F. Grenfell Baker.

The model republic; a history of the rise and progress of the Swiss people online

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modi: I, Ri:iH']u,ic

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KiciiAHi) iKAXcis lu'irrox

K.f.M.i,.. i-.K.i;.s.

To wliox .iihici' ■■ The Model Kt-piihlir " owes its ori,i,an.
and h_\- uho-c lu-lp and cncciirauciucnl duriiii; thrcr year-
ot r]u-c coiniianionship it \\a> conipU'teil. the antlior
dedicates this M)luine.

When Riehai<l ISiifton. hy rii;ht ot' liis Ht'e's record,
entered t!ie X'alhaUa ol' the tier.iie (U'acL tlie a^^e lo>t one
ul' it> lorrnio-t -eholar-. Hn'^m-t - . e.\ploi\T.-. -eicnti>t>. and
poet - ; it l'i~i ,■( hii:h-nnn(ii(| -cntlcni.in. an hononrahli- and
'gallant man. 'I'he Tniird Kinudon: \'. a> hononi'ed lix'heinL.-
tiis liii'thdand: the i)t-i and hiM'-''-t ot'.-ill dnntrio- claimed
inni a~ a coiiiimI riot .

CO N r 1-: x Ts

1 'KKin.^roKIC I'l-Kldl' . , I

IIakI.V ] MIAI'.ITAN r> 'II lli:lAl.llA AM' KlLlllA I/i

Mt-;iAi;TiA CMM.i; tiii-: Ivi)\ia\> _■;<>

'I'm; A l,l,!-,M ANN! AM) i ! U Ki . L' N I 1 1 A N > -\ ^

Swn zi.isi.Axn rxin-K i ii i-: )''i;ank^ 3-'

'I'm. I XCI iKlM ilvAIInN III- S\\'IIV.I:KI.AM) IMii rm- (il.KMAX

l-!Mi'ii<i-; 72

Swrr/i-;]<i.Axii a I'aki' dk tiii: (ii-MvMAx i'lMriki-. s.)

i'oL XDATiox 111" Till Swiss ( 'oxi-i-Di.KATH >x !Im

CrKowTii OI - Tin; (.'()Xfki)i;kati()X axd Waks with Austkia 14s

('i\'ii Wars axi) I'dLiTiCAi, Ciiaxi .i',.-^ dk Tm. ('"nki-jjioka

tiox (ii - Tin: I'^i'.irr Statks 17^

The JiuKGUXDi ax, (;i-;u'Max axd I''k);xch Waks iiyd

Causes ov thI': REl■•f)l^■MATIl)X jjj

The Kekokmatihx axp ns Li-,ai)i;i-:- .'^.s

The Kefokmatiox ix the I-'kexch-si'i-^akixi. 1ii\-is1iix> uk

SwixziCKLAxn 200

The Catholic Keactiox axu 'ihj-. ( )\-ektiiko\\' ue the

Old Cox federation .2Si">

Till-: rjKAL"HL"Xl)i:x OK GkISOXs Ztj^j

CniL AND Relkhous Waks "320

Switzerland's Gi:nekal Coxditiox hi:k(ike the 1-'rench

In\'asiox, hi:t\vi:i:x 1713 axd i7ijS 333

The Swiss Revolution 3S3

Tm: I1el\'i:tic JvEruiiLic 421

Switzerland uxder the Act of Mediation 443

Kestokatiox of the I'ederai. Pact a 4D2

Democratic Reaction 474

Switzerland of To-DA^ 513





i' R E II 1 s ro K I c; V v. r i (^ n

Ai.Tiiorcii no historical records exist earlier than
about a century before the Christian era re,<j^arclin,t( the
people of Switzerland, yet the \'ast stores of lonj;'-hidden
material brou<,dit to lii^dit in recent years throuj^ii the
patient researches ot natixa; and it)rei,i;'n archa'olo^ists,
aiford ample ex'idence that at \ery remote periods the
country contained numerous inhabitants. So complete,
indeed, are the sources of information, that \ve are nt)\v
able to determine the social and d(jmestic habits of the
ancient Swiss, and to form a lcUrl\- accurate idea of ihi'
proj^ress of ci\ilisation made by them lon,^■ before
classical Avriters brou,t{ht them on the pa.s^^'S of au-
thentic history.

'I'o I'^erdinand Keller, of Zurich, belongs the ^'fcat
honour of beiuL,'' the fn"st to in\'esli,<4"ate thoroughly, and
arrange systematically the materials bearing;' on this
important and intei'estiuL;' subject. Mis attention was


directed to the possibility of the existence, at some
remote epoch of the world's being, of a large population
occupying the Swiss valleys, by finding scattered in
great quantities over the country what were evidently
man-made implements of domestic toil, and manu-
factured weapons of war and the chase, none of which
were known to be in use during historic times. Many
of these possessed the peculiarity of being fashioned
out of stone instead of metal, and were evidently primi-
tive prototypes of articles used within historic periods.

Lake- During the exceptional dry seasons of 1853-4 ^^^^

Dwellings. ^ ^ . ^, . . , ,

water 01 Lake Ziinch receded to a very unusual extent.

It was then noticed, at a spot close to the town of Ober-
meilen, that a number of half-decayed wooden posts
studded the Lake bottom. On removing several of
these they were found to be roughly sharpened at their
buried ends, as if by scraping or burning, and to be
supported by masses of clay, stone and bundles of
wood. Amidst the latter were discovered a quantity
of stone implements like those already found inland.
Shortly afterwards similar collections were met with at
many places in the other Swiss lakes, and a sufficient
number of relics were brought to light to demonstrate
conclusively the previous existence of large villages,
built entirely of wood and supported on piles, at short
distances from the shore. Thousands of examples of
the actual articles used by the dwellers in these primi-
ti\"C artificially-constructed villages, as well as portions
of almost every part of their houses, Iiave been re-
covered by Keller, and the many investigators who
followed in his steps. From the results of tlieir
labours, it is probable that the following represents
the chief general appearance and condition of one of

these l;ike-ci\ve!IinL;s ;is it existed inanv hundreds, if not
thousands, of years at^o.

A spot beiiiL,'' chosen in some lake where tlie water
was fairly shallow at a short distance from the shore.
a numl)er of straiq'ht tree-trunks were cut or burned
down from the nei.i^hhourinL,'- forest, which, after beim^''
sharpened at one extremity, were then lirmly dri\'en
into the lake-floor, lea\'inLf the projecting ends several
feet abo\-e the water. Where the bed was soft and
muddy greater support was afforded to the piles b\-
placing masses ot wood, stone and clav around and
between them. The materials were carried in canoes
fashioned from the trunks (jf thick trees, similar to
those employed by sa^•ages at the present d'dv, that
are known as j;ioi:ocvU's or d'.ii^-ruls, and m;-asuriii;4'
in some instances as much as 40 feet in Lngth by
II feet in breadth, of which se\-eral specimens n:\-
still preser\'ed in the warious Swiss museums. On
the tops (ji the projecting supports a platlorm was
next built of stout trans\"erse beams, either do\e-
tailed into the substructure, (jr pinned on to it b\'
wooden pegs, though in some le'W cases the wliole
platform-support was made up ot ta>cines, >t')nes and
clay, with occasional stakes to attoi'd greater security.
Upon the platform thus made the luit^ were c:on>ti'ueied,
being built ot rough planks or stems. h.>i\ing the inter-
stices tilled with branches and cla\-, the latter bring also
spread in a thick la\'er o\'er the lloiii". These huts wei"e
mostlv quadrilateral in shape, divickvl into two r-Minis.
and clustered closely together, a\ei"agiiv_:' ab^ui Jj :eei b\'
17 feet in size : (jlhers were ciriailar. ;ind it is uneertam
whether thev had windows or whether the d'«.'r was
the onlv aperture for atlmitting light. A trap in llu-


floor communicated with the lake, and through this
the general refuse of the abode was cast. The roofs
consisted of thatch composed of rushes, leaves and
straw. Communication with the shore in the great
majority of the villages was maintained by means of a
long, narrow bridge, supported in the same manner as
the platforms, and in some instances sheds were erected
close to the huts for the cattle and sheep, though these
were usually left on the shore.

From the nature of the relics found amid the debris
on the sites of these ancient lacustrine settlements, it
would seem that the huts contained all the necessary
accommodation for a family, with the needful cooking
and other domestic utensils for lessening labour, and
subjugating and utilising nature's products. Every
village had its mill to grind the corn and other cereals
that were largely grown on the neighbouring land, where
also the sheep and cattle were pastured. \\'eavers'
looms and spinning-wheels were largely used, and skins,
linen and woollen fabrics prepared for clothing by the
women ; whilst the men fished, hunted, or hoed their
fields. The lake-dwellers lived an isolated existence,
having little or no communication with the outside
world till a much later period, when we see bronze and
iron introduced amongst them. The finding of relics
made of these latter metals marks distinctly a great
advance in general culture, as also in time ; they must
have been brought from countries other than Switzer-
land, she herself being singularly barren in iron, copper
and tin.

Many of the settlements were en-idently of great
extent, occupying sites equal in area to h\e or six
T'^nglish acres, and re(|uiring as many as roo,ooo piles

tor their support. That on the Lake of ISienne cnver> a
space eijual to more than six ICiiL^hsh acres; that at
Rohcnhauscn is of equal size, and is calculated to con-
tain loo.ooo piles: wliilst opposite the little town of
Morg^es, on Lake Lenian, one existed measurin',,^ i,2(M)
feet by 150 teet. Other large settlements were erected in
\'arious parts of Lake Lcman (where the remains of
twenty-four distinct \illages are seen), and in the lake>
of Xeuchatel, Zurich and C'onstanz. as well as in the
smaller sheets of water. In Lake Constanz thirty-two.
and spread o\'er that of Xeuchatel more than fifty. ha\-e
been found.

The reason for building these water habitatiiuis ha.-^
been much disputed, but there can be little doubt that
it was in order to afford the inhabitants greater protec-
tion ag^ainst the wast numbers oi sawage animals that
tenanted the forests which, in those early times, co\'eretl
the greater part of the country, ;is well as a detencc
against incursions of neighbouring hostile tribes. It is
impossible from existing e\'iden(~e to sjieak with an\'
degree of certaint}- as to the anti(iuity (^i the earlier
stations : but. from the difference in (jualilv of the
materials used in the manufactui'e of the relics, and the
impr()\-ed and more artistic fashion of those e\itlently
belonging to a later tlate. we arriw at a dix'ision into
three successi\-e epochs. These correspond with the
ages when stone, bronze, or iron tormed the chirt
material in use. This di\ision is practicall}- useful,
and gi\'es, m(jreo\er, a general idea of the Irn^lh of
time that must ha\e elapsetl siiu'e that far distant date
when prima-\'al man was little, if at all, rcmo\ ed in
intellectual development from the higher forms of bi ute
beasts. "When man wandered in the dark turests, he

6 HisroKY OF TH1-: SWISS p]-:opL}-:

was nature's serf ; he offered tribute and prayer to the
winds, and the hghtning and the rain, to the cave-hon,
which seized his burrow for its lair, to the mammoth,
which devoured his scanty crops. l>ut as time passed
on he ventured to rebel ; he made stone his servant ;
he discovered fire and vegetal)le poison ; he domesticated
iron ; he slew the wild beasts, or subdued them ; he made
them feed him and give him clothes.^ The trees of the
forest were his flock, he slaughtered them at his con-
venience, the earth brought forth at his command." —
(" Martyrdom of iSIan.")

In some of the village debris all the relics found are
fashioned entirely of stone, bone, or horn ; in others, in

I This division into Stone, Bronze and Iron Ages is, of course,
purely arbitrary (eacli age must liave merged bv slow degrees into
the succeeding one) ; but from our present knowledge it is impcis-
sible to be more scientifically exact, though manv authorities ha\e
attempted to be so. Before the introduction of the general use of
stone, there certainly existed a period when priniccval man did not
possess the slight knowledge the fashioning of this material in-
\'()lved, and when his only weapons were sticks, and half-fashioned
pieces of wood and horn. In some countries, where stone is scarce
oi" hard to procure, as in the more remote regions of (Greenland, the
natives still employ wood and bone to make their weapons and
domestic utensils, sharpening and fashioning them b}- burning or
boiling, and the great manual dexterity the\' possess. Numerous
fragments ol nets used by prehistoric man ha\-e been lomtd in the
remains in the Swiss lakes, nianv being made with \er\- large meshes,
olten two inches or more sipuire. l''rom this circiunstance it has
been conjectured that they were manufactiu'cd at a time when the
tish in the various lakes were abnormally large, .Vs, liowt:\'er, the
Swiss lakes contain (juantities of large fish, as tlie ferras, this In
pothesis lalls to the ground. A tlieor\' accoimting for the long
pn.:ser\ ation of these nets in the water has been jiropoinuled,
whifh, if not ti'ue, is at all ('x-ents ingenious. As most of tlie
la( ustrine \ illages were buiU of j)ine wood, and nearly all pirrished
b\- fire, it is tb.ought that the heat of the se\eral conflagrations
catised the pine resin to exude, and this, fading into the water,
co\eretl portions of nets, and so preser\-ed them.

Hisr(>K\ oi- iHi: SWISS I'l.oi'i.i: 7

addition to those materials, bronze is present : whilst in
a third set iron appears to have ahnost entirely super-
seded both stone and bronze. In the latter period the
nature and form of many of the articles show their
manufacture to be contemporaneous with that ot the
Roman era, but doubtless iron was used by the primi-
ti\'e Swiss many centuries before Rome extended her
influence beyt)nd the Alps. Though the materials at
diflerent periods are thus found to be diiferent, no ditler-
ence is apparent in the constructiiMi of the dwellings
themsehes, which ha\e been built practically in the
same manner throuqh countless a^'es.

This early period, which is sub-di\ided into the 5/../;. Al:c.
paleolithic, or roui^h ston^', and the neolithic, or polished
stone, ages, is well seen in the remains of the water
settlement that once existed in the Lake oi .Mooseedori,
in Canton Rern. The x'illage, which measured some
70 feet by 50 feet, appears, trom the charred condition
of the wood that comp(jsed it. to ha\e sharetl the late
that so often befel these sti'ucturfS. antl been burnt to
the water's edge. Xumbers ot the upright wooden
stakes still remain, amoni;"st which were disco\ered
many large stone axe-heads, tixed m stag's hoin and
wood halts, sharpcnetl tlint arrow-hrads, spears oi horn,
and a Imely serrated flint saw, together with tl^h-hook^.
awls, and ):iiercing instrunu'nt> made from bone. A
curious, and probablx' uni(pie, i"elic iound here was a
skate faslfloued out of one oi the long bones oi a lior>e's
leg; coarsely-made pottery cups, ami cooking \essels,
showing a \'ery primitixe mode ot manufaciure iscwral
still bearing the impress ot the tmgers ot tho>e who
made them) also came to light. The ainmal remains
were bones of the ox. swine, shc-ep, ,L,'oat, bear, horse.


bison and elk. Many similar lake - dwellings have
elsewhere been found where the early Swiss were
unacquainted with the use of metals, and a still larger
number in which bronze also makes its appearance ; yet
the materials of the earlier epoch greatly preponderate,
showing a transitional condition when the old order was
changing. Of the many stone implements dating from
this epoch the minerals most frequently used were flint,
sandstone, mica schist, diorite, and porphyry.

Biviizc Age. The ancient lake village, situated near where

Auvernier now stands, on the shore of the Lake of
Neuchatel, furnishes many specimens of the bronze age,
as do several other sites in different localities. Many
of the specimens show a high degree of artistic skill in
their manufacture, and indicate a great advance in
mental culture on the part of those that made them.
Bronze spear-heads and swords, an anvil, chisels, knives,
plain and ornamental rings for personal adornment, gold
studded brooches, and a large quantity of pottery, beauti-
fully shaped and finely made, are some among the many
articles that have been recovered.

Iron Age. On this same Lake of Neuchatel, at a settlement

near Marin, iron takes the place of bronze and stone
in most of the articles brought to light ; and, from the
still greater beauty and perfection shown in their pro-
duction, this ^■illage must have been of a much later
date than those in which bronze or stone alone were
in use.

Many iron swords, contained in iron scabbards,
here came to light ; and these, from their form, greatly
resembled, and were probably identical with, early
Gallic weapons. Whilst the excavations were in pro-
gress, the bones belonging to eight human skeletons

lll>l<>K\ (II- 1111. swi;


were discoxered. This is interesting, as bein,;^' one ui
the \ ery tew instances where the actual remains ot the
ancient lake-ciwellers ha\ c been found. J;<;th (ialhc
and Roman coins were mixed with the iron swords,
speardieads, ornaments, anil other th'htis forinin<^f the
remnants c;f this village, whicii thus brings the record
of lake-dwellings up to historic times.

At Kobenhausen. the curious disco\ery has \)ucn Mixtd Ax;cs.
made, in the peaty bed that was once occupied b\' the
Lake ol I'iaftikcjn, (jf the remains (jf three distinct
\illages, superimposed (ju one another, and clearly
dixided by layers of sedimentary deposits, marking
three separate ep;jchs. The lu'st, or lowest, was e\"i-
dently destrijyed by lire, and amidst its carlxjnised piles
implements ot bone and st<;ne only were disco\ered.
()\er this stratum lay a deposit of sediment nearly
j teet in thickness, and here a series of partially-
burned piles were buried, together with [jottery ami
articles of stone, horn and bone, more artisticall\ Imished
than those lielow. Al)o\'e came ancjther la}'er of sedi-
ment, through which were dri\'eii a number of split
oak trunks. 'Idiese show that the workmen possessed
better tools than those ot their pretlecessors, who were
able to use onh' [)ine or other soft wood for the stakes
su[)i)orting their abodes, and were capable only of
scraping or partially cutting e\'en these with their
primiiixe flint kni\es. .Man_\- highly-finished articles
were also found in this u[)per layer, including well-
made plates, tubs, spooiis. clubs, bows. tishing-ta(d<le,
a thrashing tkul, and many \arieties of cloth, both
plaited and wox'en. 1 Sesidc-s these, a dug-out canoe,
12 feet long, came to light, together with many
axes and arrow-heads of stone. Although no articles


made of bronze were here discovered, several crucibles
containing traces of that amalgam attest its presence,
and show, moreo\-er, that it was made in the settlement
and not wholly imported in its finished state.

Land It is now pretty generally conceded that the people

ijc ers. \^{\\o occupied the Swiss valleys in prehistoric times were

essentially identical with those living on the lakes.
Both the design and material of the weapons and
domestic implements foimd belonging to the former
precisely correspond with those possessed by the latter.
Little is known for certain of the religion, language,
or race of the early Swiss people, though a great
probability exists that they were made up of Kelts who
migrated into the land. There seems no real reason to
doubt that the lake-dwellers were of the same ethnic
descent as the Helvetians who first appear in history,
and that in spite of the prevalent view that is now held.
As with other ancient races, the Swiss were pagans, and
amidst their hosts of deities probably placed the moon
in a very exalted position. Many lunar-shaped relics
ha\'e been imearthed at Ebenberg and at Brienne.

Rdigiuii. " In the period of Thing-worship every brook, tree,

hill and star is itself a li\-ing creature, benevolent or
malignant, asleep or awake. In the next stage, e\-ery
object and phenomenon is inhabited or presided over by
a genius or a spirit.

" As the reasoning powers of men expand, their gods
diminish in number and rule o\"er larger areas, till finally
it is perceived there is unity in nature — that everything
that exists is part of one harmonious whole. When the
poet in\-okes in his splendid frenzy the shining spheres
of liea\'en, the murmuring fountain, and the rushing
stream; when lie calls upon the earth to hearken, and

iii^iOKV oi- 1111. h\\i>> i'i;(ii'i.i. II

l)ids the wild sea listen to his song; when he coninuines
with the sweet seckuleci \':illeys and the hau,L;'hty hills, as
if those inanimate objects were ali\'e, as if the masses of
brute matter were endcjwed with sense and thoiii,dit, we
do not smile, we do not sneer, we do not reason, but we
feel. A secret chord is touched within us; a slumberint;
sympathy is awakened into life. Who has not felt an
impulse of hatred, and perhaps expressed it in a senseless
curse, against a lier\- stroke of sunlight or a sudden gust
of wind ? Who has not felt a pang of pity for a tlower
torn and trampled in the dust, a shell dashed to frag-
ments by the waves ? Such emotions and ideas last
only for a moment ; they do not belong t(j us ; they are
the fossil fancies of a bygone age; they are a heritage of
thought from the childhood of our race. T'or there was
a time when they possessed the human mind. There
was a time when the phrases of modern poetry were the
facts of ordinary life. There was a time when man li\ed
in fellowship with nature, belie\ing that all things \\hich
ino\-ed or changed had minds and bodies kindred to his
own. To those prima 'wa! people the sun was a great
being who brightened them in his pleasure and who
scorched them in his wrath. The earth was a sleejMng
monster: scjiuetimes it rose a liltk' ami turned itselt in
bed. 'bhey walked upon its bat k when li\ing: lluy
were put iiVuj its belly when they died. b'lre wa^ a
sa\a,L;e animal, which bit when it ua^ loucheil. I he
birds and beasts were l(jrc-igners, possessing l;uiguage>
and cust(jms of their (jwn. TIk; jilants wcie dumb
creatures, with characters ^ootl and bad, sometimes
gloomy in aspect, malignant in their Iruit. sometimes
dispensing wholesome food and pleasant shatle." This
([notation from the late Win ward Keed's great work is


inserted, as it embodies within the compass of a few

paragraphs more suggestions of the truth concerning the

mental development of primaival man than is to be

found in all the many treatises that learned specialists

have written on the subject.' No date can be assigned

to the period of the lake-dwellers, though of necessity

it must l)e a very remote one.

Historical IJefore closing this short outline of the prehistoric

Lake- . . . . .

DurUiii"s. times m Switzerland, it may be interesting to glance at

our knowledge of lake - dwellings in other countries.
Although Helvetia affords the greatest number of
examples of these settlements, similar collections have
been in existence for \'ast ages scattered over the world
dowm to the present time, though it would appear not to
any great extent. The earliest historical references to
this subject are found in the writings of Hippocrates
and Herodotus, some 400 years before the Christian era.
The former describes the people of Phasis, in Asia
Minor, as li\ing in wooden homes built upon piles
dri\en into the marshy ground of the country, and as
using boats made from a single tree. Herodotus, speak-
ing of the people of Lake Prasias, tells us they built
homes on platforms, supported by upright stakes driven
into the bottom of the lake, and communicated with the
shore by means of a long bridge ; and that in the interior
of the huts was a trap-door leading down to the water.

I It is also inserted as a tribute to the memory of one, who
combined in his character the greatest instincts of the greatest
poets, who possessed a knowledge of ancient and modern learning
perfectly phenomenal, and whose originality of thought was onl)-
exceeded by the tones (jf the vividly beautiful word-pictures in
which he embodied his ideas. Death cut short the promise his
brilliant, though short, career conveyed of a life destined to mark
an C'ra in ICnglisli thought, knowledge and culture.

HisroKV iM- Tiii-. SWISS i'i;niM.i: ij

When this door was open the chikhen were pre\'ented

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