brio-ht lively red color, and sprightly sub- acid flavor.
A Morello cherry, forming a small tree, but very prolific. Fruit, of
medium size; dark red; t.?nder, juicy, rich acid; valuable for cooking.
Season, middle July.
FOR AMATEUK CULTURE.
Duchess of Pallua.
A variety introduced fioni France by Hon. M. P. Wilder, of Boston,
and fruited first time in this country, tliis year, 1853,
Fruit, medium size, heart-shaped ; purphsh black ; juicy, half tender,
sweet ; stone, small, oblong ovate. Season, 15th to 20th June. Promises to
be a productive valuable variety. (Hov. Mag.)
English : raised by T. A. Knight. Tree, healthy, regular round head ;
Fruit, medium, globular flattened ; bright red on yellow ; flesh, yel-
lowish, half tender, juicy, sweet, but not rich flavor ; pit, medium ; stem,
set in a deep cavity. Season, early in July or late of June.
Raised by Caleb Atwater, of Portage County, 0., in 1823. Original
soil, clay. Tree, vigorous, upright, pyramidal rounded; very prolific.
Fruit, medium to large, heart-shape, flattened on sides ; color, rich
dark red, when fully ripe ; flesh, yellowish, slightly tinged with red, half
tender, juicy, pleasantly sweet; pit, ovate rounded; stem, medium ; set
in a regular basin.
Season, middle to last of June.
Cl lion's Favorite.
Raised by Prof Kirtland in 1842 ; gravelly soil.
Tree, vigorous, half spreading, productive.
Fruit," medium, round regular, slightly compressed ;
color, pale amber yellow, with a bright carmine red
cheek, mottled and marbled ; flesh, pale amber, trans-
lucent, delicate, juicy and sweet; pit, small; stem,
medium, inserted in an even basin. Season, last of
June. This variety requires high cultivation, other-
wise the fruit is small, and the flavor only good.
THs is undoubtedly an old variety, but we have as yet been unable to
identify it with any described variety. The tree is of vigorous strong
growth, forming a rounded pyramidal head, and very productive.
Fruit, medium size, roundish heart-shape, very re^lar, borne in threes ;
color, delicate amber, beautifully mottled willx pale red; flesh, whitish
yellow, half tender, delicate, juicy, and very sweet; pit, medium; stem,
long. Season, middle to last of June.
Knevett's Late Bigarreau
From Florence, in Italy. The tree is of stocky strong growth, spread-
ing, unproductive while young, becoming more productive as it grows
old. Fruit, large, roundish heart-shape, flattened at base ; pale amber,
mottled or mostly covered with bright red ; flesh, amber color, firm, rich,
sweet, fine flavor ; pit, small, roundish oval ; stem, inserted in a broad ba-
sin. Season, middle July.
GuiGNE NoiR LuiSANTE,
Or bright black red, is a cherry of the Duke or near Morello class.
Tree, erect in habit, healthy, hardy, forming a pretty round head, regular
moderate bearer. In 1823, it was cultivated in New Jersey, as lilack
Spanish, and under that name brought to Ohio. Fruit, of medium size,
heart-shape, globular ; glossy blackish red ; flesh, reddish purple, tender,
juicy, rich acid ; pit, round ; stem, medium. Season, middle to last
White Bigarreau ?
Amljer or Imperial,
Turkey Bigarreau ?
West's White Heart,
I igarreau Tardif,
The Grraffion, or Yellow Spanish as it is generally known throughout
the st-ates, is truly one of the richest and best cherries, but its tendency
to decay just as it is on the point of ripening, makes it unprofitable. The
tree is of strong spreading, healthy habit, and productive.
Fruit, large, regular obtuse heart-shape; whitish yellow, mottled and
mostly overspread in the sun, with bright red ; flesh, yellowish, firm,
juicy, rich, sweet, delicious ; pit, small, round ovate ; stem, stout, in an
open basin. Season, early July.
Turkey Bigarreau ?
Mr. Downing, in his work on Fruits, says this variety was first import-
ed to this country from France. In the Jardin Fruitier it is stated to
have been originally received from Holland. Mr. Thompson of the Lod«
FOR AMATEUR CULTURE.
don Horticultural Society makes it synonymous withG-raffion. We have
received trees from different sources, and as they all in fruiting prove to be
the Napoleon, we are unable to decide, and therefore copy Mr. Downing 3
description. Fruit, large, heart shape, rather pointed ; white or pale yellow
in shade, mottled or spotted on the sunny side with bright carmine red ;
stem, rather slender, set in a deep hollow ; fruit, borne in thick clusters ; flesh
firm,' but not so much so as that of Graffion, more juicy, sweet and excel-
lent. Season. 20th June.
Raised by Prof. Kirtland in 1842, named by our-
self, in compliment to one of our best pomologists,
Geo. Hoadley, Esq.. of Cleveland. Tree, of healthy,
vigorous habit, forming a round, spreading head.
Fruit, above medium, regular round heart shape ;
light cftar carmine red, mottled and striped on pale
yellow, with some tinges or blotches of russet
bronzed yellow ; flesh, yellowish, tender, almost
translucent, juicy, rich, sweet and delicious ; pit,
medium, roundish oval ; stem, medium, set in a
shallow basin. Season, 20th to last June. This
promises to become one of the most valuable as a
dessert cherry, not quite as sweet as Coe's Trans-
parent, but more delicate and sprightly, with a pit
of less size.
Raised by C. M. Hovey, Esq., Boston. Tree, vigorous, forming* a pyram-
idal head. Fruit, large, obtuse heart shape, depressed point at apex ;
rich amber color, mottled or nearly covered with briUiant red ; sfem,
short ; flesh, pale amber, rather firm, but tender, slightly adhering to
stone ; stone, small, oval. 15th to last July. (Hov. Mag.)
A variety of Moreilo, forming a small, low-headed tree ; veiy produc-
tive. Fruit, rather above medium size, roundish heart shape, elongated,
sides compressed : daik purplish red when fully ripe; flesh, tender, juicy,
rich acid; if gathered iniripe, quite bitter; pit, small, long, pointed. Sea-
son, very late, last of July to middle of August.
Kirtland's Large Morello.
Raised by Prof. Kirtland, promises valuable, but as yet not all tested.
Fruit, above medium, roundish ; dark red, juicy, rich acid, good flavor ;
pit, small. Season, early July.
Knight's Early Black.
English. Tree, moderate grower, requiring good culture and sheltered
situation to obtain good fruit. As it makes only a tree of second class in
size, it is well suited to small gardens ; moderately productive. Fruit,
medium or rather above, obtuse heart shape, broad, open suture half
round, with a knobby projection opposite ; purplish red, becoming nearly
black ; flesh, parts freely from pit, tender, juicy, rich, sweet ; pit, medi-
um ; stem, inserted in a deep, open basin.
Season, last of June.
Raised by Prof Kirtland, and named by ourself,
after the most enthusiastic horticulturist in the
West, J. A. Kennicott, M.D., of Northfield, 111.
Tree, vigorous, hardy, spreading, very productive.
Fruit, large, oval heart shape, compressed ; suture,
shallow, half round ; color, amber yellow, mottled
and much overspread with rich bright clear glossy
red ', flesh, yellowish white, firm, juicy, rich and
sweet ; pit, below medium size, smooth and regu-
lar ; stem, short in cavity, with bold surrounding
projections. Season, 8th to 16 July. As a market
fruit, the time of ripening, size and beauty of this
variety will make it popular when known.
Raised by Prof Kirtland. Tree, strong, vigorous grower, forming a
large tree. Fruit, large, heart shape ; dark purplish black ; flesh, halt
tender, purple, rather coarse, deficient in flavor ; its chief value, a market
variety ; pit, medium ; stem, stout. Season, early in July.
Merveille de September.
Tardive de Mons.
The Marvel of September is a new French cherry, marvelous only
because it ripens the last of August or early in September. Tree, vigor-
ous. Fruit, small, dark red, firm, dry, sweet. '
FOR AMATEUR CULTURE. 211
Raised by B. B. Kirtland, Greenbush, N. Y., and noted in the Horti-
culturist as similar to Christiana.
* Manning's Mottled.
Raised by Mr. Manning, Salem, Mass. Tree, vigorous, spreading, very
productive. Fruit, large, roundish heart shape ; suture, half round, dis-
tinct line opposite ; amber color, mottled and overspread with red ; flesh,
yellovrish white, half tender, juicy, sweet, deficient in flavor ; pit, large,
oval, Jays in a hollow separated on all sides but one from the flesh ;
stem, in a broad hollow. Season, l^t of June.
Raised by Mr. Manning. Tree, healthy, moderate grower, tolerably
productive Fruit, medium ; color, red, marbled on light yellow ; flesh,
half tender, juicy, sprightly very agreeable ; pit, small, oval ; stem, slender.
Season, last June.
Large May Duke,
Morris' Early Duke,
Benham's Fine Early Duke,
Buchanan's Early Duke,
Milieu's Late Heart Duke,
From France. Tree, hardy, upright growth. It produces freely, but
ripens so irregularly that we have entirely discarded it: from young trees
one can rarely gather a pint of ripe fruit at any one time. The Holman's
Duke, Jeffrey's Duke, Late Duke of most gardens. Royal Duke, and Le-
mercier, a new vaiety from France, are all so similar to May Duke that
one description will suit all. They are only sub-varieties, and the Late
Duke probably obtained by propagating from late ripening branches
of May Duke. Fruit, roundish obtuse heart shape ; red at first, becoming,
when fully ripe, a dark purplish red ; flesh, reddish, tender, juicy, sub-acid.
Season, last of May to last of June.
Raised by Prof Kirtland from seeds given him by. Mr. M. Lindley, of
Euclid, 0. Tree, vigorous, moderately prolific. Fruit, large, heart shape,
surface uneven ; dark purplish red ; flesh, almost firm, tinged with red,
juicy, but deficient in richness of flavor. Season, first of July.
Raised by Prof Kirtland in 1842 ; gravelly soil. Tree, vigorous, hardy,
moderately productive. Fruit, medium to large, heart shape, often ob-
212 THE CHERRF.
tuse ; color, faint dull red, becoming, when fully ripe, rich reddish black ,•
flesh, very firm, tinged with red, sweet, good flavor ; pit, medium ; stem,
in an open, but deep basin. Season, middle to last of July. As a variety
to transport long distances to market this will prove valuable.
Napoleon Bigarrean, I Lauermann's Kirsche,
Bigarreau Lauermann, | Clarke's Bigarreau.
From Holland. Tree, erect, vigorous grower ; productive. The best
sweet cherry for cooking purposes, and, on account of its showy appear-
ance, always sells well in market. It is, however, liable to decay on the
tree before fully ripe. Fruit, large, heart shape, incHning to obJong ;
bright delicate yellow, with shades o|" rich red marbled and spotted over
nearly two-thirds surface ; flesh, pale yellow, very firm, moderately juicy,
and, unless perfectly ripe, a little bitter ; pit, medium, oblong; stem, stout,
set in a narrow basin. Season, last of June.
Raised by Prof Kirtland in 1842, and described by us in 1847 ; shortly
after which, the original tree was destroyed, and since that we have not
seen the fruit. We had, however, previously sent out buds and grafts
and have often heard of its success. Fruit, large, obtuse heart shape ;
dark red on pale red ground, somewhat marbled ; flesh, white, tender,
delicate, juicy, with a fine flavor ; pit, small, oval ; stalk, long, set in a
deep, open basin. Season, middle of June. *
Raised by D. Proudfoot, Cleveland, 0. Soil, sandy. Tree, vigorous,
round, spreading head ; moderatively productive. This promises to be-
come valuable on account of large siz'^ and lateness in ripening, often, even
on warm, sandy soil, (and sheltered in a city garden.) holding its fruit un-
til the 20th July. Fruit, large, heart shape, flattened at base ; color,
when fully ripe dark purplish red ; flesh, yellowish, firm, juicy, sweet ;
pit, large ; stem, set in a shallow, open cavity. Season, 15th to last July.
Raised by Prof Kirtland, 1842. Tree, vigorous, spreading. Fruit,
large; dark red slightly mottled ; suture, all round, deep, distinct; flesh,
yellowish white, half tender, juicy, sweet ; pit, medium ; stem, short,
slender. Season, middle to last of June.
Large, heart shaped, rather short, and tapering to the point; dark red,
inclining to black ; stem, short, slender ; flesh, deep red, half tender, juicy
saccharine, rich, luscious flavor. Last of June and first of July. It keeps
well on or ofi" the tree. Good grower and bearer, rather upright, hardy
FOR AM ATE I'll CULTUKE.
in tree and fruit. Original tree, as far as known, in the garden of J. R.
Richardson, Esq., Boston. (Cole.)
Roberts' Red Heart.
Raised by David Roberts, Salem, Mass. Tree, moderate, healthy-
grower ; productive. Fruit, medium, roundish heart shape ; pale amber
ground, nearly overspread and mottled with red ; suture, distinct ; flesh,
white, juicy, sweet, tender, and well flavored ; pit, medium ; stem, long,
slender. Season, last of June.
Tradescant's Black Heart,
Large Black Bigarreau,
Bigarreau Gros Noir,
Guigne Noir Tardive,
Grosse Schwarze Knoorpel.
This is probably an old variety from Europe, but as it was first made
known in this country and distributed under name of Elkhorn, we have
preferred following that to copying from the London Hort. Society. Trees,
very vigorous, with broad leaf and bark of pecuhar gray color, producing
fine large fruit while young, but as they grow older, unless very highly
cultivated, the fruit diminishes to near the size of the old Black Heart.
Its period of late ripening has heretofore kept it favorably before horti-
culturists, but we now think it must give way to later and better varie-
ties. Fruit, large, heart shape, uneven surface; purplish black; flesh,
firm, purple, moderately juicy ; pit, large ; stem, short. Season, middle
Vail's August Duke. f
Raised by Henry Yail, Troy, K Y. We have not fruited it, but copy
from the Horticulturist. Tree, hardy, healthy, moderate grower. Fruit,
above medium, borne in pairs, obtuse heart shape ; rich bright red in the
shade, a lively cornelian in the sun; flesh, tender, sub-acid ; pit, oval;
stem, thick, when it joins the fruit, set in a deep narrow ?avity. Season,
middle to last of August.
Wendell's Mottled Bigarreau.
Raised by Herman Wendell, M.D., Albany, ]SI. 1. Tree, uprioht
thrifty growth, early and prolific bearer. This variety has proved highly
valuable during the few years it has been before the public ; as yet it^'has
not fruited at the West. Fruit, large, obtuse heart shape ; dark purplish
red ; flesh, firm, juicy, well flavored ; pit, small ; stem, set in a round,
regular basin. Season, first to middle of July,
We have never been able to obtain this variety to meet the descrip-
tion given by Downing in his Fruits and Fruit Trees. At the last Pomo-
logical Congress. Hon. M. P. Wilder stated it to be synonymous with
Moustreuse de Mezel. This we conclude must be error, either in the
214 THE' CHERRY.
variety grown by Mr. Wilder, or in description given by Mr. Downing.
We copy the latter's description; "Fruit, large; obtuse heart shape;
dark purplish, becoming black at maturity ^ stalk, long and slender ; flesh,
purplish red, juicy, tender, when fully ripe, with a rich, sweet flavor. Be-
gining of July."
Werder's Early Black.
Werdersche Fruhe Schwarze Herzkirsche.
This variety is, as yet, comparatively new in this country. It is
somewhat doubtful whether it will ever deserve more than a trial.
Fruit, medium ; roundish heart shape ; surface, slightly uneven ; dark
purplish red, becoming nearly black ; flesh, purplish, tender, juicy, rich,
sweet ; pit, small ; stem, medium. Season, middle of June.
CLASS III. — Unworthy farther Culture,
Bloodgood's Amber, | Bloodgood'a Honey,
Bloodgood's New Honey.
American ; fruit medium,.roundish heart shape, amber and bright red, flesh
tender, juicy, variable ; pit large, stem long slender. Season, last June.
Fruit small, oval heart shape, pale yellow and red, flesh white, juicy, sweet,
often bitter or mazardy, stem long, slender. Season, early July.
Belle de Sceaux,
A Morello from France ; fruit round, deep red, flesh yellowish, juicy, acid.
American ; fruit medium, yellow and red, sweet, half tender, wanting in
Bigarreau de Mai, | Wilder's Bigaireaii de Mai.
From France ; fruit small, dark red, oval heart shape, floRt purplish, tender,
Bweet. Season, last of May or early iu June.
UNWORTHY OF CULTIVATION. 215
Early Black, .
Guigne Grosse Noir,
Anseli's Fine Black,
Spanish Black Heart,
Guinier a fruit Xoir.
An old variety hardy and productive, but at this day surpassed by many ;
fruit above medium, heart shaped, dark, nearly black color, flesh almost ten-
der, juicy, sweet. Season, last of June.
Hazard, 1 Common English,
Wild English Cherry, | Black Honey,
This is the wild species of Europe from which many of our sweet cherries have
sprung. It is now found in n^;arly every village or cultivated region of the
States, and is valuable mainly for its seed for growing stocks on which to bud.
There are numerous varieties, as all are grown from seed ; some are red, some
black, and som'e nearly white, all more or less bitter. Fruit small, oval heart
ehape, flesh tender, juicy. Season, middle to last July.
Fruit middle size, heart shape, nearly black, flesh firm, sweet, dry. Season,
Gascoigne's Heart, I Red Heart,
Herefordshire Heart, | Guigne Rouge Hative.
Fruit medium, long pointed, heart shape, dark red mottled, flesh half tender,
sweetish. Last of June.
Buttner's October Morello, I Du Nord Nouvelle,
DuXord, 1 De Prusse.
A Morello, of medium size, dark red, roundish, of no value except as hang-
ing long on the tree.
Small, roundish heart shape, nearly black, flesh half tender, sweet, poor
flavor. Middle July.
Cerise de Xavier.
A Morello, medium, dark red, round, acid.
Couronne, I Coroun,
* Herefordshft-e Black, | Biack Orleans,
Large Wild Black.
Fruit small, roundish heart shape, dull black, flesh tender, mazardy. Middle
216 THE CHERRY.
Coe's Late Carnation.
Fruit medium, roundish, red, acid, only for cooking.
Cerise a Boquet, | Che\Teuse ,
Fruit small, borne in clusters, round, lively red, acid. Last of June.
Chinese Double Flowering.
Yung To, I Cerasus Serrulata,
Serrulated leaved Cherry.
A tree of dwarf habit, valuable only as ornamental.
A Morello, medium size, roundish, red, flesh tender, acid, pit large. Season,
Clarke's Bigarreau ?
Fruit medium, roundish heart shape, bright red with a dark maroon colored
stripe half round, flesh whitish, half tender, mingling of sweet and bitter.
Season, early July.
A Morello, medium size, dark red, acid.
Dwarf Double Flowering.
Double Flowering Kentish, | Cerisier a fleurs doubles.
A variety of the Kentish or sour cherry with semi-double flowers ; a pretty
ornamental shrub tree.
Davenport's Early, | Davenport's Early Black.
Tree tender, fruit medium, heart shape, dark purplish black, flesh tender,
juicy, sweet. Season, last cf June.
Early White Heart, I Arden's Early White Heart,
Arden's heart, 1 Dredge's Early While Heart,
White Transparent, | Amber Heart,
Bow>'er's Early Heat, | Herefordshire White,
River's Early Amber, | Sw^eedish,
Sweedish Red Heart.
An old variety and generally known throughout the States. It is a variable
and uncertain bearer, and does not ripen sufficiently early to compete with
many new vareties. Fruit medium, or a little below, heart shape, whitish yel-
low, often nearly covered with pale red, flesh half tender, juicy, sweet. Season,
middle June. The Early Red and Yellow of Manning is very similar.
UNWORTHY OF CULTIVATION. 217
Orise Indulle, I May Cherry,
Small May, | Precoce.
A Morello, with small fruit, round, slightly flattened, lively light red, flesh
tender, juicy, acid.
Montmorency, I Kentish,
Cerise a Courte Queue, ( Montmorency a Gros Fruit,
Fruit large, round, flattened at both ends, bright lively red, flesh yellowish
white, juicy, sub-acid, stem stout, short, fruit borne in pairs. Last of July.
Apple Cherry, | Maccarty.
American ; fruit small, roundish, color almost black, flesji firm, purplish,
moderately juicy. Season, early July.
Meresier a fruit blanc,
Little better than a mazard ; small, roundish oval, yellow and red, flesh ten-
der, sweet. Middle July. Pit large. Sumner's Honey of Cole is very similar
and probably identical with this.
Hyde's Red Heart.
Fruit medium, heart shape, red on yellow, flesh whitish, sweet mazardy.
Hyde's Late Black,
Fruit medium, roundish obtuse heart shape, purplish black, flesh half tender,
juicy, sweet. Early July.
Late Kentish, I Common Red,
Pie Cherry, | Common Sour Cherry,
This is probably a seedling of this country, which is found every where that
man has cleared the forest. Throughout the West, it appears as though it had
been among the household goods brought by first settlers, and that wherever
planted it has grown, and by suckers, increased '• seventy fold." It is hardy
and fruits abundantly, and many think it indispensable, but not after haviug
grown and fruited the Early Richmond. Fruit medium size, round, lively red.
tender, juicy, acid. Middle to last July.
218 THE CHERRY.
Knight's Late Black.
Medium to large, roundish heart shape, fl£sh half tender, sweet, dry. Season,
Lady Southampton's Yellow.
Lady Southampton's Duke, ' Lady Southampton's Golden Drop,
Yellow or Golden, i Spanish or Yellow.
Fruit small, hearj; shape, yellow, flesh firm, dry. Middle July.
Large Double Flowering.
4 beautiful ornamental tree, with large showy double white flowers, like little
roses, without fruit and therefore placed here, as unworthy cultivation on
account of fruit. As an ornamental tree, it is beautiful when in flower
Fruit medium, roundish elongated, dark purplish black, flesh tender, juicy
suh-acid harsh. July.
Morello from France ; fruit medium, roundish, dark red, flesh red, juicy,
tender, acid. Middle July.
Manning's Late Black.
Manning's Late Black Heart.
Frtiit medium size, heart shape, dark purplish black, flesh purple, half tender,
sweet, pit large. Season, early July.
Manning's Early Black.
Fruit medium, heart shape, purplish black, flesh tender, sweet, good. Middle
English Morello, I Large Morello,
Dutch Morello, | Late Morello,
Ronald's Large Morello.
The true English Morello is rare "in this country, nor do we see any reason
for introducing it, as seedlings may be raised from the common Morello equaling,
if not often surpassing, the one so favorably described by most writers In
growth, it varies from O'lr common Morello only in the branches being more
strong and upright, while the fruit is one third larger. Fruit medium or
above, round, dark red or purplish black, flesh purplish red, tender, juicy, sub-
acid. Season, middle to last July.
Lion's Heart, | Bullock's Heart,
Very Large Heart.
Fruit above medium to large, obtuse heart shape, dark red nearly black,