Ezekiel Hopkins.

The doctrine of the two covenants, wherein the nature of original sin is at large explain'd ... : with a discourse of glorifying God in his attributes online

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Two Covenants,

Wherein the

Nature of Original Sin

Is at large Explain'd :

St. Paul and Sr. James Reconcil'd in the

Great Article of Juftification.


Difcourfe of Glorifying GOD
in his Attributes.

By the Right Reverend


Late Lord Bifhop of London-Derry.
Now firft Publifh'd from his Original Manufcripft

LONDON: Printed for Richard Smith at Exeter-
Exchange in the Strand. MDCGXII.



EVERAL Pieces of this
Right Reverend and very
Learned Prelate's Writings,
as well thofe few publifh'd
by himfelf in his Life-time,
as fome others put out fince
his Death, having been of late colleded
into one Volume, and Printed in Folio
under the Title of his Works ; it is eafie to
forefee the Objections that will immediate-
ly be made againft thefe Difcourfes, and
whatever elfe fhall now pretend to come
Abroad under the Name of this great Au-
thor ; as either that their being Genuine
will be much fufpected, or fuppofing they
are fo, yet they appear with all the Difad-
vantage of Tofthitmous Pieces. »

This makes it neceilary to give the Rea-
der the trouble of a fhort Preface, to fa-
tis'fie him that there is no manner of Rea-

A 3


T R E F A C E.

fon for either of thefe Prejudices againft
the Writings he is here prefented with :
But that the Learned Bifhop, whofe Name
they bear, was undoubtedly the Author
of them ; and that they are as correft and
finifli'd as any of the other Pieces which
have been Printed fince the Bifhop's

For this prefent Volume, and two or
three more which are defign'd to follow,
are publifh'd, as the Title fets forth, from
that Excellent Mans own Original Manu-
scripts ; all written with his own Hand.

This muft be acknowledged as an unde-
niable Anfwer to the former of thofe Ob-
jeftions, and may in a great meafure give
Satisfaction to the latter.

Now all this the Manufcripts themfelves
do unqueftionably atteft, as may be feen
by any one that defires to be further fatif-
fied in this Point ; by perufing the Ori-
ginals, which, to this end, are lodged in
Mr. Smith" 's Hands.

Thefe Volumes of Manufcripts contain
great part of what hath been already pub-
lilh'd under this Learned Author's Name,
(among which is one of the three Ser-
mons put out by himfelf ) and alfo feveral
large Difcourfes which have not yet feen
the Light.

put there is another Argument which is
yet more conclufive, and that is, that one



of thofe three Sermons which the Bifliop
publifli'd himfelf, and which is therefore
beyond all queftion both his genuine Work,
and finifh'd with his laft Hand, does fo
very little vary in the Print from that Co-
py of it which we have in one of thefe
Manufcript Volumes, that it is evident the
Author's laft Hand was put to it before he
tranfcribed it for the Prefs.

Now all the reft are written as fair and
legibly as that Sermon which was certain-
ly iinifti'd, becaufe publifli'd by the Bifliop
himfelf ; from whence it is certain, that
thefe Manufcript Volumes are all of a
piece, and that nothing is contain'd in any
of them, but what the Author had put his
laft Hand to ; and this, by the way, is
another very good Argument of thefe Ma-
nufcripts being that Bifliop's Genuine

But to put thefe Points beyond all Con-
troverfie, I ihall refer the Reader to the
learned Works themfelves, from which he
hath been detained but too long ; and in
thofe he will find that Exaftnefs of Me-
thod, that Beauty and Accuracy of Stile,
that Ferfpicuity of Expreffion, and thai-
Strength of Reafoning, which were all fo
peculiar to this great Author; that as they
difcover the Mafterly Pen of Bifliop Hop-
kins in every Line, I had almoft faid even
more than his Hand- writing : So they are



a plain Demonftration, that thefe Volumes
are more than^r/? Draughts, and do fur-
pafs even the laft Hand, and the molt ela-
borate Correttions, I will not fay of all, but
the Generality of other Writers.

I conclude with my hearty and unfeign-
ed Prayers, that this and what more is to
be publifh'd of that Incomparable Author's
Writings, may obtain the good End for
which he wrote 'em, and for which they are
fo admirably fitted, by a due Influence up-
on the Lives of all that read 'em ; and that
his Glory may be continually increas'd in
Heaven, by the daily Good thefe Pious
Works ftiall do on Earth.

IT>o hereby Cert if e, That the Original Co-
pies of all BiJhoj>Hopkins's Manufcripts
were put into my Hands, in order to have
thofe Printed, which had not yet been made
public 'k; and that I committed fuch of them
as yet lay by untaken notice of, to Mr. SmithV
Hands, to this furfofe ; the reft of them now
remaining in mine. As witnefs my Hand
this i %th Day of October, 1711.

Michael Hewetfon,

Late Archdeacon of Armagh in the
Kingdom of Ireland.



THE Doctrine of the Covenants is very
ufeful to be known Page 2,

And yet is generally very little known 5
What a Covenant is 4

Two things requisite to aftricl Covenant, viz. A
natural Freedom from each other in the Parties
contracting ibid.

And their mutual Qmfent to it f

On which account there can be no firict and pro-
per Covenant between God and Man 6
Nor are God's Tranf actions with Manflrillly and
properly a Law 8
But a mixture of Law and Covenant together


Two principal Covenants mentioned in Scripture 5

the Covenant of Works , and the Covenant of

Grace p

The former called The Righteoufuefs of the

Law ibid.

What is there meant by the Law *°

a A

A Table of Contents.

A Digreffton concerning the Agreement and the
Difference between the Law and the Gofpel

p. 13
According to their various Acceptations ibid.
A twofold Difference between them I f

An d a twofold Agreement 1 7

What is meant by Righteoufnefs 20

Which is either Qualitative, Inherent in the
Soul 2, 1

Or Relative, or Legal, to which is required 23
A Law eflabliflid to regulate our ABions, and

A per feci Conformity to that Law ibid.

The Law confifts of Pt ecept and Sanclion 2 f

According to which there is again a twofold Righ-
teoufnefs, either of Obedience, or of Satisfaction

The Promife of Life is annexed only to the for-
mer 16
Bach ofthefe is either perfonal or imputed ibid.
Why we cannot be perfonally Righteous in the for-
mer Senfe 27
And why not in the latter 28
Even though the Penalty be inflteled to fatisfie
God's Juftice 30
How the Sufferings of Chrifl were fatisfaBory 32
Without one of thofe\RighteoufneJfes Man cannot
be juftified, nor gain Heaven without them
both 3f
For the Covenant of Works is only fo far repealed
by that of Grace, as it required a perfonal, not
as it required a per fell Righteoufnefs 26
Several Proofs of this 37
Though we have no perfonal Righteoufnefs, yet


A Table of Contents.

our Saviour hath, both of Obedience and Sat if-
fatlion p. 40

Why Chrijl, who obeyed the Law, was bound to
fuffer the Venal ty of it ■ 43

He was under a twofold Law, the ordinary, and


That of the Mediator, by which he was obliged
to Suffer 44

God is f leafed to impute Chriffs Right eouf?iefs to
us, and how 4^

What is meant by his juftifying the Ungodly 47

The Cavil of the Papifts agahift imputed Righte-
oufnefs anfwered 48

Another Error concerning this Doctrine 49

It was neceffary that both Chriffs active and his
pa (Jive Right e oufnefs jhould be imputed to
us yo

This Right eoufnefs of Chrifl is made over to us by
Faith fz

From all which we may learn,

The true difference between the two Covenants 5- 4

What Influence Faith has into Gurjuflification ibid.

That Juflification and Salvation are to be expe-
lled on no other Terms than a perfect Righte-
oufnefs $j

That the Righteoufnefs which is of Works, and
that whkh is of Faith , differ only as to the
manner of being made ours ibid.

Of the Covenant of Works in particular j- o

The Tenor of it, and of what it confijls ibid.

Two Opinions concerning the Life promifed by
it 61

Whether Adam in Innocence may be faid to be

Immortal 64

What is meant by the Tree of Life 6f

a z That

A Table of Contents.

That Life was certainly a State of Happhiefi

p. 67

But far fiort of that prom? fed under the Covenant
of Grace 68

What Death is threatned by this Covenant 70

Not the utter Annihilation of the guilty Soul 71

Tet a lefs fever e Punifhment than that threatned
by the Covenant of Grace 72,

H)ir God verified this Threatning upon Adam 7 J

What was the Condition of the Covenant of
Works 74

The fame Obedience required by the Covenant of
Grace , except what fuppofes a finful Eflate 75

Adam was able to perform this Obedience j6

And was to perform it in his own Perfon 77

Which is the great difference between the two Co-
venants ibid.

Jlndfloews under which of them the fecond Adam
was made 78

The Temporal Afflitlions of Believers are no part
of the Curfe threatned by this Covenant jy

But ivflitled by God as Corrections^ only to mani-
fefi his Holinefs 80

Not as Pmiiflmients^ to fatisfie his Jufiice 8 1

The Comfort of this Refledion to a true Chrifiian
under his Sufferings 82

But the Sufferings of the Impeyiitent are part of
that Curfe 84

Who are the Perfons with whom this Covenant was
mads ibid.

Adam, not in his private Capacity ^but as a Fe-
deral Heady and therefore all Mankind in
him 89

In whom therefore they alfo braJce this Cove-
nant . 9 r


A Table of Contents.

And finned in him, not only by his Example, p. 9 3
But as his Sin in the fenfe of the Law was

theirs ibid.

Thefe things, though difficulty are yet ofufe, and

not to be flighted 94

How we become Partakers of Original Sin 96

Different Opinions concerning this 97

Of what it confifls 9 8

How the Imputation and Corruption of it cleaves

unto us 102

A dam' j Sin might have fubjetled us to Temporal

Evils, only as he was our natural Head ibid.
But it fubjecls us to eternal Damnation, only as

he was our federal Head 104

And only as fitch, has our Nature its inherent

Corruption from him i r 7

The lofs of God's Image was that part of the Cwje

immediately infilled upon Adam 109

Andjuftly depends upon all his Poflerity ibid.
Nor was that Image probably fo much deflroyed

by that one aft, Sin, as forfeited by it 1 1 o
Elfe his Poflerity had probably retained thai. /-

mage 1 1 1

As our Saviour did, who was not reprefented by

Adam in that Covenant 1 \ z

AdamV Poflerity have the fame Title to the

Curfe, which they would have had to theBlefi-

fitjg 1 i 4

And it is as jufl to impute to them the Guilt of

the firfl^ as the Righteoufnefs of the fecond

Adam utf

Several nice Quefiions on this Subjezl 1 1 7

By this Covenant of Works all the World /lands

Convicted 1 1 8

a 3 Nu

A Table of Contents.

No Man can perform the Obedience required by
it p. lip

Nor fatisfie the Penalty 120

Tet if we could do both, Original Sin were a Bar
to our legal Righteoufnefs 121

This ftoews both God's Love in Chrift, who hath
per formed all this for us 122

And their loft Eftate, who by Vnbelief rejefi
Chrift ibid.

The Covenant of Grace propounded to us to fupply
the defecl of that of Works 124

What is the Tenor of it 127

Believing in Chrift not only fpeculatively, but
praclically 128

Confeffing him not only with our Lips, but in our
Lives 129

The Order wherein we may confider this Covenant
to have been made 1 20

God forefeeing Man's Fall, purpofed to reftore him
by a new Covenant ibid.

In making which he intended both his own Glory
and that vfjefus Chrift 132

On this purpofe of abrogating the Covenant of
Works , there fucceeded two Covenants in its
place 123

A Covenant of Redemption made from all Eter-
nity between God the Father and Jefus Chrift

And a Covenant of RecoJiciliation, which was
mads between God and Men, and took place
juft after the Fall ibid.

The Form of the Covenant of Redemption 1 3 4
From this Covenant many ofthofe Relations flow,
where God the Father and the Son ft and mutu-
ally engaged ibid.


A Table of Contents.

And herein confifls their mutual Agreement upon
Terms concerning Man s Salvation p. i?6

This Agreement was as effectual from all Eter-
ternity for procuring to Believers all the Bene-
fits of the Covenant ; as when afterwards per-
formed by Chrift in the fullnefs of Time 1 40
A Summary of God's TranfaBion with Man in
making this Covenant ibid.

An Anfwer to the Objection, that God might
without all this have fav'd us by one a SI of
Sovereign Mercy 141

// is not improbable that he might 143

For though his Juftice, like all his other Attri-
butes, be ejjential to him, yet the outward Ex-
preffions of that and all the reft are fubjecl to
the Direction of his Will 144

Nor is punitive Juftice more natural to him, than
pardoning Mercy 14^

Though he necejffarily hates Sin, he muft not ne-
cefarily puniftj Sinners 145

However, this way of Salvation by Chrift is cer-
tainly more for God's Glory than any other

It was fit fome Reparation Jhould be made to his
Honour 148

No other way could fo jointly glorifie his Mercy
and Juftice ibid.

The Covenant of Grace is either abfolute or con-
ditional 1 fO

The former made only to the Elect 1 f r

CaWd abfolute, becaufe its Mercies are limited
to no Conditions 1 r 2.

Faith, the Mercy promised in it, being only the
Condition of obtaining the Mercy promised in
the conditional Covenant ibid.

a 4 Tfo

A Table of Contents.

The conditional Covenant is that meant in the

Text i f 4

Where Salvation implies all the Benefits of the

Covenant if 5

Which are all promised of Free Grace , not with-

flandingtheCond.it ions required on our part ibid.

Tbofe Conditions being as much the Free Gift

of God) as the Salvation promised upon them

i f <S
Nor do they depend, as our other Actions, only
upon the Concurrence of common "Providence,
but upon the Influence of fpecial Grace if J
What Concurrence tbofe Conditions have to our
Juflification 1 60

What juflification is : two ways of making a Man
righteous 161

The Err our of the Papifls in this Matter i6z
Juflification prefuppofes the Righteoufnefs of the
Perfon juftify^d, 163

7 hat miiji be a Righteoufnefs either of Innocency,
or of Satisfaction , or of Obedience, ibid.

Man can plead none of thefe 1 64.

But Chrifl has wrought for us a Righteoufnefs
both of Satisfaction, and of Obedience ibid.
By which we obtain a twofold Juflification ibid.
far don of Sin, through his Satisfaction 1 6$

A title to Eternal Life, through his Obedience

Why his Satis fatlion alone could not procure this

A brief Defer iption of Juflification 168

Thefe Toints though difficult deferve our Tains to
underfland them 169

What is the Nature of faving and juflifying


A Table of Contents.

Several Opinions concerning it 1 72.

Afummary Defcription of it 178

What is the Nature of that Obedience required

as another Condition of this Covenant 1 79

What Influence thefe Conditions have on mr Ju~

ftification 182

Faith doth not juftifie us as it is a Work ibid.
Nor as it is a Condition of this Covenant ^ 18$
But as it gives us a title to Chrifl's Right eouf-

nefs 1 84

And that as it is the Bond of our myflical Union

with Chrifl 186

Obedience is necejfary to our Salvation^ not as the

meritorious Caufe of it 1 89

But as it difpofes and makes us fit for it 190
And is the way which God has appointed to ob*

tarn it 1 yd.

Nor does Chrifl 1 s Obedience fuperfede ours ipf
Obedience is likewife necejjary to our Juftifie ati~

on ip5

Tet not as it is it felf our Righteoufnefs ibid.
ObjeBions from Scripture anfwered 1 9 J

And iSV.Paul and St. James reconciled 198

But as a Condition without which we cayinot be

juftifyd, zoo

And as necejjary to preferve the State of Jufti-
fie a tion^ when once attained 201
Good Works therefore are negatively but not pofi-

tively a Condition of our Juftifie 'at ion 202

The Doctrine of Juftification by Faith is no Pa-
tronage for Liber tinifm 203


A Table of Contents,

Of glorifying God in his Attributes.

THE Divifion of the Difcourfe into three
Tarts p. 2.05-

The Do&rine, and the Import of it zc6

No Being is fimply its own but God ibid.

All others owe their Being to him 208

And depend upon him for the Prefervation of it

20 p

And are made to promote his Glory 2 1 o

And muft all do it actively or paffively 2 11

We are God's alfo on account of our Redempti-
on 212

The fummary Import of the DoBrine z 1 3

The Obligation it lays upon us, viz. iSid.

That we are not to fee k our own ibid.

A twofold Self-feeking, Spiritual and Earthy


The former a feeking after Grace and after
Glory 2 r f

That Glory ought to be fought after, as well as
Grace ibid.

The Earthy Self feeking is alfo in fome Cafes
Praife -worthy 2ip

When performed with due Moderation, and at al-
lowed Seafons ibid.

And with due Subordination to the more noble
Ends of Piety zzo

But otherwife 'tis unworthy of a Chriflian } and
even of a Man zn

If we are not our own, we are not at our own
difpofal ziz

Nor ought to follow our own Wills ziz

Nor to look upon any thing as our own zzf


A Table of Contents.

Not abfolutely, but only as they are fo for our

gOOd p. zzy

Nor to let any Sin be our own zz6

We are not our own but God y s 227

Who hath manifold Titles to us, viz. ibid.

As he is our Creator > has f repaid us exquifite

Bodies 227

And infused Souls into them which are far more

excellent zip

As he is our Preferver zzi

Ashe is our Governor, and as fuch both pro-

tecls us from Evils 232

And provides all NeceJJaries for us 224

As we were devoted to him at our Baptifm z 3 f
As we profefs and own him to be our Lord zz6
And have often renewed our baptifmal Vows zyj
Some are God's more efpecially, as his Elect 238
We are God's alfo as he has redeemed us 240
On which account his Title to us is far greater \

than as he has created us 24 r

For Redemption frees us from a greater evil than

Creation does 242

And confers greater Benefits upon us 243

And was more expensive to God than our Creation

From all which may be inferred, how dear we are

to Gody who has made us his by fo many Titles

And how unfaithful to him we are, who need jo

many Bonds to fecure us 247

And what a great injujlice all Impiety is 9 ibid.
Viz. No lefs than Sacrilege 248

The reafon of the foregoing Doclrine 2f o^

What this price of our Redemption is z$i

To whom it was pay\l Zfz


A Table of Contents.

Our twofold Bondage under Satan p. 2, 5 3

How Chrifi redeem 1 d us from both ibid.

Why this price was not pafd to Satan 254

How this payment is confident with God*s free

Grace in faving us ibid.

We are not fo freely redeem d as to exclude all Me-
rit on Chrijfs part 255
Who hath pay d the utmoft Farthing for us 2 5 6
But in rejpeel of our felves our Redemption is of

perfect free Grace 257

And it was an acl of that Grace to accept our pa)-

ment from our furety 259

JEven more than to have forgiven us without any

price 260

Con/idering both the Per fin appointed for our furety

And that God himfelf enabled that Perfin to pay

the whole price exatled from him 263

Whence the Scripture in magnifying this Mercy joyns

free Grace and purchased Redemption together

What we are redeem d from by that price 2 6" 5

From the Wrath of God ibid.

From the Vaffalage of the Devil 267

By retraining his tempting Power 268

Rebuking his accujing Power , 269

And wholly aboli fifing his tormenting Power 270
From the power of Sin , both its reigning ibid.

And its condemning Power 271

From the Curfi of the Law ibid.

The ApoftWs Inference from the preceding DoElrine^

and the reafin of it, and that by way of Exhor»

tatian, to glorifie God, and by way of DireUion %

how to do it 272

What it is to glorifie Ged 273


A Table of Contents.

Glory is either Real or Relative 274.

We cannot glorifieGod in the fir (I- Senfe, though he
does us ibid*

And that both in our Creation 27 ?

And in our Reftitution from our lapfed Eftate


And by the Cwfummation of our Holinefs and Hap-
pinefs in Heaven 2 j6

But in the fecond Senfe we may and ought to Hori-
fie God 2 jj

Thus God is Jaid to glorifie him f elf -j,n%

And thus Creatures may be faid to glorifie him

And to difljonour him by the contrary ibid.

How we ought to glorifie God 2 % I

What his effential Attrtbutes are ibid.

Theje mujl be glorify' d by our adoring them ibid.
By declaring them? and that in our Words 283

For which we cannot have a nobler Thcam 284
How fome diflienour God this way 285*

Others are backward to honour him. 286

This of all Duties ought to be duly timed ibid.

And 'tis eafie to find, frequent Occafions for it 287
As our bleffed Saviour did 288

We may alfo declare God's Attributes in optr Works

This is the chief way of doing it, ibid.

And is done by coff arming our felves to the Like-

nefs of his communicable Attrtbutes 2po

And by performing thofe Duties to which we are

oblig'd by fuch of his Attributes as are uncommu-

nicable 292

We mufi glorifie him in his Holinefs by conforming

our felves to it as perfectly as we can, 295


A Table of Contents.

Becaufe other Attributes may be glorify d whether

we will or no, this cannot here below, but by our

imitating it p. 294

And becaufe while we own our felves to be God's,

we ou^ht to bear his Image, not the Devil's 295

Holinefs the only Badge by which God owns us 296

It exfrejfeth it Jelf againft Sin by abhorring it 297

And by avoiding it. Ibid.

Wemuft glorifie God in his Mercy and Goodnefs Ibid.

Of which the latter is of much larger Extent than

the former 298

Thisfeems to be his darling Attribute 299

In this we muji glorifie God, by imitating it 301

Which will excite others both to adore his Mercy


(The only end we fliould aim at herein) Ibid.

And alfo to reflett how much more Goodnefs there

mujl be in the Creator^ when they experience fo

much in the Creature 304.

Our Goodnefs, to be like God's, mujt be general to

all 305

Even to the Beafts 3 06

Free and undeferv'd Ibid.

Which our Saviour makes the very Badge of his

Difciples 3 07

Wholly difinterejfed 308

Tho' univerfal yet difcriminating % preferring the

Good 309

Shewn according to our Ability 310

What abounds to us is not ours but God's and the

Poors Ibid.

ISTor can be improved better, than by laying it out

upon them 311


This Duty is very much neglefled 3

And God difion&ur'd thereby 313


A Table of Contents.

We mufi alfo glorifie God's Mercy by endeavouring

to become fit Objects of it p, 314.

To which nothing bat Repentance being requird, 'tis

the utmoft Contempt of it to neglect that Ibid.
When thus become fit Objetls of Gods Mercy we

mufi aljo glorifie tt by relying firmly upon it 317
// is the greatefi Difhonour to God, to defpond in

this Cafe. Ibid.

We mufi alfo glorifie this Attribute by praifing God

for all the Ejfefts of his Goodnefs. 319

We mufi glorifie God in his Omnipre fence 321

By depending upon him in all Dangers 322

Tet not to run headlong into Danger without any

C*ll Ib >d«

'Tis childifi) to fear more in fome Times and Places
than in others^fince God is equally prefent always
and every where 3 2 5

Such Tears overta!?e us for want of this Reflexion


We mufi alfo glorifie him in this Attribute by main-
taining confiant Communion with him 325

Converfing with him in our Thought s 9 which no
Place nor Condition of Life can hinder 326

By demeaning our felves always with that Awe
which becomes God's Pre fence Ibid.

Which is difhonour d by nothing but Sin 327

We mufi glorifie God'sWtfdom and Omnifcience 328

By endeavouring to encreafe inWtfdom Ibid.

Which is neceffary to the glorifying of his other At-
tributes, as well as this 3 a 9

By relying upon it when we are in Difficulties and
can find no way to extricate our felves 3 30

The ways of his Providence are unfearchable, and

often advance thofe Ends which they feem to

thwart 3 3 T


A Table of Contents.

By the Sincerity of nil our Aims and Attions \%i

Shewn in not daring to allow our felves either in

Online LibraryEzekiel HopkinsThe doctrine of the two covenants, wherein the nature of original sin is at large explain'd ... : with a discourse of glorifying God in his attributes → online text (page 1 of 25)