the world, that rejoices at every strife in the camp of the holy ones.
Trembling will seize them at the unity in the spirit among those that
firmly trust upon the Incarnate Word ; for they have a supicion that the
Almighty is with them who trust in his promise : " All that ye will ask
the Father in my Name, he will do,"
The Lord distributed, in the days of his Apostles, divers gifts and
powers to his primitive witnesses, because neither the individual, nor
whole communities, could receive the fulness of the truth which He Himself
is. But He has promised to them, and to all *vho through their word
should believe on His Name, his Spirit, that should lead them into
all truth. It is enjoined upon the individual believer,, as well as upon
the communities which are members of the body of Christ, that they should
grow in grace and in the knowledge of Him, until we all come to unity in
faith. Such growth prospers in nurturing the healthy sap of life, which
the branch receives from the Vine, and in cleansing it from the wild shoots.
As the particular Churches have received from the Lord particularly to
cultivate one side of the saving truth, they will fulfil their calling in
retaining and further developing it. To every party, however, adheres
some error or fault ; and therefore, by interchange with their Brethren, who
have each to cultivate their respective talent, they must be purged. On that
account we acknowledge with you, beloved Brethren, that the unity in the
Evangelical Church, being prepared by the Spirit of God in our days
among the different sections of her, does not consist in giving up the
peculiarity of every respective Church. We observe clearly the working
of the Spirit, in the higher respect with which every denomination meets
the other, including self-respect, and in the consciousness of every sister-
Church approaching the other â€” not to be crushed by her, but to live more
purely and fully in the bond of the Spirit and of love. Thus the
exchange of gain, from a deeper search of Biblical Truth, will become
livelier; and the joy at the fulfilment of the particular task committed to
each denomination will be more heartfelt ; and the striving for an entire
peace among them will no more be conducted as that of antagonists, but
as that of children in one family, filled with equal zeal to prepare joy to
Xll APPENDIX A.
the Father by their unity, notwithstanding all the variety of their gifts
and administrations, 1 Cor. xii. 5.
From such a Union we expect a double blessing : first, the promotion of
the common work of the Lord, of the spread of the Bible â€” together with
a deeper insight into Biblical Truth, of the Missionary cause, and of
those institutions that proceed from the spirit of saving love. But then,
we do hope also, that the world will receive from this Union of the
preachers of the Gospel, adhering to the fundamental Articles of the
Evangelical Confessions, a more lively impression, that the Lord Jesus is of
a truth with his disciples. Should this impression be to some a savour of
death unto death, â€” to others it will be surely a savour of life unto life. The
firmer we unite our hands in'the Spirit, and stand allied in opposition to the
world, to conquer all that in science and life appears to be engendered by
the world's spirit, â€” (the more dangerous, where, under the specious pretext
of Christianity, it opposes the Gospel) â€” the more confidently may we hope,
that we shall not beat the air,, but that we shall wound even to the
marrow the enemy that worketh in the children of unbelief.
We salute you, dear Brethren, from Him who was dead, and is alive
from everlasting to everlasting. His grace be with your consultations !
Konigsberg, in Prussia, the 31st July, 1846.
Doctor of Divinity and Philosophy, Superintendent and Pastor of the Haberberg
Church; by order of the Evangelical Ministers that have been assem-
bled in a Pastoral Conference on the 8th and 9th July.
VI. FROM THE EVANGELICAL CHURCH AT MORGES.
The Evangelical Church of Morges, in the Canton de Vaud, Switzer-
land, having learned that M. George Fisch, pastor of the Evangelical
Church at Lyons, is going to London to be present at the great assembly
of the Evangelical Alliance, have resolved to request him to be, to the
said assembly, the medium of their sentiments of sympathy with the
great and good work which it has undertaken, to express to it their
entire adhesion to the principles it professes, and to assure it that their
prayers accompany it in its noble labours, that the Lord may deign to
crown them with success.
Given at Morges, August 3, 1846, in the name of the Church, by the
Members of its Council,
L. Burnier, Senior Pastor, President.
VII. ADDRESS FROM DANTZIC.
Dant.zic, August 5, 1840.
Rev. Sirs, dear Brethren in the Lord Jesus Christ,
It is with heartfelt, joy and great thanksgiving to the Lord's mercy
that I received, this July 20th, your kind and important letter, dated
11 July; to which was adjoined your Committee's honourable proposi-
tion of my person as corresponding member of the proposed Evangelical
Alliance. As it has been long since, I dare say from eight to ten years,
my greatest desire, to prepare the execution of a similar plan of uniting
all true confessors of the one divine Lord and Saviour, (which I have pub-
licly and largely exposed in my work, entitled, "Sketches of Travels
through England, France, Switzerland, Italy, and Germany, Leipsic, 1843
â€” 1814, 2 vol."), I did not, nor could I, hesitate for a moment ; firstly*,
in underwriting the form you have sent to me for that purpose, and to
return it hereby to your Office with sincere thanks : secondly, in holding
it my duty to labour, with all ardour and strength given to me, although
small, to begin instantly the publication of your plan, and the form-
ation of a Branch Society in this town, as well as in this province of
Prussia. To that end I thought it best to begin with convocating those
of my ecclesiastical Reverend Brethren here, who, I knew, inclined to that
purpose. In the assembly, held July 27th, things were earnestly dis-
cussed and weighed; whereafter ten of those present did subscribe the
written scheme I had prepared, obliging thereby themselves to advance
and propagate this holy Christian undertaking amongst their respective
flocks. Tou will find their names in the margin of this present. Some
others of the attendants were, in two or three points, not totally concord-
ant, and wished for some delay for deliberation. I hope they will
consent afterwards. I am sure, my Reverend Brethren, that we shall find
in this province, not only a great many Clergymen, but also individuals
of all classes heartily consenting in working with us.
But there is yet, for this moment, a hindrance against quickly further-
ing this scheme, by want of a sufficient quantity of copies of your
interesting writing, translated into German ; A Brief Summary of
Facts in Reference to the proposed Evangelical Alliance. London ;
A. B. Vogel, High Street, Camberwell, 1846. Seeing, in the
premitted announcement, that the Berlin bookseller, Mr. Duncker, has
been provided with copies thereof, I have instantly written to him,
to send me, as soon as possible, 150 or 200. Awaiting his answer, I
am meanwhile obliged to work in my neighbourhood with the single copy
in my hand. In case of Mr. Duncker's being unable to fulfil my demand,
I am willing to cause a re-impression of the said tract here.
As to the kind and estimable invitation of your honourable Committee
to attend your great London Meeting, on the 19th of August, I regret
very much to be hindered by several circumstances from following it.
For, being, even in these weeks, returned from a short journey in northern
XIV APPENDIX A.
Germany, where I have furthered, as far as possible, your plan, (which
was also mine before I received your kind letter), amongst the
300 or 400 brethren assembled in Berlin on the 9th â€” 12th of June, and
likewise in Leipsic and Breslau, I am not permitted, either by Church
Government or by my conscience, to leave twice, in so short a time, my
flock, in these turbulent times. But we all here will not forget to assist
your Christian Meeting with our devoted prayers, as we likewise agree
to your proposition of praying on every Mondaj 7 , b.n., individually as
well as assembled, wdien opportunity is given, for the effusion of the Holy
Ghost on his Evangelical Christian Church.
You will, my dear sirs, much oblige me and all friends of the Evan-
gelical Alliance here, in communicating the report of your meetings,
which I hope instantly will be printed, adjoining upon the address the
German word, " Ecclesiastical Affair," to diminish the postage, sending
it by Hamburgh ; or, in case of its being too voluminous, to send it gra-
tuitous^, with the other copies destined for Germany, by a Berlin
bookseller, under my address.
Finally, I pray my dear Reverend Brethren to give me a definite and
accurate notice of the limits of this country, which your Committee has
pleased to assign to my labour ; and likewise to make me acquainted with
the names of the other corresponding members proposed for Germany,
principally for Prussia, and perhaps especially in this my province of
Eastern and Western Prussia.
Recommending you, my dear Sirs, and your holy work, with ardent
and assiduous supplication, to the care and mercy of our divine Lord
and Saviour, I am, with great respect and affection,
Yours, in the Name of Christ Jesus,
Archdeacon at Dantzic, and Corr. Member of the Evangelical Alliance.
Names of the Subscribers to the Evangelical Alliance from July 27,
till August 5.
W. Blech, First Minister at S. Trinitat.
A. Blech, Minister at S. Salvator.
Schnaass, Archdeacon at S. Catharin.
Dr. Hopfner, Minister at S. Marien.
Tornwald, Minister at S. Leichnam.
Hepner, Minister at S. Johan.
Scheffer, Minister at S. Trinitat.
V. Schowen, Clergyman at Allerburg.
Meller, Clergyman at Praust.
W. Otto Diettein, Licentiate Theological Doctor in Konigsberg.
Johann Gotllieb Kohxy, Merchant.
VIII. LETTER FROM THE REV. DR.MERLE D'AUBIGNE TO THE
CHAIRMAN OF THE LONDON PROVISIONAL COMMITTEE.
August 9th, 1846.
Dear Sir Culling,
As I anticipated when I wrote to you from Geneva, I am detained
at the Baths until the end of August, and am in consequence obliged to
deny myself the great pleasure that the Meeting of the 19th would
Not being able, personally, to propose a motion that I have much at
heart, may I, through you, request the Committee to undertake it, and to
register it upon their minutes ?
It relates to the conversion of three Protestant provinces of Russia
through the instrumentality of the Greek clergy. Ihere are already
more than 30,000 converts in Livonia; and things are advancing so
rapidly, that one cannot but fear lest the whole of the three provinces
should soon abandon the Reformed faith.
The newspapers have related the representations made to the Emperor
Nicholas on the subject, by the deputies of the Protestant provinces : but
even on the Continent, persons are almost totally ignorant of the
circumstances. Fortified by information on the subject, from the best and
most authentic sources, I feel I ought to bring this great iniquity before
the notice of that universal Evangelical meeting which is to be held in
The Dutchies of Livonia, Courland, and Esthonia, were subdued by the
Russians towards the commencement of the last century, after a most
bloody war, in the course of which all the cities were destroyed, with the
exception of Riga, Pernau, and Revel. A treaty made in 1710, secured
to them the Evangelical religion, according to the Augsburgh Confession,
as the only religion of the country ; and further treaties between Sweden
(to whom these dutchies formerly belonged) and Russia, such as that of
Nystaedt in 1721, and of Aboer in 1743, moreover declared, that the Church
was to be preserved, such as it then existed. Any other mode of worship,
excepting in the private houses of the foreign ambassadors, with closed
doors, was illegal ; and the children of mixed marriages were brought up
Protestants. During the time of Peter the Great, these treaties were
observed. Under the reign of the Empresses Elizabeth and Catherine II.
they began to be neglected ; and in 1794, an ukase, issued in 1721 with
respect to the Swedish prisoners of war who were carried to Siberia,
was applied to these provinces ; by virtue of which the children of mixed
marriages were obliged to be brought up in the Greek religion.
But under the present Emperor, the violation of the treaties has made
immense progress; and, instead of the conservative principles which one
might have expected to predominate in that government, the most radical
XVI APPENDIX A.
and even revolutionary principles seem to prevail, little as such could be
expected from an Emperor of Russia. In 1837 or 1830, a Greek bishop
was fixed at Riga, where there had never yet been one. For a short
time he remained inactive; but soon his emissaries were sent round the
eountry to labour for converts.
In 1841, while these provinces suffered under a severe famine, the poor
people were assured, that if they became converts to the Greek religion,
they should be removed into a fertile district in the south of Russia,
where they should be exempted from taxes, and from military service.
They came to Riga in crowds, from the wish to be removed into these
districts : the movement extended throughout the greater part of
Livonia : the peasants refused to work ; and the excitement rose to such
a pitch, that military force was obliged to be called in to restore tranquillity.
The Greek bishop and his clergy, the authors of these troubles, were
removed indeed from Riga, but were promoted to places of greater
importance. The bishop's successor at first conducted himself peaceably :
only the Russian Catechism and liturgy were translated into the language
of the country, (Esthonian and Lithuanian.)
In 1845 a Russian, named Michaelof, steward to a noble of the country,
having committed a considerable robber y, and being discovered, hanged
himself to avoid the public punishment of his crime. He was found,
recovered, and sent to St. Petersburg in order to be proceeded against.
As he understood the language of Lithuania, it was thought he might be
useful in the country ; the prosecution was withdrawn ; the}* made him a
Russian priest, and sent him back to Lithuania, where he became, under
the direction of the bishop, the principal agent in the conversions. They
renewed the same promises made some years before. While the first
time none of the peasants had become Greeks, they hastened now to
anoint all that presented themselves; having made them sign petitions in
the Russian language which they could not understand â€” in which they
thought they were asking the protection of the bishop for their temporal
interests, but where, in fact, they made them seek to be united to the
In February 1845, a Greek church was established at Riga for the
proselytes, where the service was held, in the forenoon, according to the
Greek rites, in the language of the country ; in the afternoon, the service
was according to the form of worship of the Moravian Brethren, to whom
the converts were before attached. Michaelof was the priest of this
church. At first each proselyte was richly rewarded; now the rate is
thirty copeks, about one shilling. Michaelof traversed the country,
provided with money, to anoint without delay all those who wished it ;
at the same time, a German called Burger, attached to the Governor-
General, traversed other districts to excite the same movement. It is
reported, that the Greek agents were provided with a dark room, by
means of which they showed them gigantic cows and sheep, telling them
that such were the animals of the country promised to them. The
APPENDIX A. XVII
images, vases, and sacerdotal ornaments required in the Russian worship,
were conveyed in a car ; and the Governor-General ordered, that each
proprietor should give the best place he was able, to celebrate the Greek
worship : they there fixed their pictures, &c. and anointed all who
presented themselves. The Greek clergy recognise Protestant baptism,
but the} 7 complete it by unction. By means of this roving church, as it
has been called, sometimes even three hundred men have been anointed
in one day.
They said to the peasants (and proved to them by quoting Daniel
xi. 38, 39, and xii. 1,) that the German Protestants were rent from the
ancient Christian faith, and had fallen under the power of Antichrist, and
that the Greek priest, Michaelof, was the great prince Michael spoken of
in Daniel xii., who fights for his people ; and that those only, who[cause
themselves to be inscribed in Michaelof 's book, would be delivered from
the power of Antichrist.
At Dorpat, and in the neighbourhood, thousands thus presented
themselves to the Greek priest. Several amongst them being drunk, he
sent to Petersburg to enquire, what he ought to do in such a case ; one
of the Members of the Senate, attached to the department of Foreign
Worship, (" des Cultes Etrangers") answered, that these people must be
accepted, in whatever state they presented themselves.
The movement was almost exclusively confined to the men; the
women were opposed to it. They pulled off* the crosses that had been
hung round their husband's necks, trampled the images under foot, and
would not allow their new-born infants to be baptized. All the children
of the converts, under seven, are considered as belonging to the Greek
Church; the converts are taught to make the sign of the cross ; they are
instructed in some outward practices; but religious instruction, in the
right sense, is not thought of. At the time of their conversion, they
make them sign a declaration in the Russian language, by which they
declare, that it is not to attain any temporal interests that they have
changed their religion.
Those who have become Greeks by anointing are definitively lost to
Protestantism : whoever sought to bring back a man who had been
attached to the Greek Church by anointing would encounter the most
The Greek religion, which had been interdicted in these provinces by
treaty, is now publicly called " the ruling religion ;" and the Lutheran
religion, which was alone to be professed, is now onlv called a tolerated
The latest journals announce, that the efforts continue for converting
the Protestants of these countries. A Member of the Russian Senate, who
has distinguished himself in the labours undertaken to reunite the Roman
Catholics to the Greek Church, said, if he had only a "carte blanche," he
would undertake, in three years, to reunite to the Greek religion all the
inhabitants of the three provinces of Livonia, Courland, and Esthonia.
XV111 APPENDIX A.
Up to this time they have laboured principally in first of these (which
is the largest) with a view to convert it.
The three provinces contained, in 1831, one million five hundred
thousand inhabitants : since that time the population has greatly in-
No doubt a voice musUbe raised against these efforts: but Pro-
testant Ministers are forbidden to speak of the differences of Confes-
sions, or to strengthen their parishioners beforehand against adhering
to the Greek Church. The Russians themselves are agitated by these
couversions : some peasants of the Governments of Witebok and Ples-
kovv, although already Greeks, have asked to be registered, so that they
might belong, they said, " to the new religion, by which lands are
A few of the proselytes evince a bitter repentance, and have asked the
Governor-general's permission to return to their religion : he has sought
to calm them, without granting their request, â€” which, in fact, would be
impossible, as I have said. Other proselytes show great obduracy and
contempt: " All religions are alike indifferent to us ; and, if we have that
of the Emperor, he will know well how to protect us, and give us the
lands of the nobles."
Unfortunately the Protestants themselves have faults to reproach
themselves wi L h. We must distinguish three classes of persons in this
country : â€”
1st. The country people or peasants, who are natives of the country,
and speak Esthonian and Lettois; 2nd. The nobility, who are of German
origin, who speak German, and are descended from the Teutonic Knights,
who conquered the country seven or eight centuries ago. 3rd. The
Moravian Brethren, who came into these provinces about a century
ago, and at a time when faith was nearly extinguished there, as it
was throughout the whole Continent. They revived piety there, and
acquired numerous adherents, the greatest number of whom are to
be found among the original inhabitants of the country. It is reck-
oned, that forty thousand Livonians are members of the Moravian
The Lutheran pastors, vexed by seeing the greatest part of their
flocks joining the Moravian meetings, caused the peasants to be forbid-
den to attend these meetings. The Government and the Greek Clergy
fomented this division between the Lutherans and Moravians :
they then profited by it : and the bishop of Riga was delighted to
permit, in his new church, meetings, which were everywhere else strictly
* * * * * *
The people are thus irritated at the same time against their lords, and
against their pastors, both of whom are Germans. They look upon the
former as opposed to their temporal interests, and to the latter as op-
posed to their spiritual interests ; and blindly throw themselves into the
arms of the Russians and the Greek Clergy.
APPENDIX A. XIX
Tlic nobility and the pastors begin to feel their duties: several amongst
them have done so for a long time : hut the actual tribulation appears to
have opened the eyes of those who until the present moment had them
closed. They seek to be reconciled to the people, and to do them good ;
they would wish to keep them in the Evangelical faith, but it is to be
feared it is too late.
Pious Christians in these countries â€” and they are pretty numerous â€” arc
greatly afflicted : they cry to God; they meet for prayer; they ask then-
Brethren to intercede for them at the throne of grace : but they arc
persuaded that they can in no other way help them.
r These are the most faithful subjects of the Russian Empire : when there
were revolutions in Russia, they were orderly and quiet, knowing that
God requires obedience to the higher powers: and they would, therefore,
now fear any proceedings, that could call in question their loyalty and
obedience to their sovereign.
The only object of this letter is, to beg of you to communicate to the
Brethren assembled in London, the dangers which threaten to uproot three
of the most ancient Protestant Churches of Europe ; and to commend this
object to the prayers of all. I know not whether you will be able to do
When the Emperor Nicholas went to Rome last winter, the Pope knew
how to plead the cause of Russian Roman Catholics, who were exposed
to the same dangers ; and no doubt that conversation will not have been
useless to them. It seemed to me, that it belonged to the Evangelical
Alliance, to take to heart the position of Protestants in Russia, as it
belonged to the Pope to intercede in favour of his adherents. " The
weapons of our warfare are spiritual, and mighty through God."
I take my leave of you, Sir Culling, begging you to accept my
compliments, and to present them to those Brethren, of all Denominations
and of every Country, who shall be assembled with you. May the
invisible Head of the Church Himself preside at your assemblies, and
cause you to experience his adorable presence.
Your faithful servant,
(Signed) Merle D'Aubigne, D.D.
Sir Culling Eardky Smith.
IX. ADDRESS FROM SEVERAL MISSIONARIES, AND OTHER
CHRISTIAN BRETHREN, AT THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE.
Cape Town, Cape of Good Hope, February 10, 1840.
Beloved Brethren, â€”
We have learned, with unfeigned joy and thankfulness to God, that
you have lately been moved â€” we doubt not, by a gracious impulse from
on high â€” to concert measures for promoting an extended Union among
XX APPENDIX A.
Christians of various denominations in Great Britain and other parts of the
world; and that your first Conference, held at Liverpool in the month of