F. Carruthers (Francis Carruthers) Gould.

F. C. G.'s Froissart's modern chronicles, 1902 online

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in great favour with the Emperor. And thereafter
he continued his journey to Dalmeny Castle where
the Earl of Durdans received him with great honour.


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7 8 Froissart's Modern Chronicles

And after the Emperor of Almaine went to his
ship that was awaiting him in the harbour, and sailed
back again to his country.

How the King Dom Carlos of Portugal did also visit the King of
England at Sandringham.

When the Emperor of Almaine had departed from


the Castle of Sandringham there came King Dom
Carlos of Portugal to visit King Edward. For the
English and the Portugalois in former times were
allied together in many adventures of battle against
the Spaniards and the French, and so King Edward

The King's Guests 79

had joy of the coming of Dom Carlos, and welcomed
him right gladly.

The King Dom Carlos, in like wise as the Emperor
Wilhelm, took great pleasure in sport, and so he went
a-hunting and a-shooting together with the King, or
the Prince of Wales.

But there were so many faisans, and conies, and
other savage creatures in the land around the castle


that not a few were left alive even after the King's
guests had departed.

Dom Carlos also, like the Emperor of Almaine,
apparelled himself one day in the manner of an
English knight, and rode to make inspection of some
English men-at-arms.

You must know that it is the custom of a King or


a Prince that when he goeth to another country he
shall array himself as a knight of the country in
which he is sojourning, and the King of that country,
by exchange of courtesy, will apparel himself as
though he were a knight of the realm from which
his visitor cometh.

In this wise they do honour to one another, but
you may well believe it is a great trouble to a king,
when he is on a viage to foreign countries, to carry
with him so great a store of harness.


Hoiv the Dutch leaders came to England and were presented to the
King and Sir Joseph de Birmingham, and how they and Oom
Paul wrote books about the war in Africa.

NOW let us return to speak of the leaders of
the Dutch who had fought so felly against
the English in Africa.

So soon as the war had been made an end of,
and peace had been accomplished, De La Rey,
Botha and De Wet departed from Africa and sailed
to England. And because they had withstood the
English army so stoutly they were received right
courteously, for the people said, "They are no more
our enemies, but are unied with us in the same
Empire, more they are. brave men who have done
their devoir to their country, and therefore they
deserve to be honoured."

And so it fell about that they were presented to
the King, and afterwards they held converse with
Sir Joseph de Birmingham about the business of
Africa, and how some remedy might be found for
the distresses that the war had caused. And though

De La Rey, Botha, and De Wet 81

Sir Joseph would not yield to them all that they
demanded, which, indeed, I am minded to believe
they did not expect to obtain, they were in no wise
contrarious, saying that though they had hoped
Sir Joseph de Birmingham would have given them
more of the things they had required, they would
not withsay him, or withdraw them back from the
treaty that had been compacted at Vereeniging.

For howbeit they held themselves to have rightly
done their devoir to their country in withstanding the
English to the end, now that they had yielded they
were minded to be liege subjects of their sovereign
lord King Edward, and to aid the governance to
remedy the hurt and damage that the war had done
in the land for which they had fought.

This greatly pleased the English, though some
there were who were vexed that the Dutch leaders
should have gone to Holland, and France, and Almaine
to seek aid. It hath been shewed me that divers of
those in England who had always withstood the
making of the war in Africa, saying that the Dutch
had the more just cause, were also sore vexed that
De La Rey and Botha and De Wet held themselves
aloof from them, and would not listen to their counsels,
thinking it to be behoveful and more convenable to
save themselves from the unwisdom of their friends.

More, I have been told that when certain of these


82 Froissart's Modern Chronicles

friends came to hold converse with them, so soon as
these had entered the one door of their lodging in-
continent the Dutchmen would go out by the other
door and so avoided them. But I cannot of a surety
say if this was as I have told you for I set it down
only as it was related to me.

Howbeit the Dutch leaders, though they demeaned
themselves right courteously and with all fealty, and
were treatable and glad of acquaintance, did contrive
to countervenge them upon the English.

And the manner of their doing it was in this wise.

They set themselves to write books concerning
the war, shewing how the Dutch had for so long
continued to withstand the English. And specially
De Wet did set down in the chronicles which he
wrote all his enterprises and adventures against the
English, how he scrimmished with them and often
discomfited them to their damage, and how he avoided
them when they thought to have encompassed or
overtaken him.

Among those who thus wrote books about the
war was Oom Paul, who was formerly lord over the
Transvaal, and who had rled to Holland when the
Earl de Bobs and the English army seized his towns.
Oom Paul was now sojourning in Holland, where he
was held in high repute by the Dutchmen, who deemed
him to have been cruelly oppressed.

De La Rey, Botha, and De Wet 83

When Oom Paul saw that his country was lost to


him beyond all remedy, he set himself to write down

84 Froissart's Modern Chronicles

the history of the divers disputations between himself


and Sir Joseph de Birmingham, and the matters out
of which the war arose.

De La Key, Botha, and De Wet 85

And you may well believe that his chronicles did


not greatly favour the English, specially Sir Joseph

86 Froissart's Modern Chronicles

cle Birmingham, for there was little amity between
him and Oom Paul.

It might well have been thought that these books
would have been sore displeasant for the English to
read, but truth it is that though they be orgulous,
yet they are right generous towards those who have
fought against them with valiance, and so they bought
these chronicles and read them, saying, " Let us con-
sider the other side of the matter, for so it behoveth
us to do if we would profit from experience." And
it hath been told me that Sir John de Brodrick, who
had the ordering of the army in England, read the
records of the war with great diligence, howbeit
there were many matters set forth in them that mar-
vellously discomforted him. For he greatly desired
to learn the art of war, the more so because the
Emperor of Almaine had made him a gift of a Red
Eagle, which is the bird of war, and therefore he was
minded to live up to it and to be deemed a knight
of great puissance in war.

How a great monster called the Spearpoint Drorgan came across the
sea and sore affrayed the English.

Let us now go back to speak of how, in this same
year a thousand nine hundred and two, the English
were greatly affrayed by reason of a huge, mighty,
perilous, and dreadful monster that came from the
West across the sea to England. The bigness thereof

The Spearpoint Drorgan 87

was a marvel to behold, and men called it the Spear-

point Drorgan, for it had as it were great spears on

88 Froissart's Modern Chronicles

its head and neck, so that none could in any wise
overcome or sit upon it.

Now this Drorgan was as puissant on land as on
the water, for it was both a Drorgan and a Sea- Fish,
and for this reason it was also called The Great

Now the English, specially those who had no ships
to sell, were sore discomforted when they knew that
the Spearpoint Drorgan was coming ; for it was
bruited abroad that the monster was seizing upon all
the English ships that it encountered by the way, so
that the English began to fear there would be no


more vessels left to them wherein to carry their
banners. For you must know that the English take
pride that they have more ships, both great and
small, than hath any other country. Also it was said
that the Drorgan was minded to come a-land in
England, and to seize and take away the Abbey
Church of Westminster, and the Castle of London,
and the King's castles, and his crowns, and sceptres,
and orb, and all the treasures of the country.

But I trow that those who said these things were
dismayed without reason, for in the end, as it hath
been shewed me, the Drorgan, though of a truth it
seized upon all those ships that could not avoid it,
yet it spouted out streams of gold to pay for them,
so that no man received hurt or damage thereby.

The Spearpoint Drorgan 89

Howbeit there were some who sailed away when
the Drorgan would have taken their ships, saying,
"We would rather keep our ships than have the
Drorgan's gold."

Neither did the Drorgan seize or carry away
any of the treasures of England, as it was bruited
that it had a mind to do.

But when it would have dug a hole underneath
London, the citizens would in no wise agree, saying
that it behoved them to draw a line somewhere.


How Sir Joseph de Birmingham departed out of England, and wen/
to Africa, and the reason of his going.

YE may well believe that there was great confusion
in Africa after the war had been made an end
of, seeing that the oxen had been devoured, and
many places brent and destroyed, and the land laid
waste. For so it must ever be when men make war
upon each other.

Now when one country prevaileth over another,
but desireth not to add to its territories, it with-
draweth its army back after the victory, making a
treaty whereby it secureth great finance and ransom,
and the country that is overcome must needs remedy
its own hurt and damage.

But in this business of the war in Africa, of which
I have herebefore told you, the case was otherwise,
for King Edward of England had proclaimed himself
to be the lord paramount over the lands of the Trans-
vaal and the Orange State, and so the Dutch and
the English were to be unied in one Empire.

Now when men of different countries have with-


The Voyage of Sir Joseph 91

stood each other, fighting felly and slaying on either
side, they do not always have so great and sudden
an affection for those who have fought fiercely against
them as is needful when they have to dwell together
under the same governance and laws.

Sir Joseph de Birmingham, whose business it was
in the governance of England to order matters relating
to those parts of Africa which appertained to England,
sorely mused how he might contrive that the English
and the Dutch might accord together, and live in
amity. To this end he resolved that he would himself
journey to Africa, and see what could be done in
that wise. And he was the more minded to go on
this viage, not only because he deemed that it
behoved him to remedy the mischief, which some said
he had brought about, but because Sir Arthur de
Balfour and others of the governance were allied
with the Bishops and the clergy in an adventure of
which I will speak before I have made an end of
these chronicles.

In former times Sir Joseph had no great love for
the Bishops, and was disdainous to them. But this
was before he performed his vigil at Hatfield, and
renounced his allegiance to the Buffs, repenting him
of all the works he had wrought with them, and had
been absolved and received into the party of the

92 Froissart's Modern Chronicles

And howbeit the Bishops and the clergy now spake
reverently of Sir Joseph de Birmingham, he could not
entirely accord with them, and he was discomforted by
the alliance of which I have spoken, the more so by
reason of the murmurations that were made by certain


of his retainers at Birmingham, who, though they had
followed him when he joined himself to the Blues, yet
could not altogether rid themselves of their former

And so when he had made purveyance for his

The Voyage of Sir Joseph 93

journey, Sir Joseph departed from his castle of High-
bury with trumpets, and shawms, and sackbuts, and
psalteries, and lighted torches, and rode to London
and onward to Southampton, where was a King's ship,
the Bonne Esperance, awaiting him. He journeyed in
right royal style, on the King's horses, and in the
King's carriages, and so went on board the ship, and
sailed towards Africa.

How Sir Joseph de Birmingham tarried by the way in Egypt, and
saw the Pyramids and the Sphinx. Hoiv he afterwards crossed
the Equator, , and the gifts he received from Neptune.

Now Sir Joseph was minded to see as much of
Africa as he could on the way, and so he caused the
ship to be put a-land when it came to Egypt, for
greatly he desired to visit the country where in ancient
times there had ruled another puissant and pushful
man of the same name as himself.

Moreover, he was minded that the name of Joseph
should not be forgotten in the land of the Pharaohs,
and thus he went on shore, where he was received
right honourably and courteously by the ruler, who
caused to be shewed to him all the wonders of his
country, the Pyramids, and the scarabs, and the
mummies, and the temples, and the tombs.

Sir Joseph had great joy of seeing these things,
and specially it was right pleasant to behold the
Sphinx, seeing that great men in history have ever

94 Froissart's Modern Chronicles

been wont to journey thitherward to see if haply
they may discern the semblance of themselves.


The Voyage of Sir Joseph 95

And when Sir Joseph had assured himself in this
matter, he departed from Egypt in his ship, and sailed
on until they came to the Equator, which geographiers
hold to be a line drawn around the world midway


between the North Pole and the South Pole. A
right perilous line it is to cross, for when the ship
would pass it, there cometh up out of the sea a wild
man, who avoucheth himself to be the heathen god,

96 Froissart's Modern Chronicles

Neptune, and unless there be largesse and ransom
paid to him, he evilly and cruelly useth those who
would pass through his kingdom for the first time.

And so, when the Bonne Esperance would have
sailed over the Equator, incontinent this wild man
came aboard, and demanded to see Sir Joseph de

I trow that Sir Joseph would gladly have avoided


( Westminster Records.")

holding converse with Neptune, but he could do none
otherwise, and so he went with good grace and did
homage to him as the King of the Ocean. And
Neptune spake right fairly and courteously, and
ordained him a knight of the order of the Sardine,
for the which honour Sir Joseph gave him thanks
and great largesse, and so Neptune departed back
again to his kingdom.

The Voyage of Sir Joseph 97

But it hath been told me that before he went away
from the ship he drew out of a net that he carried
with him an hour-glass, and a long spoon, and a
squeezed sponge or coral, and a packet that was
inscribed " Old Age Pensions Scheme," and gave
them to Sir Joseph, saying that he had fortuned to
find them at the bottom of the sea.

But whether this was so I cannot of a surety say.

How Sir Joseph de Birmingham came to Uganda, and of the divers
wild beasts that abound therein.

After the Bonne Esperance had crossed the
Equator, as I have shewed you, it sailed to Mombasa
which lieth on the east side of Africa in Uganda,
which is one of the territories of the British Empire,
for Sir Joseph was minded to visit it for divers
reasons. The English had made there a great and
costly road through the country, and there had been
many disputations about the matter in the English
Parliament. For there were some who held it to
have been an evil thing to waste so much treasure
on a road that was in no wise needed.

Of a truth I well believe that more money was
spent in the making of the road than was just, for
things that are done by a governance are ever waste-
ful and extravagant. And in the making of it there
were many lives destroyed in a strange and terrible
manner by the marvellous fierceness of the lions.


98 Froissart's Modern Chronicles

For Uganda aboundeth in divers fearsome wild
beasts, the olifawnte, the gerfaunt, the unicorn, the
tragelaphus, the behemoth, the leviathan that beareth
armour upon him, the lion, the libbard, and the hyaena.

And of all these the lion is the most fearsome
and perilous, for he ever raveneth for his prey, and


when he perceives that the hunters are pursuing him
he eraseth his footprints with his tail, so that he
cannot be traced to his lair, and thus he avoideth
those that would slay him.

Sir Joseph greatly desired to see some of these
monsters, specially the lion and the unicorn, for

The Voyage of Sir Joseph 99

England beareth these creatures for supporters, and so
he journeyed a certain distance into the country to
behold them, to the end that when he returned
back to England he could the more readily discourse
about the wild beasts that guard the Crown of the

But he was not covetise of their coming to him
too closely, and so he made haste and went back to
his ship, and so on to the place where he was minded

to go.

What afterwards befell Sir Joseph de Birmingham
in Africa, and of his mission there, I will relate to
you hereafter when I have fuller knowledge.


How the Bishops brought petitions to the governance, praying that
the Chttrch might be relieved from the burden of paying for its

IT hath been long sith I spake of holy Church or
of the business of the Parliament in England ;
now I will return thereto ; the matter requireth it
seeing that the two were unied in a marvellous
manner as I shall now shew you.

Ye have well heard herebefore, how by the exhor-
tation of Sir Arthur de Balfour the Commons had
made divers changes in their rules of procedure,
which were contrarious to their old customs, to the
end that Sir Arthur and others might with greater
ease achieve the business they were minded to do in
the country of a Saturday. Now this business, as I
have already shewed you, was the playing of golf,
which Sir Arthur de Balfour loved above all games.
And when this had been achieved, he did not pursue
the matter, howbeit the changes that he intended were
in no wise made an end of, saying that the business
could wait for a season, and that what had already
been done, though it was not complete, was like a
part of a beautiful statue and might justly be admired
for itself.

The Bishops and the Governance 101

Of a surety I trow that the Commons had no leisure
for any matters but those of holy Church, and what
this business was I will now relate to you. Ye must
know that in England, howbeit the Church is allied
with the State, there be many sects which are not
in accord with it, and these are called Nonconformists,
or Dissenters as you will.

And besides these there are a certain number of
Roman Catholics who have their own Bishops and
priests, and yield allegiance to the Pope.

In like wise there be divers kinds of schools. Some
are not unied with any Church or sect, but are
maintained by the people : others are ordered other-
wise, and these, which are called denominational
schools, belong for the most part to the Church of

Now the burden of supporting these schools, of
which I last spake, was not a light one, and the
Bishops and the clergy had for a long time mused
how they might find some remedy or relief, howbeit
they were minded that these schools should ever
continue to be allied to the Church.

And so, seeing that the party of the Blues, which
greatly favoured the nobility, clergy, and gentry, held
the governance against the Buffs with puissance, the
Bishops and the clergy resolved that they would
demand of the governance that the cost of the Church

IO2 Froissart's Modern Chronicles

schools should be lifted from their shoulders and put
upon the whole people.

The Bishops and the Governance 103

Quoth they, " We have ever aided the Blues
against the Buffs, and it is behoveful that great favour
should be shewed to us. Have not the Blues great
puissance now after the victory they obtained in the
year of our Lord a thousand and nine hundred ? For
in that season there were many of the Buffs who
either did not join their own banners, or who allied
themselves to the Blues for a time by reason of the
war in Africa. For did not Sir Joseph de Birmingham
proclaim that to aid the Buffs in that battle was to
aid the Dutch to prolong the war ? Let us therefore
go to the governance with ten thousand petitions and
demand of them that we be relieved from the burden
that poistereth us so grievously."

And when they had spoken in this wise they
assembled together in Convocation and made great
purveyance of petitions. Then the Bishops put on
their oldest vestments, and rent them, and put clouted
shoes on their feet, in like manner as the children of
Gibeon when they made an ambassade to Joshua ; for
they desired to shew how they were oppressed and
impoverished by their burdens.

How Sir Arthur de Balfour caused a Bill to be drafted, and how
the governance carried it through Parliament.

Now the governance of the Blues had ever been
minded to favour the Bishops and clergy, as I have
herebefore shewed you, and indeed they had often

IO4 Froissart's Modern Chronicles

done so. But they could not do all they would, for
the Buffs withstood them stoutly in this matter, saying
that it was not just to favour the Church more than
any other sect.


And so when the governance had aviewed the
petitions which the Bishops brought to them, they
agreed that they would accord thereto, saying, "It may

The Church Schools Bill 105

never again fortune us to be so puissant as the
business of the war and the discomforts of the Buffs
have made us in this present season. Therefore let
us reward those who have been our friends whilst
we have the power."

And it was in this wise that Sir Arthur de Balfour,
howbeit he was not covetise of overtravail, set himself
to devise how the people might be made to pay for
the Church schools, and yet that the control over
them should not be taken away from the Church.

Now there was in the governance a certain knight,
Sir Jonah Gorst, whose business it was to see to the
schools. He was a man of wisdom in counsel, but
contrarious, and, whether by reason of his making
himself displeasant, or in what wise I know not, he
was cast overboard out of the ship, and another
counsellor was appointed in his place to draft a Bill
and to advise Sir Arthur de Balfour.

It w r ould take me too long a time to set down all
the disputations over this matter of the Education Bill
in Parliament, even indeed if I rightly comprehended
the true foundation of the business, which no man
doth, I trow.

It hath been shewed me, and I well believe it,
that the Blues and the Buffs could not in any wise
agree, and those who fought against the Bill, among
whom Sir James de Bryce did his devoir with valiant-

106 Froissart's Modern Chronicles


(Education Records,}
ness, resisted so stoutly that it was not until the

The Church Schools Bill


middle of the last month of the year that the govern-
ance were able to make an end of the matter. It hath
also been told me that they would not have achieved
their purpose even then if Sir Arthur de Balfour had
not in the autumn of this same year hastened the


business by ever and anon seizing upon the Buffs in the
Commons, and shutting them up in compartments whence
they could neither escape nor make their voices heard.

The Buffs were greatly angered at this, declaring
that they had been cruelly ill-treated and gagged.

io8 Froissart's Modern Chronicles

There were some also on the side of the Blues
who did not accord with all that Sir Arthur de Balfour

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