sides of the head, chin, throat, neck all
round, back, scapulars, wings, under wing-coverts, and axillaries
black ; remainder of lower plumage with rump and upper tail-
coverts white ; tail white, except the terminal half of the middle
pair of feathers and a broad band on the tip of the others, which
are black. Soon after the autumn moult the tips of the crown-
feathers become reduced, and the crown is much whiter than
before. When these feathers become still more worn, the crown
has a tendency to exhibit patches of black. There is no other
seasonal change of plumage.
Female. Resembles the female of S. picata, but the upper plu-
mage is more sandy ; the chin, throat, and breast are light fulvous,
very little darker than the remainder of the lower plumage.
The young resemble the adult female, but are mottled below.
After the first autumn the males are blackish brown with broad
brown fringes, and the crown is always conspicuously paler than
Bill and legs black ; iris brown (Hume).
Length about 7 ; tail 2*7 ; wing 3'6 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from
Distribution. A constant resident in the plains of the Punjab,
Sind, and Eajputana, extending in this latter area as far south only
as Jodhpur and Sambhar ; and apparently not passing east of the
Jumna river. This species extends on the west to Kandahar. It
appears to be somewhat rare, but I have seen specimens killed in
the above localities in every month of the year except May and
Seebohm records this bird from the cultivated districts of Turk-
estan, apparently on the authority of Severtzoff ; but this gentleman
states (S. F. iii, p. 429) that S. luc/ens, Licht., of his Turkestan list,
is nothing but S. morio or S. hendcrsoni, and consequently there
are now no grounds for stating that S. capistrata occurs in Turk-
Habits, <Jr. Nothing is known of the nidificatiou of this species.
620. Saxicola opistholeuca. Strickland's Chat.
Saxicola opistholeuca, Stricld., Jard. Co)itr. Orn. 1840, p. 60 ; Blyth,
Cat. p. 167; Blanf. $ Dresser, P. Z. S. 1874, p. 229: Butler $
Hume, S. F. iii, p. 475 ; Hume, Cat. no. 488 ; Seebohm, Cat. B.
M. v, p. 376; Biddulph, ll>\*, 1881, p. 55; Scully, Ibis, 1881.
p. 441 : Biddulph, Ibis, 1882, p. 276 ; Barnes, Birds Bom. p. 201.
Saxicola leucoroides, Guerin, apud Jerd. B. 1. ii, p. 130.
The Indian White-tailed Stone-Chat, Jerd.
Coloration. Male. The whole plumage black except the rump
and upper and under tail-coverts ; tail white, except the terminal
half of the middle pair of feathers and a broad band at the tip of
the others, which are black. There appears to be no seasonal
change of plumage.
Female^ liesembles the females of S. picata and 8. capistrata in
general /olour, but is very dusky throughout and has the ear-
coverts a rich brown.
Bill, legs, and feet black ; iris dark brown (Bine/ham).
Length about 6-5 ; tail 2-7 ; wing 3*6 ; tarsus 1 ; bill from