middle toe fused at their bases ; 10th primary relatively long. (Vol. ii. p. 213.)
15. FAMILY PANURIDJE BEARDED-TITMICE.
Beak short, culmen arched ; nostrils in a fossa covered by a membranous operculum ;
outermost (10th) primary in adult vestigial, in juvenile half as long as penultimate ; tail
very long, fan-shaped.
(a) Genus Panurus. Characters as for the family. (Vol. ii. p. 222.)
16. FAMILY LANIIDJE SHRIKES.
Beak stout, laterally compressed, culmen arched ; upper jaw with a well-defined " tooth,"
and hooked at its tip ; palatine spurred posteriorly.
(a) Genus Lanius. Nostrils round, without an operculum, and partly concealed by
short stiff feathers ; acrotarsium scutellate ; 10th primary longer than the primary
major coverts. (Vol. ii. p. 237.)
17. FAMILY MUSCICAPID.iE FLYCATCHERS.
Beak short, depressed, wide at the gape, culmen strongly marked ; rictal bristles well
developed ; nostrils oval, surrounded by membrane and partly concealed by bristles.
(a) Genus Muscicapa. Outermost (10th) primary vestigial, but slightly longer than
the major coverts of the hand ; scutellse of acrotarsium fused ; middle toe and claw
as long as the tarso-metatarsus. (Vol. ii. p. 261.)
is. FAMILY HIRUNDINID.S: SWALLOWS.
Spinal feather-tract forked between the scapulae ; beak short, depressed, wide at the gape ;
outermost (10th) primary vestigial, 9th very long; tarso-inetatarsus very short; claws
long and curved.
AS MEANS OF IDENTIFICATION 569
(a) Genus Chelidon. Tail deeply forked, the outer pair of feathers produced into long
streamers. (Vol. ii. p. 277.)
(b) Oenus Hirundo. Tarso-metatarsus feathered to the toes; tail forked. (Vol. ii.
(c) Genus Riparia. Tarso-metatarsus with a tuft of feathers just above the hallux
(Vol. ii. p. 284.)
Young nidicolous, nestling down often vestigial or wanting ; holorhinal, nares impervious ;
ambiens wanting ; the feet if zygodactyle never associated with a desmognathous palate.
SUBORDER : PICI WOODPECKERS
Young nidicolous, nestling down vestigial or wanting; feather-tracts very narrow; wing
eutaxic ; basipterygoid processes wanting ; spina interna wanting, spina externa large ; hinder
border of sternum double notched ; feet zygodactylous.
1. FAMILY PICID.E.
Tongue protrusible; oil-gland tufted; basipterygoid processes of skull wanting; palate
saurognathous ; spina interna wanting.
(a) Genus Pious. Beak long, dense, blunt-pointed, laterally compressed and broad
at the base ; nortrils oval, covered with bristles ; tail feathers pointed and spine-
like, outer pair\stigial ; 3rd and 4th toes equal ; prevailing colour yellowish
green and red. (Vol. ii. p. 318.)
(b) Genus Dendrocopus. Distinguished from Gecinus in having the 4th toe much
longer than the 3rd ; prevailing colour black, white, and red. (Vol. ii. p. 320.)
(c) Genus lynx. Beak short, sharp-pointed ; nostrils linear, partly closed by
membrane ; outermost (10th) primary minute ; tail feathers normal (not spiny),
outer pair vestigial ; proximal end of planta with a heel-pad ; prevailing colour
brown and grey. (Vol. ii. p. 342.)
SUBORDER : CYPSELI SWIFTS
Oil-gland nude ; wing eutaxic ; hinder border of sternum entire ; humerus excessively
shortened ; manus very long ; ten primaries, of which the outermost is the longest ; secondaries
not exceeding six to seven.
2. FAMILY CYPSELID.S.
Beak excessively short, hooked, wide at the gape, which extends below the eye; foot
(a) Genus Cypselus. Tail of ten feathers, deeply forked ; tarsus feathered. (Vol. ii.
(b) Genus Acanthyllis. Tail short and even, the shafts prolonged beyond the vane
to form spines ; tarsus scutellated. (Vol. iv. p. 501.)
SUBORDER: CAPRIMULGI NIGHTJARS
Dorsal feather-tract forked ; wing diastataxic ; tarso-metatarsus very short ; toes free,
middle toe with pectinated claw ; spina externa vestigial, spina interna wanting ; cseca large ;
570 STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS
3. FAMILY CAPRIMULGID-ffi.
Beak extremely short, wide at the gape, which extends below the eye ; rictal bristles very long,
(a) Genus Caprimulgus. Feet partly syndactyle ; tarsus partly feathered ; tail long
and truncated. (Vol. ii. p. 362.)
SUBORDER: STRIGES OWLS
Beak raptorial, and with a more or less conspicuous cere ; feathers of face forming a disc ;
hallux reversible ; foot of the raptorial type ; wing diastataxic ; desmognathous palate ; caeca
large ; basipterygoid processes well developed.
4. FAMILY STRIGID.E.
The median branch of the ventral feather-tract joining the inner branch posteriorly ; the
feathers of the acrotarsiuin directed upwards ; oil-gland with two or three filoplumous
feathers at its tip ; orbit small ; interorbital septum extremely thick ; palatines fused
behind the vomer.
(a) Genus Strix. External aperture of ear quadrangular, its vertical axis half the
horizontal axis of the eyelid ; covered with small quadrangular operculum.
(Vol. ii. p. 379.)
5. FAMILY ASIONIDjE.
The median branch of the ventral feather- tract free posteriorly ; feathers of the planta
directed downwards ; no filoplumes on the oil-gland.
(a) Genus Asio. Height of the vertical axis of the external aperture of the ear three
times that of the horizontal axis of the eyelid ; operculum of great size, provided
with a valve ; post-aural fold voluminous ; apertures asymmetrical ; oil-gland
napiform. (Vol. ii. p. 384.)
(6) Genus Bubo. 1 Height of the vertical axis of the external aperture of the ear not
exceeding that of the horizontal axis of the eyelid ; without an operculum ;
symmetrical oil-gland conical. (Vol. iv. p. 504.)
(c) Genus Scops. Posterior division of the cavernuin extending its whole vertical
height ; cere laterally inflated. (Vol. iv. p. 503.)
(d) Genus Syrnium. Posterior division of the cavernum confined to the lower third ;
peripheral disc-feathers meeting in the middle line near the symphysis of the
mandible ; inner branch of the ventral tract arising over the region of the head of
the coracoid. (Vol. ii. p. 381.)
(e) Genus sEgolius (Nyctala). Interscapular region of the dorsal feather-tract with
a short bifurcation ; vertical axis of the external ear twice that of the horizontal
axis of the eyelid ; covered by an operculum. (Vol. iv. p. 502.)
(/) Genus Surnia. Vertical axis of the ear equal to that of the horizontal axis of the
eyelid; no operculum; tail long and pointed; oil-gland napiform. (Vol. iv. p. 503.)
(g) Genus Athene. Vertical axis of the external ear half that of the horizontal axis
of the eyelid ; operculum wanting ; cere short, much inflated, forming two pisiform
swellings on either side of the culmen. (Vol. ii. p. 389.)
With syndactyle foot, a long spina externa and no spina interna, or with the front toes free
and a spina communis ; an aftershaft ; a desmognathous palate and functional creca.
1 The genus Nyctea (vol. ii. p. 391), save in the matter of colour and the shorter ear-tufts, is indistinguishable
from that of Bubo.
AS MEANS OF IDENTIFICATION 571
6. FAMILY CORACIIDJE ROLLERS.
Foot anisodactyle ; wing eutaxic ; caeca long; oil-gland nude.
(a) Genus Coracias. Beak stout, slightly decurved ; gape wide ; nostrils partly hidden
by sefce ; tail of twelve feathers, long and truncated ; tarso-metatarsus short,
scutellated. (Vol. ii. p. 422.)
7. FAMILY MEROPID.E BEE-EATERS.
Foot svndactyle ; wing eutaxic ; oil-gland nude ; cajca long ; sternum with a spina communis
("a) Genus Merops. Beak long, slender, decurved ; nostrils covered by setae ; tail long
of twelve feathers, the middle pair produced into streamers. (Vol. iv. p. 504.)
8. FAMILY UPUPID*: HOOPOES.
Foot syndactyle ; wing diastataxic ; tongue vestigial ; a large spina communis ; oil-gland
tufted ; ten tail feathers ; caeca wanting.
(a) Gemis Upupa. Beak long, slender, decurved, pointed, and laterally compressed ;
nostrils concealed by setse ; both acrotarsium and planta scutellated ; head with a
large erectile double crest ; no aftershaft ; oil-gland tufted. (Vol. ii. p. 433.)
9. FAMILY ALCEDINIDJE KINGFISHERS.
Feather-tracts downy ; wing diastataxic ; eleven primaries ; no aftershaft ; oil-gland tufted ;
a long spina externa, spina interna wanting ; foot syndactyle ; caeca vestigial ; tongue
(a) Genus Alcedo. Beak long, straight, pointed, wide at the gape ; nostrils closed by a
membrane ; tail very short, twelve feathers ; blue and red coloration. (Vol. ii.
(b) Genus Ceryle. Distinguished from Alcedo by the long tail and more pointed wings,
and the black and white spotted plumage. (Vol. iv. p. 505.)
Foot zygodactyle ; wing eutaxic ; desmognathous ; basipterygoid processes wanting ; oil-
gland nude ; two carotids ; caeca functional ; ambiens present.
10. FAMILY CUCULHXE CUCKOOS.
Syrinx tracheo-bronchial ; ventral feather-tract single at its base.
(a) Genus Cuculus. Beak short, slightly decurved ; gape wide ; nostrils circular, with
a membranous rim ; wings long and pointed ; tail long, fan-shaped, of ten feathers ;
tarso-metatarsus feathered for nearly half its length. (Vol. ii. p. 458.)
b) Genus Clamator (Coccystes). Differs from Cuculus in having the nostrils oval, the
wing rounded, and less feathering on the tarsus. (Vol. iv. p. 505.)
(c) Genus Coccyzus. Not to be distinguished from Coccystes save in coloration.
(Vol. iv. p. 505.)
Palate schizognathous ; nostrils schizorhinal ; wing diastataxic, with eleven primaries.
Nestling nidicolous ; crop very large, bi-lobed ; caeca vestigial ; syrinx with asymmetrical
extrinsic muscles; basipterygoid processes present; oil-gland nude or wanting; feathers
572 STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS
without aftershaft, and with thickened rhachis ; down feathers absent ; hallux on a level with
the front toes.
1. FAMILY COLUMBIDJE PIGEONS.
Ambiens present ; vestiges of caeca ; oil-gland vestigial ; no gall-bladder ; twelve rectrices.
(a) Genus Columba. Tail shorter than the wing, truncated ; tarso-metatarsus partly
feathered. (Vol. ii. p. 499.)
(6) Genus Ectopistes. Tail longer than the wing, narrow and pointed, the outer
feathers broader than the centre ones. (Vol. iv. p. 506.)
(c) Genus Turtur. Beak slender, the membranous operculum covering the nostrils
forming a tumid swelling ; tail much rounded. (Vol. ii. p. 505.)
SUBORDER : PTEROCLES SANDGROUSE
Nidifugous nestlings ; tarso-metatarsus extremely short, feathered ; hallux vestigial or
wanting ; cceca large ; vomer vestigial ; aftershaft vestigial ; tail of sixteen feathers.
2. FAMILY PTEROCLHXffi.
Characters as for the suborder.
(a) Genus Pterocles. Hind-toe absent, outer primaries and middle tail feathers pro-
duced into filaments. (Vol. ii. p. 525.)
Schizognathous, schizorhinal ; no basipterygoid processes ; vomer well developed ; large
supra-orbital grooves ; pervious nares ; feet webbed ; oil-gland tufted ; eleven primaries, outermost
vestigial ; wing diastataxic ; creca large ; ambiens present ; thoracic vertebrae opisthoccelous ;
eggs pyriform, double spotted.
3. FAMILY ALCID^l AUKS.
Young nidicolous, with abundant nestling down which is never spotted or striped ; sternum,
pelvis, and ribs all much elongated ; femur very short, causing a markedly vertical
carriage of the body ; tail very short ; sternum with a single pair of notches ; with an
apterion in the spinal tract.
(a.) Genus Alca. Beak laterally compressed and grooved, the tomium of the upper
jaw markedly decurved ; nostrils lateral, slit-like, near the middle of the inferior
border of the jaw, and partly concealed by feathers ; tail pointed. (Vol. iii. p. 1.)
(6) Genus Uria,. Beak moderately long, laterally compressed, not dorso-ventrally
expanded, and without grooves ; nasal aperture partly concealed by feathers ; tail
short and rounded. (Vol. iii. p. 3.)
(c) Genus Cepphus. Cannot be distinguished from that of Uria. (Vol. iii. p. 7.)
(d) Genus Alle. Beak short, swollen, without grooves ; nostrils ovate, exposed.
(Vol. iii. p. 9.)
(e) Genus Fraterculus. Beak very large, brightly coloured, grooved ; height of the
beak equal to its length ; with horny excrescence on eyelids ; legs and toes red ;
tail short. (Vol. iii. p. 10.)
4. FAMILY LARIDJE GULLS.
Young nidifugous, with mottled down, or of a uniform brown colour ; hinder border of
AS MEANS OF IDENTIFICATION 573
sternum double-notched; humerus with a large ectipicondyloid process; cceca vestigial;
beak large, with a sharply marked gonys to the lower jaw ; nostrils linear, pervious.
(a) Genus Sterna. 1 Beak slender, tapering, moderately long ; nostrils pervious ; toes
semi-pahnated ; tail forked. (Vol. iii. p. 57.)
(b) Genus Xema. Tail forked ; front toes completely webbed. (Vol. iv. p. 510.)
(c) Genus Rkodostethia. Tail wedge-shaped ; front toes fully webbed ; hind-toe with
a largo curved claw. (Vol. iv. p. 511.)
(d) Genus Larus. Tail square ; front toes fully webbed ; hind-toe small but distinct.
(Vol. iii. p. 114.)
() Genus Rissa. Tail square, slightly forked in the immature bird ; front toes fully
webbed ; hind-toe vestigial. (Vol. iii. p. 132.)
(/) Genus Pagophila. Tail square; front toes fully webbed; hallux joined to inner
toe by a narrow, serrated membrane ; tibia feathered nearly to the tibio-tarsal
joint. (Vol. iv. p. 513.)
(c/) Genus Stercorarius. 1 Beak with a distinct cere ; sternum with but a single pair of
notches ; claws large and hooked. (Vol. iii. p. 197.)
5. FAMILY (EDICNEMID.ffi THICK-KNEES.
Holorhinal, schizognathous ; nostrils pervious ; hallux wanting ; tail wedge-shaped ; toes
webbed at the base ; tarso-metatarsus articulated ; eye very large.
(a) Genus (Edicnemus. Beak shorter than the head, swollen at the tip ; tail relatively
short, not exceeding the length of the head. (Vol. iii. p. 230.)
6. FAMILY GLAREOLID^E PRATINCOLES.
Nostrils impervious ; nasal aperture round ; skull holorhinal, schizognathous.
(a) Genus Glareolas. With functional hallux ; tarso-metatarsus short, wings very long ;
tail forked ; claw of middle toe pectinated. (Vol. iv. p. 513.)
(b) Genus Cursorius. Hallux wanting ; legs very long ; middle toes very long, and
with its claw pectinated ; tarso-metatarsus scutellate in front. (Vol. iv. p. 514.)
7. FAMILY CHARADRIID^E PLOVERS.
Skull with basipterygoid processes and occipital fontanelles; nestlings nidifugous, striped
(a) Genus Phalaropus. Feet lobed ; plantar surface of tarso-metatarsus serrated.
(Vol. iii. p. 251.)
(b) Genus Scolopax. Beak long, cylindrical, somewhat swollen, soft and sensitive at
the tip; aperture of the ear seated in advance of the anterior canthus of the
eyelid. (Vol. iii. p. 269.)
(c) Genus Gallinago. Beak as in Scolopax, but the aperture of the ear under the eye.
(Vol. iii. p. 274.)
(d) Genus Cliaradrius. 3 Beak short, swollen at the tip; wings long and pointed, llth
primary much reduced, 10th the longest in the wing ; inner secondaries elongated.
(Vol. iii. p. 321.)
(e) Genus Vanellus. Beak short, swollen at the tip; wings with a carpal tubercle,
1 The genera Hydrochelidon, Gelochelidon, and Anoui are not founded on structural characters and hence cannot
2 The genus Stercorarius must include the so-called genus Megalestris.
3 It is impossible without juggling with facts to recognise the genera Eudromias, jflgialites, Squatarola, which
must be included in the genus Charadrius.
VOL. IV. 4D
574 STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS
rounded in contour ; 3rd and 4th ( = 9th and 8th) primaries longest ; head crested.
(Vol. iii. p. 325.)
(/) Genus Strepsilas. Beak short, tapering to a point, nostrils pervious ; outermost
(10th) primary longest ; legs short, front toes connected at the base by a web ;
lower end of acrotarsium scutellated ; planta reticulated. (Vol. iii. p. 389.)
(g) Genus Hcematopus. Beak long, laterally compressed, very dense, truncated at the
tip; upper jaw with a deep lateral groove; nostrils linear, opening near the base
of the beak ; podotheca reticulated. (Vol. iii. p. 387.)
(h) Genus Recurvirostra. Beak very long, recurved, tapering to a delicate point ; toes
semi-palmated ; hallux present. (Vol. iii. p. 413.)
(i) Genus Himantopus. Beak long, slender, cylindrical, slightly recurved ; legs
excessively long; middle and outer toes connected by a small web; hind-toe
wanting. (Vol. iv. p. 517.)
(k) Genus Pelidna. 1 Beak sub-cylindrical, soft, more or less laterally compressed, and
slightly decurved ; nostrils linear, pervious at the base of the beak, which is later-
ally grooved ; tarso-metatarsus slender, scutellated ; toes free and long. (Vol. iii.
(1) Genus Ereunetes. Differs from Pelidna in having the front toes united at the
base by a well-defined web. (Vol. iv. p. 521.)
(m) Genus Canutus? (Vol. iii. p. 430.)
(n) Genus Calidris. Legs short, no hind-toe, front toes not united by a basal web.
(Vol. iii. p. 433.)
(o) Genus Totanus. 3 Legs relatively long, toes partially webbed, tarso-metatarsus
scutellated before and behind. (Vol. iii. p. 438.)
(p) Genus Limosa. Beak long, slightly recurved ; wings long and pointed, projecting
beyond the end of the tail ; outer and middle toes united by a web. (Vol. iii. p. 450.)
(q) Genus Macrorhamphus. Beak long, straight, slightly dilated at the tip ; wings
long ; outer and middle toe united by membrane. (Vol. iv. p. 525.)
(r) Genus Numenius. Beak long, decurved ; toes semi-palmated ; planta reticulated.
(Vol. iii. p. 454.)
ORDER : GRUIFORMES
Schizognathous, holorhinal ; basipterygoids wanting ; no spina interna ; aftershaft small,
diastataxic ; caeca functional ; young nidifugous ; wing diastataxic or eutaxic.
1. FAMILY GRUIDJE CRANES.
Oil-gland tufted ; aftershaft present ; diastataxic ; with the heel of the sternum hollowed out
to receive the convolutions of the trachea. Hind- toe relatively small, placed above the
level of the front toes, which are not webbed at the base.
(a) Genus Grus. Nostrils in a groove, pervious, near the middle of the beak; crown
of head covered with black bristle-like feathers, occiput bar covered with a patch
of red carunculated skin ; innermost secondaries greatly elongated.
1 The characters fabricated for the genus Limicola, created to receive the broadbilled-sandpiper (Rare Birds, vol.
iv. p. 518), are so trivial that this species must be included in the genus Pelidna, a name which has unwarrantably, in
my opinion, ousted that of Tringa.
2 The characters on which the genus Canutus is based are too trivial to be recognised. It must be relegated to
that of Pelidna = Tringa.
3 The genus Totanus must be made to include that of Machetes, and should properly also include Limosa and
Macrorhamphut, which are divided only by ridiculously trivial characters.
AS MEANS OF IDENTIFICATION 575
2. FAMILY OTITIDID^ BUSTARDS.
Oil-gland absent ; hind-toe absent ; sternum double-notched ; wing diastataxic.
(a) Genus Otis. Lateral neck spaces obsolete ; nostrils oval, open ; tail of twenty
feathers; tarso-metatarsus reticulated before and behind. (Vol. iii. p. 541.)
3. FAMILY RALLID-ffi RAILS.
Oil-gland present, tufted ; hind-toe well developed ; sternum single-notched posteriorly, very-
narrow ; toes very long ; wings rounded ; tail feebly developed ; wing diastataxic.
(a) Genus Crex. Culmen shorter than the inner toe ; tarso-metatarsus equal in length
to the middle toe and claw. (Vol. iii. p. 555.)
(6) Genus Porzana. Culmen shorter than the head ; tarso-metatarsus shorter than
middle toe and claw ; secondaries very short, falling far short of the tips of the
primaries in the closed wing. (Vol. iii. p. 557.)
(c) Genus RalLus. Beak long, decurved ; tarso-metatarsus shorter than middle toe
and claw. (Vol. iii. p. 560.)
(d) Genus Gallinula. Culmen extending backwards on to the forehead to form a
large, soft, oval shield ; tarso-metatarsus reticulated behind ; toes with narrow
lateral membranes. (Vol. iii. p. 562.)
(e) Genus Fulica. Culrnen extending backwards on to forehead to form a large, soft,
oval shield ; toes lobed. (Vol. iii. p. 564.)
Palate schizognathous ; nostrils holorhinal ; basipterygoids present ; caeca large ; crop large ;
sternum deeply cleft posteriorly, with a large spina coinmunis; wing eutaxic; aftershaft large;
hind-toe well developed ; young nidifugous.
1. FAMILY PHASIANIDJE PHEASANTS.
Hallux raised above the level of the front toes ; vomer degenerate ; inner pair of sternal
notches extending forwards beyond the level of the base of the keel.
(a) Genus Tetrao. 1 Nostrils feathered ; with a narrow supra-orbital wattle ; tarso-
metatarsus feathered ; toes with lateral horny fringes, spurs wanting ; eighteen
rect rices. (Vol. iv. p. 1.)
(b) Genus Lagopus. Nostrils feathered; with a narrow supra-orbital wattle; tarso-
metatarsus and toes completely feathered, spurs wanting; sixteen rectrices.
(Vol. iv. p. 5.)
(c) Genus Phasianus. Nostrils covered with a leathery operculum ; side of head with
a large red, papillated, erectile wattle ; legs scutellated, armed with spurs ; tail
fan-shaped. (Vol. iv. p. 37.)
(d) Genus Perdix. Nostrils covered with a leathery operculum ; a small area of bare
skin below the eye; legs scutellated. spurs wanting; eighteen rectrices. (Vol. iv.p.39.)
(e) Genus Caccabis. Nostrils covered with a leathery operculum ; a small area of bare
skin round the eye ; legs scutellated, the planta armed with conspicuous pro-
tuberances ; fourteen rectrices. (Vol. iv. p. 42.)
(/) Genus Coturnix. Nostrils covered with a leathery operculum ; face entirely
feathered ; legs scutellated, spurs wanting ; twelve rectrices, hidden by the
tail-coverts. (Vol. iv. p. 44.)
1 The genus Tetrao must also be made to include the genus Lyrurus.
576 STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS
2. FAMILY TURNICIDJE BUSTARD-QUAILS.
Schizognathous palate; schizorhinal nostrils; sternum with a single pair of notches; oil-
gland tufted ; rectrices concealed by coverts.
(a) Genus Turnix. Wing eutaxic ; hallux absent. (Rare Birds, vol. iv. p. 530.)
Palate desmognathous ; nostrils holorhinal ; hinder border of sternum fenestrated, or with
a single pair of notches ; caeca vestigial ; oil-gland tufted ; wing diastataxic ; apteria down-
clad ; nostrils impervious, opening into a cere ; young nidicolous, down-clad.
(a) Genus Aquila. Beak large, curred from the cere forwards ; cutting edge slightly
sinuous and ending in a sharp hook ; nostrils oval, impervious ; tarso-metatarsus
feathered to the base of the toes. (Vol. iv. p. 78.)
(6) Genus Haliaetus. Beak large and long ; nostrils oval ; tarso-metatarsus scutellate
in front, reticulated behind, shorter than the middle toe. (Vol. iv. p. 80.)
(c) Genus Circus. Beak small, laterally compressed, cutting edges of upper jaw
festooned; feathers of face arranged to form a more or less conspicuous disc;
wings long; tail long; legs long and slender. (Vol. iv. p. 94.)
(d) Genus Accipiter. Beak relatively small, cutting edge festooned ; wings short ; tail
long; legs and toes very long, the latter with long tylari. (Vol. iv. p. 105.)
(e) Genus Buteo. Beak relatively small ; cere large ; nostrils oval ; cutting edge of
upper jaw slightly festooned; tarso-metatarsus short, scutellated; toes short;
claws large. (Vol. iv. p. 113.)
(/) Genus Milvus. Beak relatively small, cutting edge festooned ; nostrils slit-like ;
wings long; tail long and deeply forked ; tarso-metatarsus short. (Vol. iv. p. 121.)
(g) Genus Elanoides. Differs from Milvus in having the tail much more deeply
forked, and in its black and white coloration. (Vol. iv. p. 535.)
(h) Genus Elanus. Nostrils slit-like ; front of tarso-metatarsus covered with minute
roundish scales ; tail rounded. (Vol. iv. p. 535.)
(i) Genus Pernis. Lores densely feathered ; feathers efface " scale "-like in appearance ;
tail rounded, long; tarso-metatarsus with upper portion feathered; lower end
reticulated. (Vol. iv. p. 533.)
(k) Genus Pandion. Beak large; tarso-metatarsus short, reticulated; outer toe
reversible ; soles of feet covered with horny spikes ; aftershaft wanting. (Vol. iv.
(1) Genus Falco. Nostril circular, with a central tubercle ; a strong projecting " tooth "
near the tip of the cutting edge of the upper jaw; wings long, pointed, second
quill longest; tarsus short, reticulated. (Vol. iv. p. 133.)
Palate desmognathous ; nostrils holorhinal ; basipterygoids sessile ; posterior border of
sternum with a single pair of notches ; trachea with two pairs of extrinsic muscles ; aftershaft