der less of one crime in the summing up of her annals — i. e., the
robbing of orchards ; and possibly, a law like that enacted in the
terrritory of Erfurth in 1795, would be beneficial. It provided that,
in case of the robber not being discovered, the district in which the
offence was committed should be obliged to make compensation for
the damage sustained. This made every individual interested in
preventing depredations on his neighbor's property.
Propagation.— The Cherry is propagated from seed — by bud-
ding — by grafting — and occasionally, by pieces of roots.
Bj/ Seed. —The seed of the black mazard is that generally used,
and considered best for propagat'iig the Heart and Duke varieties
upon, while the Mahaleb is used only for the purpose of creating a
dwarf habit. Seeds of the Graffion or Yellow Spanish Mill occa-
sionally reproduce trees bearing fruit similar to the parent ; while
seeds of many of the cultivated kinds will not vegetate, there being
no germ or seed bud within the stor*^. The seed should not be per-
184 THE CHEKRY.
mltted to get dry, but immediately when gathered, rubbed and
washed clean of pulp, and mixed half and half with sand, placed in
boxes of, say, four inches deep, having holes in the bottom for drain-
age, and then set in the open air, on the north side of a building,
clear of direct sunlight. The ground should be well drained, and,
if possible, fresh turf, and spaded or plowed in the fall one foot
deep. As soon as the frost is out in the spring, rake down the
ground level, mark out drills six inches wide and one inch deep, sow
seed so that it will be about three inches apart, cover with the soil
one inch, and add one inch of sand or leaf mould.
By Budding. — This is done as described on page 22 ; but in the
Cherry, and especially when the buds are a little unripe, it is best in
cutting the bud from the scion to take liberally of the wood, thereby
preventing its drying as soon as otherwise. The season for budding
the Cherry is, when the tree on which you are going to operate is
forming its terminal bud, and varies in seasons, as also in the age of
the trees ; trees of four or five years old, in sections south of Cin-
cinnati, being ready by middle of June, while plants transplanted
the past spring will not be ready until early in July. North of this
section line, the season will vary from two to four weeks later. Oc-
casionally it will answer to bud in September, as it sometimes hap-
pens that a second growth is made about that time.
By Grafting. — This should be performed in all sections south of
Cincinnati early in February, and for those north, from the last week
in February to middle of March. Saddle grafting is best where
both stock and scion are equal in size ; whip or tongue grafting is
best where the stock is not over half to three-fourths inch diameter ;
and cleft grafting, where large stocks are to be changed. This last is
dangerous, inasmuch as it gives too great a check to th^ tree ; it is
better to graft the small limbs and branches. Side grafting is the
mode most advisable for young beginners, and also where the work
has been put off a little too late.
By Roots. — The root of the mazard Cherry, cut into pieces of
about four to six inches long, and having the upper end set about
one inch under ground early in spring, will often throw up strong
shoots, and where a person is unable to get seedlings, this is the next
best mode of obtaining stocks, as they are no more liable to sucker
than if from seed.
Transplanting. — When, from the seed bed to the nursery row, it
should be done in the fall on dry soils, and early in spring on soils
not perfectly dry in winter. They should be set in rows four feet
apart, and one foot apart in the row, and the plants should have one
half of last year's growth cut off, and all long, straggling, as well aa
SOIL AND SITUATION. 185
the tap root, cut Dack to six inches. These, if the season is good,
will be suitable for budding the same summer. Orchard trees, and
also dwarfs for gardens, should have one half of the previous year's
growth out off. and the roots trimmed smoothly at ends with a sharp
knife. The distance apart for standard trees in orchard, should be
about twenty-five feet, while dwarfs may be planted at distances ot
eight feet each way.
Standard Trees. — Are best for orcharding, and should, in no situa-
tion, have their heads formed more than four feet from ground, and
throughout the West and South, not more than two feet.
Dwarf Trees. — Are produced by propagating the Sweet or Duke
varieties on the Mahaleb, or Morello roots. They should in all cases
be worked just at the crown of the root, as it is there a union is
best formed ; and also, by means of pruning, (see page 80,) they
should be made to form heads branching immediately from the
Soil and Situation.. — The soil best suited to most Cherries is
that of a rich light loam on a gravelly sub-soil, but they will grow
and produce fruit freely in all soil not wet. The roots of the maz-
ard or sweet Cherries are very impatient of water, and will only
endure a few seasons in strong soils void of drainage, or where
w^ater stands most of the winter. To this want of drainage in great
measure, is attributable the destruction of the Cherry in most of the
prairie soils throughout Southern and Western States ; and not until
we manage to drain freely our rich alluvial deposits, can we succeed
perfectly with the Sweet Cherries. The roots of the Duke's, Morel-
lo's, and Mahaleb, are less open and spongy in texture, and, there-
fore, less impatient of water. They, however, do not flourish vigor-
ously for any length of time, unless drainage is effected. To this
point in the culture of the Cherry, we beg especially to call atten-
tion of our Western and Southern readers, assuring them that, what-
ever of theory may have been advanced referable to climate, they
will find drainage, or the want thereof rather, to be the primary
cause of destruction. Situated at a point where the Cherry proba-
bly does as well as at any place in the United States, we have had
occasion to notice the result of trees situated in what appeared suit-
able soil, Vjut where, on examining, after having lost several trees, we
found water to have stood a long time about the roots.
Naturally, most of the soil of Western and Southern States, is
rich in vegetable matter, giving vigorous, even rampant growth to
the Cherry tree ; which, added to the fact, that most trees have their
roots standing in stagnant cold water, induces tendency to disease
from the first. If, then, when about to plant Cherry trees, perfect
drainage is made, so that no water will stand for twenty -four hours
186 THE CHERRY.
together about the roots, an application, on prairie soils, of sulphur,
and finely broken or ground bones be made, the ground work to
success will be perfbrined.
Situations sloping south will affect the producing of early bloom,
rendering less chance of fruit from effect of late vernal frosts, and,
also, render the tree more liable to second growth in the fall, and
thus, unfit it for the severe changes of temperature throughout winter.
Northern exposures are recommended, but, an eastern one we regard
best. The forenoon sun may excite circulation, but not as rapidly
as the mid-day, or from one to three o'clock, p. m. ; while there is,
also, more or less of moisture in a morning atmosphere, and none
in the afternoon ; the tree, also, has a chance to have its circulation
gradually checked ere the cold of night, which it has not when
planted on ground sloping south, west, or north. When planting on
either of the last exposures, or on level land, let your tree slope to
the south-west, as the sun has less effect upon it in that position.
Cultivation. In nursery rows, the earth, in spring, should be first
turned away from the trees ; in about ten days, it should again be
stirred and left nearly level, and so kept throughout the growing
season. In October, it should be turned up toward the trees. The
plants budded last season, should be cut back to within six inches
of the bud, as soon as the same commences to swell strongly. The
buds, after having grown six to eight inches, should be tied up to the
stocks, and, in June, the stock should be cut with a slope downward,
close to the bud. The second year, they should be headed back to
four feet, when some will throw out branches two feet from the
ground ; others, where headed back. The third year, they should
be transplanted. Throughout the West, on the rich prairie soils, it
has been found impolitic to hoe, or otherwise use any mode of cul-
ture toward keeping the ground clean, after August ; it induces sec-
ond growth, immature ripening of wood, and consequent injury in
winter. Orchard and garden trees should be lightly spaded around
in July, and a quantity of mulch, or stones, laid over the roots.
Pruning and Training. The Heart Cherry, as a standard, needs
little pruning, except to cut away limbs liable to cross one another.
This is best done in July, when the cut, if made smooth, and close
to the body or large limb, will at once heal. If disposed to grow
too rapidly, dig around a tree, of, say, four inches diameter, a circu-
lar trench, three feet distant from the body of the tree, and two feet
deep, cutting off with a sharp spade, every root and tibre outside
that space. And, for every inch diameter, up to a- tree twelve
inches through, add four inches distance of trench from tree. Often,
the top of the tree will also require pruning, so as to give it a round
head, as of an acorn, based on the circle of the trench.
INSECTS AND DISEASES. USES. 187
The Dukes and Morellos need somewhat more pruning than the
Heart varieties, but all are impatient of the knife ; yet, if to be done,
let it be in July, or when the terminal buds are forming.
Dwarfs are trained to please the fancy of growers, and mostly by
the " pinching-in " process. And as they grow with extreme vigor
on the Mahal eb, for three or four years, they require, not only to
have their tops pruned, but also, to be root-pruned annually.
If possible to be avoided, large branches should never be cut
from a sweet cherry tree. We have examined the results of many
cases, when large branches were lopped in spring, for the purpose
of changing the tree to a different variety, by grafting ; the result
has almost invariaby been death after two summers. When
necessary to be done, the wound should be covered with grafting
composition, or gum-shellac, to exclude the air, and the body wrap-
ped in straw or matting. Encasing the body during the winter and
spring months, with straw, cloth, or moss, will often prevent injury ;
for the cause of bursting of bark is in winter, not summer months,
although it does not always exhibit itself until July or August.
The atmospheric blight, injuring young shoots, acts, at once, in sum-
Insects and Diseases. The aphis, slug, caterpillar, and curculio,
are more or less desti'uctive to the cherry, but as they are described
in other chapters we must refer the reader thereto. The diseases,
according to writers, are, in the West, numerous ; but, as they all
centre in the bursting of bark and exudation of gum, we shall only
note on that. Under the head of Soil, we have given what we term
the primary cause of this disease, and, if added to vvhat we have said
under heads of Cultivation and Pruning, we believe will have effect
to check, in great measure, the evil. That it will render the tree
entirely free of the disease, we are not prepared to say ; but, if to it
be added selections of buds from healthy trees, and growth in nur-
sery on ground well drained, and not over stimulated by barn-yard
manures, we believe a change for the better will be the result.
Uses. The wood of the wild or Virginia Cherry is used by cabi-
net makers, being susceptible of a fine polish. The fruit of the
Sweet Cherries is universally esteemed for the dessert, and that of the
tender-fleshed, like Belle de Choisy, is regarded as wholesome.
The Sour Cherries, either dried or fresh from the tree, are much
esteemed for culinary use, while the Hazard and wild Virginian
Cherries are used in flavoring liquors. " The celebrated German,
Kirschivasser, is made by distilling the liquor of the common black
Hazard ; (in which the stones are ground and broken and ferment-
ed with the pulp;) and the delicious Ratifiia cordial of Grenoble, is
also made from this fruit. Mareschino, the most celebrated liquor
of Italy, is distilled from a small Hazard, with which, in ferment/-
188 THE CHERRY.
ing, honey and the leaves and kernels of the fruit are mixed. The
gum of the cherry is nearly identical with gum-arabic, and there
are some marvelous stories told of its nutritive properties."
Gathering the Fruit. The flavor and character of the cherry is
best obtained when gathered early in the morning ; but, if intended
for distant market, they should always be gathered with the stem
attached, and when dry.
Classification, In order the more readily to distinguish varieties
of the cherry, authors have entered into classification ; but as those
heretofore made, have seemed rather to perpetuate error than induce
correctness, we have ventured upon a partially new order. Lind-
ley, in his Guide to the Orchard, makes two divisions ; one embrac-
ing varieties, the fruit of w^hich is round, acid or sub-acid ; the other,
sweet, and heart-shaped. Downing, in his Fruits and Fruit Trees,
makes four divisions or classes, viz : Heart-shaped, Bigarreaus,
Dukes, and Morellos; and, in a measure, all other writers have
adopted these classifications. The two last terms of Mr. Downing,
— Dukes and Morellos, — we shall continue, as they are not inappli-
cable, and the trees are distinct in growth. But the word Bigarreau,
being derived from Bigarre^^ originally meaning, and intended to
convey the idea of a parti-colored, or yellow and red fruit, and not
meaning, (as it is generally used and understood by pomologists)
firm-fie^hed^ we can see no just cause for continuing in use. Again ;
there are varieties which, although round in form, are yet sweet, and
partially tender-fleshed, and how^ever erroneous, would have (if the
old classification were pursued) to come under the head of Heart-
shaped. There are, also, varieties where the characters, both of tree
and fruit, of those determined by the two distinctions — Heart and
Bigarreau — are so closely commingled, as to often perplex the ama-
teur, and thus increase rather than lessen his troubles. We shall,
therefore, designate in our text descriptive of each variety, the classes
heretefore known as Hearts and Bigarreaus, being rapid growing,
lofty and spreading trees, as Sweety of which the old Black Heart
may be taken as the type. The Dukes are mainly distinguished by
the trees having narrower leaves than those of the Sweet Cherry,
being upright in growth while young, but forming a low, spreading
head, with wood less strong, and somewhat darker colored than the
Sweet Cherries. Fruit, generally round, of one color, and when fully
ripe, rich sub-acid.
The Morellos are less upright in growth thnn the Dukes.
Branches, small, slender, drooping ; foliage, narrow, dark green; fruit,
Engravings, These have been made from medium sized speci-
mens, taken direct from the tree, and placed in the engraver's
WORTHY GENERAL CULTIVATION.
hands. They represent the cherry cut in half, and are intended to
show the torn of fruit in that way, and, also, exhibit the lines of tis-
sue in the flesh, which are different in varieties, hut uniform in
numerous specimens of the sanr^e variety.
CLASS I. — Worthy General Cultivation.
Belle de Choisy.
Ambree de Choisy,
Cerise a Noyau Tendre,
Ambree a Gros Fruit,
Cerise de la Palembre,
Schone Von Choisy.
Raised in 1760, at Choisy, a village near
Paris, France. The tree is of a Duke habit —
thus far proving hardy in nearly all locations. It
bears regularly every year, but only moderate
quantity. Its delicacy and exquisite peculiar
flavor, render it one of the most desirable for the
table, but unsuited to market purpose.
Fruity round, or slightly depressed ; shin,
thin translucent, showing the netted texture of
flesh beneath ; of pale amber in the shade, mot-
tled with red and yellow where more exposed ;
and grown fully in the sun, becoming a bright
cornelian red ; Jlesh, amber yellow, slightly
tinged with pink radiating lines or tissues, in ir-
regular long curves, very tender, delicate, juicy,
sub-acid, nearly sweet, peculiar and agreeable
flavor ; pit, small, round, a little pointed at apex;
stalky often short, but varying. Season, last of
Frazer's Black Heart,
Ronald's Black Heart,
Frazer's Black Tartarian,
Ronald's Larpe Black Heart,
This variety is supposed to have originated
in Spain, whence it was transmitted to Kus^ia,
and thence introduced into England, about
1794 or 1796, .whence it found its way to this
country, and m 1810 was cultivated in Mid-
dletown, Ct., as Bishop's Large, and in 1S13
as Ronald's Black Heart. The tree is of pe-
culiar upright growth, unlike any other variety,
or most resembling the Black Mazard. Its
vigorous habit, erect form, large foliage,
and large sweet fruit, have rendered it perhaps
the most popular variety in cultivation. The
tree requires somewhat more pruning to thin
it out than other varieties ; otherwise, as the
trees grow old, they become too thick, and the
fruit attains only medium size.
Fruity large, heart shape, often obtuse, ir-
regular uneven surface, glossy, purplish black,
slight suture half round ; Jlesh, liver color,
juicy, sweet, half tender, separating freely from
pit, mild, pleasant, not high flavor ; ^^7," below
medium size ; stalky sunk in a regular cavity.
Season, last of June.
Raised by Prof J. P. Kirtland, near Cleve-
land, in T 842. Commenced fruiting in 1846.
The tree is of healthy,vigorous,spreading habit,
with much of the general character of Yellow
Spanish ; flowers, above medium ; soil or
origin, a gravelly loam. As a table fruit,
its high flavor ^vill always commend it ;
while, as a market fruit, its size and pro-
ductive habit of tree place it among the very
Fruit, large, heart shape, often obtuse,
sides compressed, surface uneven ; color,
dark purplish black, glossy ; fesk, dark
purple, half tender, almost firm, radiating
lines irregular, without fjrm, juicy, rich
sweet, fine flavor ; pit. medium size, un-
even surface; stalk, varying, inserted in a
broad cavity. Season, from 20th June to
WORTHY GENERAL CULTIVATION.
Raised by Prof. Kirtland, on a gravelly-
loam. The tree is vigorous, ^vith large foli-
age, and sprej^fling, or rather round regular
form ; flowers, large, and open irregularly, so
that often a portion may be injured by late
frosts, and others escape.
Fruit, I'^rge, rounded, angular, heart shape,
sides slightly compressed ; color, reddish
black ; jiesh, dark purplish red, radiating lines
whitish, partially indistinct, half tender, juicy,
sweet and rich ; pit, nearly smooth, slight de-
pressions, round oval ; stem, medium, set in a
cavity slightly angular. Season, early — say
middle of June.
Belle et Magnifique.
First introduced into this country from France by Gen. Dear-
born. The tree is of Duke habit, hardy, healthy, and vigorous. It
is a moderate bearer, the fruit, if permitted, hanging on the tree
until August, although much of it suitable for cooking last of June.
As a fruit for culinary purposes, it is very
Fruit, when trees are well cultivated, of
the largest size, ovate rounded, often pointed,
heart shape ; color, clear rich red on pale
yellow; when fully exposed to the sun, mostly
red ; flesh, yellowish, tender, sub-acid when
fully ripe, sprightly, separates freely from the
pit ; stem, planted in a deep yet open cavity
or basin, and varying from 1 1-4 to 1 3-4
inch in length. Season, middle June to Aug.
Raised by Prof. Kirtland in 1842, on
a gravelly loam soil. The tree is thrifty,
with stout shoots, and of a rounded spread-
ing habit ; large leaves ; flowers, above
medium, profusely abundant, and, thus far,
it has proved healthy wherever grown.
Fruity IsirgQ^ round heart shape, flattened at apex, generally a
regular uniform surface, occasional seasons it has a projection on one
side, near the stem ; colo7\ bright clear red on amber yellow ground,
and occasionally blotched with carmine red ; fiesh^ pale yellowish
■white, almost firm, deepest in color next the pit, radiating lines in-
distinct, juicy, rich fine flavor ; pit^ medium size; sUm^ rather stout,
medium length. Season, about one week before Elton, or say 23d
to 25th June. Very productive.
Raised by Curtiss Coe, Middletown, Ct. Tree, upright, some-
what spreading, vigorous, healthy habit.
Fruit, medium size, occasionally large, regular rounded form,
often slightly angular at junction of stem ; color, pale light amber
yellow, with a bright clear red, indistinctly mottled on two-thirds
the surface ; Jlesh, with irregular radiating lines, yellowish, tender,
juicy, rich sweet and excellent ; pit, above medium ; stem, rather
short, in a moderate depression. Season, middle to 25th June.
Raised by Prof. Kirtland in 1842. The tree
is of healthy habit, not extremely vigorous, up-
right, rounded in form, bearing even to excess
of fruit, so much so that unless well cultivated
the fruit becomes small. Original soil, gravelly
Fruit, medium, roundish heart shape, with a
suture extending all round ; colo^-, light yellow
and red, the latter most prevailing ; flesh, white,
tinged with pale yellow, juicy, tender, sweet,
with a delicious flavor ; pit, small ; stem, rather
slender, in a round regular basin. It ripens
early in June, but will hang until July.
Downer, | Downer's Late Red.
Raised by Samuel Downer, Dorchester, Mass., 1808. The
tree is vigorous, half spreading in habit, healthy, hardy, and abundant
WORTHY GENERAL CULTIVATION".
Fruit, medium size, round heart-shape,
slightly compressed on one side ; color, a bright,
lively red, mottled with amber in the shade ;
Jlesh, amber color, stained slightly with red next
the pit, radiating lines slight ; tender, sweet, and
delicious when fully ripe, it is often gathered
before fully ripe, when it is a little bitter ; pit,
above medium size, oblong rounded ; stem,
medium, inserted in a narrow, slight depression.
Season, from fourth to twelfth July. This va-
riety suffers less than most varieties, from warm
Raised by Prof. Kirtland, in 1842, upon a
gravelly loam. The tree is of thrifty, healthy
habit, spreading so as to form a round head. It
is productive, and as a dessert cherry, its del-
icate, translucent character, rich, juicy, sweet,
high flavor, will always render it a favor-
Fruit, medium to large ; fo7'7n, regular,
roundish, flattened, with a slight suture one
side ; color, rich amber yellow, overspread
and mottled with light carmine red, while the
flesh is so translucent, that held to the lisht,
the tissue is distinctly traced, and red appears
as though mingled throughout, when, on cut-
ing it, the flesh is a whitish-yellow, with dis-
tinct radiating lines, — tender, juicy, sweet, de-
licious, high flavor; ^>t7, small, roundish
oval, with a broad ridge ; stem, medium, set
in a deep, round depression. Season, about
Raised by Prof Kirtland, in 1842. 'J he original tree fruited
three years, during which, we carefully noted the ft-uit. It then was
lost by being removed ; meantime, buds had been sent to Mr. Chas.
Downing, and it is from the character shown under his hands, that we
are induced to place it in this class. Its large size, rich flavor and
early habit of maturity, class it among the most desirable, for pri-
vate 01 marketing collections. Tree, healthy, vigorous, upright,
Fruit, medium to large, round, obtuse heart-shape, bright car-
mine red, mottled on light amber yellow ; and, on one side, a distinct