convinced, will be the result. I need not be reminded, Sir Culling,
that it would be improper for me to detain your attention much
longer. Independent of the physical exhaustion which attends these
Meetings, one is more or less subject to those lively emotions,
SECOND BAY AlFTERNOOW BBfSION. 71
which in themselves really rentier us unfit for the expression of
feelings which have a place in our hearts. But I would con-
clude, in supporting the Resolution, with the earnest desire and
prayer, that the love of Christ our common Saviour may constrain
us, and guide us, and draw us more and more closely together ; and
that that blessed Spirit, who descended upon the Saviour as a dove,
may teach and help us to be humble followers of the meek and
lowly Jesus, so that we may adorn His doctrine and walk in His
steps. And oh ! may the result of this present meeting be, to give
renewed occasion to many who are watching our proceedings, to say,
â when they shall see how determined we are to lose sight of all
little differences, and act as members of the one Body of Christ,
â w See how these Christians love one another ! "
Rev. M. Kuntze. â I rise with diffidence in my own abilities,
fearing that I shall not be able to express myself in such a way as
to be fully understood. But I have seen and heard, in the
assemblies which I have been privileged to attend, so much of
brotherly love and sympathy, that I trust you will bear with me
for a few moments. I do not intend to make what is generally
called a speech : I feel myself insufficient to do so, but I am "
going to state, briefly, the position in which we at present stand in
Germany, and what the Evangelical Alliance might expect from
us, or rather, what we shall expect from the Evangelical Alliance.
You have heard from my excellent friend, Dr. Tholuck, the great
exertions made in Germany against Infidelity, that is to say,
Rationalism. The number of true faithful Gospel preachers, has, I
may almost say, increased from day to day : so that those who were
against the Bible, fearing that they might lose their ground, assembled
together, about two years ago, in a large meeting, striving to rouse the
whole nation against Christ, against the Bible, and against vital
Christianity. But, thanks be to God, they did not reach the heart
of the nation ; they only touched its surface ; the nation itself
turned away from such proceedings. But this circumstance caused
all the friends of our Lord and Saviour to come closely together ;
pastoral conferences were held, for mutual prayer and conversation ;
and we felt more and more, that we could not stand alone, but
wanted assistance, even if we should seek it from abroad. Any
part of the army which can be separated from the main bodv,
though courageous, may still lose its courage; and, in this spiritual
conflict, we must acknowledge, that the larger number is on
the side of the enemy, and the smaller number on the side of
the true and faithful followers of the Lord Jesus Christ. Still it is
an increasing minority, and that is something which should cheer
72 EVANGELICAL ALLIANCE.
us. Fearing, however, that we in Germany were too weak to
stand against such a majority, we received with great joy, and
most gladly responded to, the call of our English Brethren for the
formation of a universal Evangelical Alliance. I have here in my
hand documents from different parts of the Country. There is
one letter written by order of a Pastoral Conference which has
been held at Konigsberg in the eastern part of Prussia, congratulating
this Meeting and wishing it God-speed. I have here another letter
in my hand, agreed to by the Pastoral Conference of Berlin, in the
centre of the kingdom ; and another letter, signed by several
ministers in Westphalia ; so that here we have documents from
different parts of Germany, wishing for the formation of such
an Evangelical Alliance as they may be able to take part in. They
wish, that there may be an increase of love and brotherly affection
among Christians of different denominations ; they wish, that
Christians should remember each other before the Throne of Grace ;
and they wish, that there should be a Confederation formed of all
who believe, â that the Lord may hear united prayer for the
outpouring of the Holy Spirit upon His own Church. I have
further to say, that I have also some single signatures, approving
of your principles ; one is that of a man well known to you and ,
to England, I mean Dr. Krummacher. History is made for our
instruction ; and God has taught us in Germany a very serious
lesson, which I apply to this Evangelical Alliance. The great
Napoleon, seeing that he could not conquer Germany if all the
various States were joined together, divided the interests of the
north from those of the south, and those of the east from those of
the west ; and the consequence was, that â each separate part not
being able to withstand him â he took one after the other, and added
it to his dominions ; and so the liberty of Germany was destroyed.
But when they found out how they were conquered, they joined
hands, they took up arms together, and at last they overcame him.
Dear friends, Brethren and Fathers, there was one day when all
the different armies met together at " La Belle Alliance" Let the
standard of the Evangelical Alliance be the standard, under which
we shall all rally, and we shall also overcome those enemies who
have heretofore prevailed against us.
Before this Resolution was put from the Chair, the Rev. Thomas
Binney rose to suggest a verbal alteration in the terms of it, and
pointed out the importance of accurately considering every ex-
pression which the Conference might adopt. These Resolutions were
very different from those which were usually passed at Exeter Hall,
which were only intended to give occasion for a speech. The
SECOND DAY AFTERNOON SESSION. 73
Resolutions they were now passing would be the permanent
records of the Alliance ; and therefore he thought they should
their serious attention, as a matter of business, to weighing their
phraseology, and guarding the accuracy with which every sentiment
Hereupon a conversation ensued, in which Hon. and Rev. B. W.
Noel, Rev. Drs. Buchanan and Beaumont, Rev. J. iMarsh, of
New York, Rev. Drs. Bunting, Reed, and Carlile, Rev. H.
Girdlestone, and several other Gentlemen took part. Some
verbal amendments were suggested, and one (which was very
slight) was by general consent adopted, and embodied in the
Resolution as moved and seconded.
In the midst of this discussion,
Rev. R. W. Kyle rose, and said, in a very solemn spirit, that he
really felt that, in some respects, this was the most anxious of all
the Resolutions they had to pass. Up to the moment of putting
this Resolution from the Chair, every one was perfectly free and
uncommitted ; but, from the moment it was affirmed by the
Conference, every man who held up his hand for it was implicated
in the present movement. Now he could bear witness, that the
Resolution had undergone the most careful revision. It had been
read, not three times, but rather three dozen times; and he wished
his dear and honoured Brethren would just look at one part of the
Resolution, which he thought had been overlooked, and which he
thought would show that this Alliance only proposed to give the
Church of Christ an opportunity of doing so and so. And could
any one deny that the formation of such an Alliance would really
afford this opportunity to every member of the Church of Christ ?
There was no difficulty in the Resolution ; and he felt so strongly
the importance of a really unanimous vote on this subject, that he
did hope and trust his dear Brethren would take the Resolution as it
stood, after all the prayer, and all the consideration â the large
amount of fraternal consideration, which it had received. He further
felt that it would be worthy of the Conference, if, before they
attempted to pass the Resolution, they were to ask God's blessino-
upon it, and then to praise God after it had passed unanimously,
as he hoped it would be.
Rev. A. S. Thelwall concurred especially in the last sug-
gestion. He believed that they could not pass the Resolution with
too deep feelings of devotion, or with too deep feelings of self-
abasement before God, for the evils which were referred to
in that and the preceding Resolution. He trusted they would
have a single and entire dependence upon the God of all
74 EVANGELICAL ALLIANCE.
grace, to enable them with right feelings, and in a right spirit, to
pass that very important Resolution, â pledging them, as it did, to
Christian Union one with another, and to co-operation one with
another in those objects in which they could agree to work together,
with one mind and heart, and, as it were, with one hand, for the
glory of their common Lord and Saviour, and for the welfare,
the enlargement, and the edification of His Church upon the
After some further conversation,
The Chairman asked, whether the Conference wished the
discussion to proceed, or whether he should now put the question ?
(Cries of " Vote.")
The Amendment proposing the omission of the article " the,"
before " members of the Church of Christ," was carried by a large
Other verbal amendments were then proposed and negatived,
The Chairman suggested, that before coming to a vote on the
Original Motion, the Members of the Conference should rise, and
spend a few moments in solemn and silent prayer.
This was done.
The Resolution was then put, and carried unanimously, the
Members remaining standing.
The Doxology was sung ; after which on the suggestion of,
Rev. Dr. Raffles,
The Members of the Conference, under the evident influence of
very solemn, kindly, and delightful feelings, exchanged cordial
oreetings by shaking hands one with another. Hereupon,
Rev. Dr. Bunting said, he found it impossible to shake hands
literally with all the Brethren present : but he trusted they would
accept the assurance from him, that he " shook hands with them all
in his heart."
Rev. W. Maynard said â He was utterly unable to express the
feelings with which he stood before the Conference. He thanked
God, that both he and they had been brought to that Meeting. He
believed that it was the Spirit of God who had formed the Evan-
gelical Alliance, and in that Spirit must be their future trust.
Rev. A. D. Campbell said, that, having from the commencement
of the Movement been identified with it, he would not be doing
justice to his own convictions without saying a word, â though he felt
considerable difficulty in doing so, under the strong emotions which
pervaded his heart. That word would be one of solemn warning.
They must not expect better treatment than their Lord and Saviour.
SECOND DAY AFTERNOON SESSION. 75
Many obstacles remained, and much opposition would be raised
against them ; and much prayer should be offered at the Throne of
Grace by all who were interested in this holy and solemn Confede-
ration, that they might be enabled to meet what assuredly was
Rev. Mr. McCrone, of the United States, could not describe
what he had felt during the passing of the last Resolution,
virtually establishing that Alliance, the prospect of which had been
his consolation and his hope in coming across the Atlantic. That
was the last night of his stay among them ; in a few days more he
would be re-crossing the great waters : and now he could return (to
to borrow an idea from the aborigines of his own Country) with
the knowledge, that the tomahawk and the scalping knife were
buried, never more to be disinterred to the injury of their fellows ;
and the calumet of peace had been handed round through that
Assembly, filled with the incense of praise. Much heavenly
pleasure had he enjoyed while he had been there ; and now, in
bidding them an affectionate farewell, he prayed that the dews of
Hermon might descend upon the tree which they had just planted,
and that the result might prove it to be indeed a tree of the
Lord's own planting, bringing forth those fruits of holiness which
the Gospel required, to the praise and glory of God.
The Chairman then enquired, whether the Conference would go
on with other business ?
After some observations from Rev. W. Bevan, and Rev. E.
Bickersteth, the sense of the Meeting being clearly in favour
of an immediate adjournment, the Chairman decided accordingly.
Several names were added to the Business Committee.
Rev. R. W. Kyle engaged in prayer, and pronounced the
The Conference adjourned to Friday Morning, at 10 o'clock a.m.
THIED DAYâ August 21st,
The Conference re-assembled at 10 o'clock, a. m.
Rev. Dr. Bunting moved, and Rev. J. Angell James seconded,
" That the Rev. Norman M'Leod preside over the Devotional Exercises."
The Brethren then united in singing 122nd Psalm, Scotch
The Chairman. â It would be very presumptuous in me to
occupy any portion of your time by any remarks of my own.
Believe me, I appreciate the delicate and considerate kindness,
which has placed me in this Chair. I am grateful for it : I trust I
may say, I am humbled by it : I never will forget it. Allow me
one word, to remind you, that we are entering this day upon the
consideration of very difficult and delicate questions. Let us be
solemnized by the thought, and deeply feel our responsibility to
God and to the Christian Church ; for if, by the blessing of God,
we do succeed in separating in peace, as we have met in peace, this
Conference will be an incalculable blessing to the World. But
should it be otherwise, through our sins and infirmities, we shall
have done incalculable injury to the cause of Christian Union.
Let us, then, fly to God, as to our Refuge and Strength ; He has
never failed us yet ; and sure I am, that, if in humble confidence we
ask His favour, and desire in sincerity to promote His glory, He
will withhold no good thing from us.
The Chairman then read Psalm 145.
Rev. W. McIlwaine engaged in prayer.
The 121st Psalm, Scotch Version, was then sung, and the
Chairman read Romans 12th chapter.
The Chairman said â He was most happy to be able to contradict
a rumour, which had spread that morning, of the death of the Rev.
James Hamilton. This, thank God, was not true. And as they
all knew the warm interest taken by Mr. Hamilton in the object
for which they had assembled, he suggested that the next friend
who engaged in prayer should offer up special supplications for the
speedy recovery of their brother's health.
THIRD DAY â MOBNING SESSION. //
Rev. Dr. H. F. Burder engaged in prayer.
Sir Culling Eardley Smith then took the Chair.
Rev. W. Sevan read the Minutes of the previous Session,
which were confirmed. Mr. Bevan stated that, in accordance with
the instructions of the Conference, 1000 copies of the Ada and
Agenda, of the first as well as the succeeding Sessions, had been
printed ; so that complete copies could now be obtained.
Rev. Dr. Steane announced, that Rev. E. Bickersteth would
move the adoption of the Basis.
Rev. Edward Bickersteth moved: â
" That with a view, however, of furnishing the most satisfactory explanation, and
guarding against misconception, in regard to their design, and the means of its
attainment, they deem it expedient explicitly to state as follows : â
" That the parties composing the Alliance shall be such persons only as hold and
maintain what are usually understood to be Evangelical views, in regard to
the matters of doctrine understated, viz. : â
" 1. The Divine Inspiration, Authority, and Sufficiency of the Holy Scriptures.
"2. The Unity of the Godhead, and the Trinity of Persons therein.
u 3. The utter Depravity of human nature in consequence of the Fall.
''4. The Incarnation of the Son of God, His work of Atonement for sinners of
mankind, and His Mediatorial Intercession and Reign.
" 5. The Justification of the sinner by Faith alone.
" 6. The work of the Holy Spirit in the Conversion and Sanctification of the
" 7. The right and duty of Private Judgement in the interpretation of the Holy
"8. The Divine institution of the Christian Ministry, and the authority and per-
petuity of the ordinances of Baptism and the Lord's Supper.
" 9. The Immortality of the Soul, the Resurrection of the Body, the Judgement of
the world by our Lord Jesus Christ, with the Eternal Blessedness of the
righteous, and the Eternal Punishment of the wicked."
My beloved Brethren, it is in weakness, and fear, and much trem-
bling, that I rise to propose to you this important Resolution.
Not on account of the Resolution itself, but on account of my
own unworthiness and insufficiency to bring before you efficiently
such an all-important topic as the Basis of this Alliance. I feel
strengthened, however, in some degree, by the prayers which beloved
Brethren have already offered up for God's blessing on our delibera-
tions ; and I doubt not I shall be further strengthened, and enabled
to lay before you, the principles on which I think we should adopt
a summary so very weighty and important. I feel, first, the need of
it as a means of Union. Without it, our Alliance would be too
much like a political crusade against Popery, without any of those
Evangelical Principles of light and love, which commend them-
selves to the Christian mind; and in the form, maintenance, and
78 EVANGELICAL ALLIANCE.
diffusion of which, we hope to withstand Infidelity and Romanism.
There would be no strength in it ; for from such an attempted
union a large portion of the spiritually minded would at once recoil.
I feel, also, that an attempted union, without these principles,
would be merely a Confederation, sinking or neglecting the most
precious Truths, with nothing to give the devout Christian ground
of confidence, or motive for co-operation. What, then, has been
)the general plan which has guided our minds in compiling this
summary of Principles? It was this â that it should be general
enough to include the great proportion of real Christians ; not all
real Christians, for this was impossible, without sacrificing im-
portant Truths which ought, we believed, to be confessed. But, that
it might be seen, that we do not think none to be real Christians,
who hesitate to subscribe to some of those truths, we have added,
that " Its adoption is not to be considered as an assumption of the
right authoritatively to define the limits of Christian Brotherhood ;
but simply as an indication of the class of persons, whom, on the
whole, it is desirable to embrace within the Alliance." We thought
that it was important to have it general enough to include the
great proportion of real Christians ; but that it should also be
particular enough to exclude those who would impede or weaken
us, in regard to our objects and efforts. We can only be
thoroughly and completely united and combined, by a large
acknowledgment of great Truths in which we agree. Now, all my
dear Brethren will see and feel, that there are Truths more or less
vital in the Divine Word; some of which may be held in due
subordination, â the less to the greater, â the secondary to the
primary, â things important in themselves, to things essential. It is
on this principle, that the Resolution is proposed. We deeply feel,
that it is Truth â Divine Truth â Truth revealed in the Word of
God, which unites us. When the Apostle John is writing his
Second Epistle, he says, "The elder to the elect lady and her
children, whom I love in the Truth ; and not I only, but also
all they that have known the Truth ; for the Truth's sake
which dwelleth in us, and shall be with us for ever." Here we
see the great importance of that Truth, in which alone we can
truly love each other ; and the soul of all Divine Truth is Love. A
summary was, therefore, formed of the most vital Truths â Truths
of an eminently spiritual, holy, and sanctifying character: â and
Truths which we felt no bondage in declaring; for we all felt
unanimously, that it is " the Truth which makes us free." With
respect to the alterations which have since been made by the
Aggregate Committee, I was, I confess, at first, not in favour of any
THTKD PAY â MOBNING SESSION. 79
alteration, â having some fears, whether we should be able to cany
unanimously an additional Article. After having come together, in so
large a Conference on the former footing, I felt at first some
hesitation in making the addition : but in this I soon found I
was short-sighted. I did not look at the largeness of our work â at
the wide field which was gradually opening before us. My Scotch
Brethren, and my American Brethren, have helped me here. When
my beloved Brother, Dr. Symington, proposed, and Dr. Wardlaw
seconded, the addition to the fourth Article,* my whole mind
concurred with it : but I was afraid to consent, till I saw how the
other Brethren gradually came forward, and concurred in the
alteration. And it was singular enough, that, at the next Meeting,
my friend and beloved Brother, Dr. Keith, when I stated to
him that the Aggregate Committee had made that alteration, gave
me permission to propose his name to the Nomination Com-
mittee. He is going on an important Mission to Germany : may
the Lord bless him in it ! I may add, that he told me that
he felt comfort and assurance in going as a Member of the
Evangelical Alliance to the Brethren on the Continent, with
that Amendment subjoined. Other Brethren, from America,
shewed to me, and to us all, their peculiar dangers and diffi-
culties from Infidelity ill the form of Universalism ; and the
Calcutta Missionaries also explained the peculiar dangers they had
to contend with in India, from the infidelity of the Hindoos; and
we had their assurance, that our ninth Article would meet the
difficulties of the circumstances in which they were placed. And
when our Brethren from Germany had also shown us, how
Neologians deny the most awful Truths which we believe, I felt
that the Article, No. 9, was most precious and important. It em-
braces, lc the Immortality of the Soul, the Resurrection of the
Body, the Judgement of the World by our Lord Jesus Christ, with
the Eternal Blessedness of the righteous, and the Eternal Punish-
ment of the wicked." I recollected also, in reference to the import-
ance of making this addition now, that two departed saints, the Rev.
Josiah Pratt, first Secretary of the Bible Society, and the Rev. Joseph
Hughes, had told me, there would have been no difficulty in having
Prayer at the Meetings of the Bible Society, had it been agreed to at
the beginning: the difficulty was, in making the alteration afterwards.
I do, therefore, feel that we are under a deep debt of obligation to
our American Brethren for coming forward to suggest the addition.
* The Articles are here referred to in the order in which they stand in the
Resolution as originally proposed, p. 77. This order was afterwards altered ; the
Fourth became the Fifth, and the Ninth was made the Eighth. â EnrroR.
80 EVANGELICAL ALLIANCE.
It was worth their while to cross the Atlantic, to enable us to bring
forward such a proposition. I feel, also, that it was not right to
leave out all reference to the future state, and the future hopes of
the Church of God. " Knowing the terrors of the Lord," said the
Apostle, "we persuade men ;" and the recompence of the reward,
and the joy set before Him, affected our Lord Himself. Let me,
further, bring before you the way in which we were led to this
summary. Those who, like myself, were present at the first
Meeting in Liverpool, know well, in what doubt, anxiety, and
uncertainty we gathered together, as to the possible grounds on
which we might unite. They know the deeply interesting discussions
which took place then ; the earnest prayers which we poured forth ;
the delightful unanimity with which we came to our summary ; and
what thanksgivings, with joy of heart, we poured out to our God on
that occasion. And I cannot but say, that, at first, we were all
startled by the danger which seemed to await the proposal of any
addition to the number of those Articles. But the case of our
American Brethren has awakened our minds to the great import-
ance of including the ninth Article in the summary of the Princi-
ples of Union. What they suggested, the calm discussion which
followed, the earnest prayers for Divine guidance which were
poured forth, the gradual way in which one after another
concurred in the adoption of that Article, the general unanimity