nomenal, has been uniform and decided.
To recount all her wanderings or give any-
thing like a complete history of her life would
fill volumes. No singer that ever lived
traveled so much or sang before so many
people. She visited nearly every country on
the globe, and the most of them repeatedly.
In 1858 she married Martin Schultz, an
American gentleman, and made it her perma-
nent home at New York. She died there
March 18, 1884, from a stroke of apoplexy.
Her last public appearance was at a concert in
New York city in the spring of 1883. Her
voice was remarkably well preserved for one
so far advanced in years and she retained some
of her youthful appearance. No doubt if her
biography were written it would prove very
Blake, Charles D., a popular American
composer, was born at Walpole, Mass., in 1847.
At the age of seven years he commenced the
study of music, and at ten produced his first
composition, after which his progress was very
rapid. He has been a pupil of J. K. Paine,
J. C. D. Parker, Ryder, and Pond. Mr. Blake
aims only at producing music for the masses,
HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN MUSIC AND MUSICIANS.
in which he has been successful to an unusual
degree. His compositions number about three
thousand, a large part of which are for the
piano, but including many songs. He has also
elseif (getClientWidth() > 430)
written some larger works, one of which is
the " Light-Keeper's Daughter'' (libretto by
Geo. M. Vickers), produced for the first time
at the American Casino, Boston, June 12,
1882. He is at present (1884) a resident of
Boston, where he is connected with the music
publishing house of White, Smith & Co.
Blake, George E., was born in 1775.
He commenced publishing music at Philadel-
phia, in 1802, and was the oldest music pub-
lisher in America. He died in Philadelphia,
Feb. 24, 1S71, at the great age of ninety-six.
1>I i 11(1 Tom, as he is generally known,
whose real name is Thomas Green Bethune,
was born near Columbus, Ga., May 25, 1849.
He was blind from his birth, but as a compen-
sation therefor nature seems to have endowed
him with wonderful musical abilities. Being
by birth a slave, he was as such purchased by
Perry H. Oliver, in 1850. When not more
than five years old he had already become
quite familiar with the piano, and in 1858
made his first public appearance as a player.
Since that time he has made repeated concert
tours in this countiy, visiting the principal
cities and towns and always drawing good
houses, and even visited Europe, where he at-
tracted considerable attention. He is now
(December, 1882) again making a tour of the
States. Blind Tom can not be classed as a
musician in a strict sense of the word, having
never been educated as such, and consequently
his few compositions are of no value. Yet his
musical talents are indisputable, and that he
is in some respects a player of exceptionable
ability is also equally true. In fact, his seems
to be one of nature's eccentrical bestowals of
genius with which we sometimes meet, but
difficult to be explained or accounted for.
Bliss, Philip Paul, was born in Clear-
field County, Pa., July 9, 1838. He was very
fond of music, and when a young man taught
snging schools. Later, he held conventions,
etc., for Root & Cady, in various parts of the
West. During the latter part of his life he
was connected with Moody and Sankey, and
sang in the gospel meetings of Maj. D. W.
Whittle. He only calls for notice here as be-
ing the composer of several remarkably pop-
ular religious tunes, of which it is but neces-
sary to specify " Hold the Fort," "Only an
Armor Bearer," " Pull for the Shore," "Res-
cue the Perishing, "jetc. He perished in the
terrible accident at Ashtabula, Ohio, Dec. 29,
Boise, Otis B., was born Aug. 13, 1845,
at Oberlin, Ohio, where his father was a phy-
sician. Music had a special charm for him
from an early age, and when fourteen years
old he became organist of St. Paul's church,
Cleveland. He in 1861 went to Leipsic, study-
ing theory and composition there under Haupt-
mann, Richter, Moscheles, Menzel and others.
After a stay of three years in Leipsic, he went
to Berlin, where he studied with Kullak. Ar-
duous labor, however, told upon him, and he
was taken with a sickness which nearly termi-
nated his life. Upon recovery, in 1864, he
returned home and became organist at Euclid
Avenue Presbyterian Church, Cleveland. In
1870 he removed to New York, where he held
a similiar position in Dr. Hall's church and
taught in a conservatory. On account of de-
clining health he in 1876 again went to Europe
and visited Leipsic, where a motet of his elici-
ted favorable comments. The year 1877 was
spent at Weisbaden, and there he made the
acquaintance of Raff. In 1878 he returned to
New York. Jan. 30, 1879, ne g ave a concert
at Chickering Hall, the program of which was
entirely made up from his own works — cer-
tainly a bold step for a composer so young.
His compositions consist of a psalm for chorus
and orchestra, symphonies, concertos, over-
tures, smaller instrumental pieces, etc
Bonawitz, Johann Heinrich, was born
Dec. 4, 1839, at Durkheim, Germany, and at
an early age entered the Conservatorium at
Liege, where he remained until he was about
thirteen years old. In 1852 the family re-
moved to the United States, and soon located
at Philadelphia. Young Bonawitz played at a
concert of the Philadelphia Musical Fund
Society, in the winter of 1854-5, creating great
enthusiasm. He was a great admirer of
Mozart's music, and would save up all his
money to purchase the works of that great
master. In this way his ambition to become a
composer was stimulated, and he wrote a
sonata and an overture (played by the orches-
tra of the Walnut Street Theatre), though at
that time he was sadly deficient in knowledge
HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN MUSIC AND MUSICIANS.
of composition. In 1861 he went to Europe,
first visiting England and then proceeding to
Germany, everywhere meeting with great suc-
cess as a pianist. He took up his residence
at Weisbaden in 1862, where he remained
four years. In the autumn of 1866 he gave a
farewell concert and departed for Paris.
There he both taught and studied, becoming
much in demand on account of his abilities as
a player. While in Paris he wrote his opera
of "The Bride of Messina." In 1873 he
returned to this country and settled at Phila-
delphia. Soon after, " The Bride of Messina "
was brought out at the Academy of Music and
met with a favorable reception. For some
time he traveled for Decker Bros., New York,
giving concerts on their pianos. In 1875 he
was appointed conductor of music at the Cen-
tennial, but refused to act. Some unpleasant-
ness arising, he in 1877 went to Europe for
the second time and located at Vienna, where
he still remains, devoting himself to teaching
and composition. During the winter of 1879-S0
he made a concert tour of Germany. He has
written a second opera, " Ostrolenka " ( 1873
or 1874), which has not yet been performed.
Boston. Boston is noted for its musical
culture, and some account of its principal mu-
sical societies and institutions is here given.
Its leading musical manufacturers and pub-
lishers are noticed in their alphabetical order.
Boston Conservatory of Music. This
institution, one of the leading ones of its kind
in America, was established in 1867, by Julius
Eichberg, who is still (Jan., 1886) its director.
Thorough instruction in all branches of music-
is given by experienced teachers, and the ad-
vantages for rapid and sure progress on the
part of the pupil are as great as can anywhere
be found. The Conservatory has had a pow-
erful influence in raising the standard of musi-
cal taste, not only through the 15,000 pupils
who have passed through its courses and are
scattered all over the country, but through the
numerous public concerts given, which are
always of high order.
The violin school, which is under the per-
sonal direction of Mr. Eichberg, deserves es-
pecial notice. By common consent it is re-
garded as having no equal in America and
scarcely surpassed in Europe. The artistic
and highly refined performances of its pupils
give evidence of rare musical ability and train-
ing skill in its director and have won the high-
est praise. Mr. Eichberg has done much to-
ward removing the prejudice existing in this
country against the violin as a suitable musical
instrument for ladies. The Eichberg String
Quartet, composed entirely of Mr. Eichberg's
pupils, recently returned from Europe, where
it was accorded a flattering reception for its
masterly interpretations of the best works.
No one is so well qualified as Mr. Eichberg
for the work he has in hand, and his success
will mark an era in the musical history of this
Boston University. There is connected
with this University a College of Music, of
which Dr. Eben Tourjee is dean. Students
having completed the course of study of any
conservatory are admitted, after passing a
satisfactory examination, to the study of the
higher branches. Three years are generally
necessary to complete this course, and the
student may at the close receive the degree of
Bachelor of Music, provided he is a graduate
of any college of art, or if not, by passing an
examination in the following branches : Eng-
lish composition, history, and literature, a
modern language (French, German, or Ital-
ian), Latin (or a second modern language),
and mathematics. After obtaining this degree,
that of Doctor of Music may be obtained by
pursuing an additional four years' course of
study, and passing examinations in arithmetic,
grammar, geography, modern history, ele-
ments of physics, elements of chemistry,
ancient history and geography. In both cases
the candidate is required to present satisfac-
tory vouchers for his good moral character.
Boston Academy of Music A society
formed in 1833, in Boston, having for its
object the advancement of music in general,
but more especially of sacred muisc. It was
under the direction of Dr. Lowell Mason
and George James Webb, two of the pioneer
musicians of this country. Dr. George F-
Root was also at one time prominently con-
nected with it. The following was its pro-
gram, a formidable one, surely, but none the
less worthy of adoption :
1. — To establish schools of vocal music and
2. — To establish similar classes for adults.
3. — To form a class for instruction in the
methods of teaching music, which may be
HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN MUSIC AND MUSICIANS.
composed of teachers, parents, and all other
persons desiring to qualify themselves for
teaching vocal music.
4. — To form an association of choristers and
leading members of choirs, for the purpose of
improvement in conducting and performing
sacred music in churches.
5. — To establish a course ofpopularlectures
on the nature and object of church music, and
style of composition and execution appropriate
to it, with experimental illustrations by the
performance of a select choir.
6. — To establish a course of scientific lec-
7. — To establish exhibition concerts.
8. — To introduce vocal music in schools.
9. — To publish circulars and essays.
The influence of the Academy was felt all
over the United States, and at one time it was
considered an authority in everything relating
to music. In 1S47 it ceased to exist, giving
way to the more recent societies of Boston,
but not until it had performed an important
Boston Music Hall. A building erected
in 1852 for musical purposes. The main hall
is 130 feet long, 78 feet wide, and 65 feet high,
with two balconies. The seats are so placed
that every person can easily see and hear.
Doors at short intervals lead from the floor
and balconies to means of exit, so that the
hall, which holds 3,000 people, can be emptied
in a very few minutes if necessary. The build-
ing contains besides the hall numerous other
rooms which may be used for any desired
Boylston Club. This musical society,
composed exclusively of gentlemen, was orig-
inated in February, 1872. During the ensuing
season several pleasant evening entertainments
were given, but it was not until Feb. 21, 1873,
that the first real concert occurred. The
second season, which was opened with a pub-
lic rehearsal at Parker Memorial Hall, Nov.
28, 1873, proved a prosperous one, and soon
the Club took its place among the recognized
and influential musical organizations of Bos-
ton. In 1875 Carlyle Petersilea became its
pianist, a post which he still retains. In 1876
it was voted to invite the ladies to assist at
the concerts, but the membership is still ex-
clusively male. Eben Phinney was its first
director, but was soon succeeded by
J. B. Sharland. Mr. Sharland resigned his
position in 1875, when George L. Osgood be-
came director, a capacity in which he still
(Jan., 1883) acts. Under his able leadership
the Club not only continued to prosper but
improved its high musical standard, so largely
due to the efforts of Mr. Sharland. The per-
formances of the Club are of the highest order,
and the programs comprise the best works, such
as Mendelssohn's " Athalie," Schumann's
" Pilgrimage of the Rose," Bach's "Motet in
B flat," Brahm's "Choral Hymn," David's
"Desert," and Paine's "Realms of Fancy."
Apollo Club. This society was formed in
July, 1871. Its object is the cultivation and
performance of music for male voices only.
The number of regular or active members was
at first fifty, which has gradually increased to
seventy-five, with five hundred "associate"
(those who are subject to an annual assess-
ment but take no part in the performances)
members. In March, 1873, the Club was in-
corporated under a special act of the Massachu-
setts Legislature. Weekly rehearsals have
been held from the first, and up to 1882 seven-
ty-four concerts had been given, under the
care of its efficient conductor, B. J. Lang.
Among the works brought out (always with
full orchestral accompaniment where existing)
are Mendelssohn's "Antigone," " CEdipus
at Colonus," and "A Vintage Song; " Schu-
mann's "The Luck of Edenhal] " and " For-
ester's Chorus;" Beethoven's "Chorus of
Dervishes;" Bruch's "Scenes from the
Frithjof-Saga " and " A roman Song of
Triumph;" Raff's "The Warder Song;"
Rubenstein's " Morning; " Buck's "The Nun
of Nidaros " and "King Olaf's Christmas ; "
Whiting's "The March of the Monks of Ban-
gor ;" Paine's " CEdipus Tyrannus ; " Chad,.
wick's " The Viking's Last Voyage;" etc-
The officers of the society consist of a presi-
dent, vice-president, secretary, treasurer, and
librarian, who constitute the board of directors;
besides which there is a committee of three on
music, and a committee of four on voices.
Cecilia, The. This society of mixed
voices was originated in 1874 by the Harvard
Musical Association, and was designed to
assist at its concerts. There was no regular
organization and it remained under the patron-
age of the Harvard Association until the spring
of 1876. At that time a separation took place,
HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN MUSIC AND MUSICIANS.
and the Cecilia was remodeled and placed on
a permanent footing of its own. The number
of active members was lixed at 125 and the
number of associate members (those subject
to assessments but taking no part in the musi-
cal exercises) at 250. The concerts of the
society were held in Tremont Temple until
that building was destroyed by fire in 1879,
when they were temporarily held in the Music
Hall, and the number of active members in-
creased to 150. B. J. Lang has from the first
been its conductor, and under his direction it
has given many important works.
Euterpe (The). This society, though
young, has a strong board of officers and occu-
pies a prominent position. It was organized
Dec. 13, 1878, and gave its first concert on the
15th of January following. Its object is the
encouragement of chamber music and the
production of the best compositions in this line.
The number of members is 150, and all money
received is expended on the concerts, after
allowing for the necessary running expenses.
Connected with the society are some of Bos-
ton's most prominent musicians, among whom
are C. C. Perkins (president), B. J. Lang
(vice-president), W. F. Apthorp (treasurer),
Julius Eichberg, John Orth, S. B. Whitney,
J. C. D. Parker, etc. F. H. Jenks is (Dec,
Handel and Haydn Society. The
largest and most noted musical association of
the United States. It was founded March 30,
1815. At that time sixteen gentlemen came
together in response to an invitation dated
several days before, and signed by Gottlieb
Graupner, Thomas S. Webb and Asa Peabody.
A second meeting was held a fortnight later, at
which a set of rules was adopted and Matthew
S. Parker elected secretary; but it was not
until the third meeting, April 20, 1S15, that
the board of government was completed by
the election of Thomas S. Webb, president ;
Amasa Winchester, vice-president ; Nathaniel
Tucker, treasurer, and nine trustees.
The Society, whose avowed object was the
cultivation and improvement of sacred music
and the introduction of the works of eminent
composers, was thus perfected in form, but as
yet had showed no signs of life. Early in
September, 1815, there was talk of a public
exhibition, which took place the following
Christmas night, before an audience of 1000.
The chorus numbered about 100 performers,
and the orchestra a dozen, which, with an
organ, executed the accompaniments. The
program included selections from "Messiah,"
"Creation," and other of Handel's works.
An enthusiastic reception was tendered this
February 9, 1816, the State legislature
granted a special charter, in which the aim of
the Society was recognized, and a new set of
rules was adopted, calculated to strengthen
the association. It was not until the seven-
teenth concert, Dec. 25, 1818, that an oratorio
entire was performed, which was the " Mes-
siah." Six festivals, resembling those of
Birmingham (Eng.), have been held, the first
occurring in 1857. In May, 1865, the fiftieth
anniversary of the Society was held. Since
1868, triennial festivals have regularly been
Many of the works of the masters have
been produced for the first time in this coun-
try by the Society, at whose concerts numbers
of the most renowned singers, both native and
foreign, have appeared. Until 1847 the presi-
dent performed the duties of a conductor, but
in that year they were assumed by Charles
E. Horn. In 1850, C. C. Perkins, also presi-
dent, assumed the conductorship. Since then
the conductors have been J. E. Goodson, 185 1 ;
G. J. Webb, 1852; Carl Bergmann, 1852;
Carl Zerrahn, Aug. 24, 1854, who is still
conductor. The organists have been S. Stock-
well, S. P. Taylor, S. A. Cooper, J. B. Taylor.
Miss Sarah Hewett, Charles Zeuner, A. N.
Hayter, G. F. Hayter, F. F. Mueller,
J. C. D. Parker. B. J. Lang, elected Sept. 15,
1859, is the present organist. Rehearsals are
regularly held Saturday evenings, from Octo-
ber to April. Up to 1878, 610 concerts had
The Society is composed of about 300
members, active and retired. lis influence
on the musical affairs of this country has
been very marked.
The choral force is about 600 strong. A
membership fee of % is charged.
The following is a list of the principal
works performed by the Society up t<> t88i :
HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN MUSIC AND MUSICIANS.
I 8 1 s.
Dettingen Te Deum,
Mass (B flat major),
Mass ( C major),
. Mass (F major),
Te Deum (C major),
1 Mr to Washington,
Christ on the Mount of Olives,
The Remission of Sin,
Hymn of the Night
The Power of Song,
The Transient and the Eternal
The Fast Judgment,
i8 4 3>
Moses in Egypt,
Eli i all,
Ninth Symphony (Choral),
Hymn of Praise,
Israel in Egypt,
Ode on St. Cecilia's Day, .
Overture, " Ein' feste Burg,"
The Woman of Samaria,
Hear my Prayer,
Passion music (St. Matthew),
St. Peter, . .
Christmas < >ratorio Parts I, II.
Song of Victory,
Flight into Egypt,
Le Deluge, .
Harvard Musical Association. One
of the most important and leading musical
societies of the United States. It was formed
Aug. 30, 1S37, from a social and musical club
comprising undergraduates in Harvard Uni-
versity, which dated back to 180S and was
known as the "Pierian Sodality." The
objects of the society were to improve the
musical taste in the college, to provide a way
for a professorship of music there, and to
collect a library of music and its literature, all
of which have been faithfully carried out.
HANDBOOK OF AMERICAN MUSIC AND MUSICIANS.
Fourteen series of concerts have been given
(they were discontinued in 1880), comprising
from six to ten concerts each, beginning in
1865. They have been, with a few excep-
tions, under the efficient leadership of Carl
Zerrahn. The programs have comprised
standard orchestral works and vocal and
instrumental solos of the best class. These
concerts have not only been an important factor
in raising the standard of musical taste in
Boston, but their influence has been felt in
other parts of the country. Of the original
members of the society only three are now
living. They are John S. Dwight, president;
Henry W. Pickering, vice-president, and
Henry Gassett. Mr. Dwight was the founder
and editor of "Dwight's Journal of Music''
(which see), and is well known all over the
United States as a clear, forcible writer on
The library of the Association comprises 2500
volumes, and is constantly receiving addi-
tions. It is now one of the largest and best in
this country. Great care is exercised in
making selections and that the sets be com-
Mendelssohn Quintet Club, one of
Boston's oldest musical organizations, was
formed in 1849 by August Fries. The orig-
inal members were August Fries, 1st violin ;
Heir Gerloff, 2nd violin ; Theodore Leh-