good, but the above named materials, with liberal watering with
soap-suds and occasional sprinkling of sulphur (which will bfe necessary
at times to check mildew) will for a time give good growth of vme
Planting and Training. — The vines, being obtained from a nur-
sery, generally come in crocks or pots ; the earth should be well
wet, and then by inserting the finger at the hole at the small end or
bottom of the crock, the whole ball of roots entire is pushed out ;
now plant just outside the front wall, and so that you can run the
stem immediately under, leaving the roots only outside ; let each
plant stand half way between each rafter, and as they grow
train to a wire fastened at top each of front and back wall so as to
be six inches below the glass. Spur pruning is regarded best fur
cold houses, "and is plainly described as follows: "In pruning in the
fall, after the first year's growth, each alternate eye is disbudded on
each side of the cane, leavingr those waii'"ed for breakinsj next season
about fifteen inches apart. The next season, when pruning for spuis,
the side shoots are cut back to three eyes, or even four, according as
the lower buds may be plump and well rounded. In breaking, each
bud puts forth a shoot ; the most promising one nearest the top, and
the one at the base, is allowed to remain, and the other is rubbed
out. The top one is allowed to bear, and the fruit on the bottom
one is pinched out. The fruit bearing spur is stopped three or four
joints above the fruit, and the other one next to the base is also
stopped, wher it has grown seven or eight leaves. They are now
trained as shown in the following figure.
252 THE GRAPE.
"^. is the bearing shoot, and B. the one not to be fruited
till next year ; at next pruning, (or what is still better,
two or three w^eeks previous,) A. is cut clean out to the
V^ V • base of i?., and, when the leaves fall, B. is cut back to
^ ^^^ I three eyes as A. was last season, and so on from year to
year." Every fall at approach of cold weather take down
■ the vines, lay them on the border inside and cover with
tan-bark four inches deep ; cover the border outside same
depth with barn-yard manure.
Routine of Culture. — The following brief instructions, from A. J.
Downing, contain all that is essential for a cold house : " In a vinery
without heat this is comparatively simple. As soon as the vines com-
mence swelling their buds in the spring, they should be carefully
washed with mild soap-suds, to free them from insects, soften the
wood, and assist the buds to swell regularly. At least three or four
times a week, they should be well syringed with water, which, when
the weather is cool, should always be done in the morning. And
every day the vine border should be duly supplied with w^ater.
During the time when the vines are in blossom, and while the fruit
is setting, all sprinkling or syringing over the leaves must be sus-
pended, and the house should be kept a little more closed and warm,
than usual, and should any indications of mildew appear on any of
the branches, it may at once be checked by dusting them with flour
of sulphur. Air must be given liberally every day when the tem-
perature rises in the house, beginning by sliding down the top sashes
a little in the morning, more at mid-day, and then gradually closing
them in the same manner. To guard against the sudden changes of
temperature out of doors, and at the same time to keep up as moist
and warm a state of atmosphere within the vinery as is consistent
with pretty free admission of the air during sunshine, is the great
object of culture in a vinery of this kind.
Insects. — The aphis or " vine-fretter," is destroyed by fiimigating,
1. e., burning tobacco in the house, and syringing the vines freely af-
terward. If red spiders are troublesome, syringe the vines at even-
ing, and dust the leaves with flour of sulphur.
Feeling that a multiplicity of varieties would only mislead and
^•onfuse the practical man, and our own experience with foreign grapes
not having been sufficient to enable us fully to decide on which to
recommend, we adopt and describe few besides those voted worthy
of general cultivation by the Americai Pomological Society.
THE FOREIGN GRAPE. 253
Warne 's Black Hamburgh,
Red Ham burgh,
Hampton Court Vine,
Valentine's, j Frankendale.
Th's variety is one of the most esteemed for the vinery. In
sheltered locations, out of doors, in cities south as far as Cincinnati,
it does well with protection in winter. A good bearer.* Bunches^
large, shouldered on both sides ; berries^ very large, roundish inclin-
ing to. oval, brownish purple, becoming purplish black when fully
ripe ; of sugary rich flavor.
Wilmot's New Black Hamburgh is similar, fruit larger, bloom
very thick, flesh firm, nearly or quite equal to the common Ham-
Allen's seedling Black Hamburgh, is of less value, bunches not as
large, berries, black, oval. Victoria, heretofore regarded as a syn-
onym of the old Hamburgh, is now regarded as a slightly improv-
Steward's Black Prince,
Sir A. Pytche's Black,
Cambridge Bolanic Garden,
This often succeeds well, with winter protection out doors, while
in the house it is esteemed on account of hanging long after fully
ripe. A profuse bearer. Bunches^ long, often shouldered ; berries,
large, thinly set, oval ; skin, rather thick, black, covered with blue
bloom ; flavor sweet, excellent ; " very good."
Black St. Peter's differs from this in having a thin skin.
Muscat Noir Ordinaire,
Bourdal .s des Hautes Pyrenee's
Sir Wm. Rowley's Black,
Muscat Moir de Jura.
This is the variety from which the muscadine wine is made. A
good bearer. Bunches, long;, berries, medium size, round, black;
skin, thin ; flavor, musky rich.
Small Black Cluster,
This variety is hardy and succeeds outdoors. It is valued lu
• A vine of this variety at Hampton Court Palace, planted in 1769, is
stated to produce annually over one ton weight of fruit.
254 THE GRAPE.
France for wine, but will never take high ranic in this country. It
has been pretty extensively disseminated throughout the west, which
is our main reason for noting it. It has over forty synonyms, but
those given are all which we have ever heard applied to it in this
country. Bunches^ small, compact ; berries^ medium size, roundish
oval, black, juicy, sweet ; " good ;" distinguished from Miller's Bur-
gundy, by absence of down on the leaf.
^ARLY Black July.
July Grape, j Madeleine,
Madeleine Noir, | Raisin Preooce,
Morillon Halif, I De St. Jean,
Burgunder, | August Traube,
The habit of ripening its fruit by the middle of August, or earlier,
is its chief merit. Foliage, small, light green ; hunches^ small, com-
pact ; berries, small, round, black, with a blue bloom, a little acid and
of indifferent flavor ; " good."
Grizzly Frontignac, I Red Constantia,
Muscat Rouge, | Muscat Gris,
&c., &c., in all thirteen Synonyms.
Adapted only to the house, where it ripens early, and being of
" besV quality is highly esteemed. Bunches, rather long, narrrow,
slight shoulders ; berries, round, medium size, grayish red, thick
bloom, juicy, rich, musky, high flavor.
Chasseias de Fontainebleau,
Raisin d 'Champagne,
Early White Teneriffe.
This is highly esteemed ; is distmguished from White Sweet Wa-
ter (often sold as this variety) by its larger berries and stronger
growth. Grown out of doors, it requires not only winter protec-
tion, but also to be well supplied with wood ashes, as otherwise it
cracks and mildews.
Allen says, the Royal Muscadine and Chasseias of Fontainebleau
are distinct, but only m size of bunch. The Early White Musca-
dine, he also says, only varies from this in ripenjng a few days ear-
Bunches large, long, shouldered ; berries above medium, round,
greenish-white, becoming amber color when fully ripe, tender, rich
delicious flavor. Ripens middle to last of September.
THE FOREIGN GRAPE. 266
Muscat of Alexandria.
White Muscat of Alexcuidria,
White Muscat of Lunel,
Frontniac of Alexandria,
Muscat d 'Alexandria,
Tottenham Park Muscat.
Adapted only to house culture and even then benefitted by arti-
This is probably the " Malaga" grape brought to this country m
jars and sold by confectioners.
Bunches very large, loose, irregular ; berries large, oval, pale am-
ber, thick skin, firm flesh, crisp, musky, rich perfumed flavor, often
seedless. A strong grower.
The Cannon Hall Muscat, is esteemed a sub-variety not equaling
This variety was exhibited at the Ohio State Pomological Con-
vention in 1852, as the Heath or Delaware Grape, having been
grown in Delaware, O., under these names. It was stated to have
proved perfectly hardy in the open air, being free from mildew or
rot, a productive bearer, and never failing to perfectly ripen both
fi-uit and wood. Allen says of it " a much esteemed wine grape on
the river Maine." It is described in the London Horticultural So-
ciety's Catalogue. It deserves a place in every garden.
Bunches^ medium size, compact ; berries^ roundish oval, middle
size, uniform, pale reddish, tender, juicy, sweet, without pulp, rich
and pfeasant flavor. Ripens ten days before Isabella.
Raisin de Frontignan,
Muscat Blanc de .Tnra,
An old productive variety suited only to the house. Bunches,
middle size, rather long, rarely shouldered ; berries, middle size,
round, rather closely set ; skin, thin dull white or greenish yellow,
thin white bloom ; fitsh, delicate, sugary, rich musky flavc>r.
The Nectarine is claimed to be only a sport in nature from the
Peach, to which occasionally plants grown from seed return ; record
is also made of the Nectarine tree producing both Peaches and Nec-
tarines on the same tree. Of this we confess some little unwilling-
ness of belief; certain, however, it is that the trees so closely resem-
ble the Peach, as not to be detected except when in fruit.
Grown under glass, or South, where the heat is greater than at the
North, the Nectarine is a really fine fruit ; but here, it is inferior to
the Peach, possessing a flavor, partaking of the peculiar flavor and
taste of the pit. When we say the trees are undistinguishable from
the peach, we speak the general view ; closely examined, the wood
may be found slightly more smooth, and possibly a trifle firmer or
closer grained. The trees are usually propagated by budding, in
same manner and time as the peach, and their after culture is the
The fruit of the Nectarine being smooth skinned, is equally liable
to attack from Curculio as the Plum, and the same remedies are
adopted for prevention ; we, therefore, reTer the reader to the article
under head of Insects injurious to the Plum. The same marks dis-
tinguishing varieties in the leaf are found in the Nectarine as in the
Peach, and used accordingly.
CLASS I. — Worthy General Cultivation.
Lewis, I Perkins' Seedling.
American. Claimed to have originated from a peach stone. Ifc
is probably one of the very best Nectarines and well adapted to all
sections of our country.
Flowers, small; glands, globose; fruit, large, sometimes eight
inches round, roundish oval ; skin, light yellow, with deep red cheek,
shaded oflT by a mottling of red ; fiesh, yellow to the stone, sweet,
with a pleasant, peculiar flavor ; at^ne, small, pointed. Season, first
FOR AMATEUR CULTURE. 257
Foreign. Flotvcrs, small; glands, remform', fi'uit, large, roundish
oval ; skin, pale green, with violet red cheek ; Jiesh, pale green, melting,
rich, high flavor. Season, last of August. Freestone.
Petite Violet Hative,
Brugnon red at Stone,
Violet red at Stone,
Lord Sclsey's Elruge.
Foreign. Tree, very hardy, often confounded with Elruge, from
which it is distinguished by its deep red flesh and dark colored stone.
Flowers, small ; <//a72c?s,reniform; fruit, large, roundish, narrowed
at apex ; suture, shallow; skin, yelknvish green in shade, dark pur
plish red, mottled, with pale brown dots, in sun ; Jlesh, whitish, red at
stone, melting, juicy, rich and high flavored ; stone, roundish, reddish
brown Season, last of August. Freestone.
Foreign. An old variety that has always maintained a first char-
acter wherever correctly grown.
Flowers, small ; ^/awt/s reniform ; fruit, medium, roundish oval;
suture, distinct only at apex ; skiii, pale greenish shade, violet or
blood red, dotted with brown specks in sun ; ffsh, greenish, slightly
stained with pale red at stone, juicy, rich, high flavor ; stone, oval,
rough. Season, early Sep. Freestone.
CLASS II. — Hew and untested, suited to Amateur Pomologists or
Foreign. "Flowers small, glands reniforni. Fruit large obovate, dark
red next sun, pale yellowish green where shaded ; flesh fine, yellowish
white, rayed with bright red at the stone ; stone large, kernel bitter.
August, Freestone." New, not yet ft-uited in this 3ountr3\
Duke of Tellier's.
Due du Tellier's, I Du fie Tel'o,
Du Tilliers, | Puke de TiUey,
Foreign. Flowers small, glands reni form. Fruit above medium, roundish
oblong, pale green, purplish red check ; flesh greenish white, red at stone,
second rate flavor. Last August. Freestone.
Early Back Xewington, I New Early Newington,
Lucombe's Black, | Lucombe's Seedling,
Foreign. Flowers large, glandless. Fruit large, roundish ovate, point
at apex, pale green, with shades of red marbled in sun ; flesh greenish
white, red at stone. Early September. Clingstone.
Foreign. Fruit medium, greenish yellow, dull red in sun ; flesh yellow,
juicy, rich. September. Clingstone. (W. R. P.)
Hunt's Large Tawny, | Hunt's Early Tawny
Foreign. Flowers small, glandless. Fruit below medium, roundish
ovate, point at apex, pale orange, red cheek, russety specks; flesh
orange, juicy. Middle August. Freestone.
Hardwicke Seedling, | Hardwicke's Seedling.
Foreign. Flowers small, glandsreniform. Fruit large, roundish oval,
pale green, violet red cheek ; flesh pale green, Uttle marked with red at
stone, juicy. Last August. Freestone.
Large Early Violet.
Foreign. Similar to Early Violet, a trifle larger, and less high flavored.
New White, I Flanders,
Cowdray White, | Emerton's New White,
Foreign. Flowers large, glandsreniform. Fruit above medium, round,
white reddish cheek in the sun ; flesh white, juicy. Early September.
Pitniaston's Orange, | William's Orange,
Foreign. Flowers large, glands globose. Fruit large roundish ovate,
acute point at apex, orange yellow with dark brownish red cheek; flesh
yellow, red at stone, juicy, sweet. Last August. Freestone.
UNWORTHY OF CULTIVATION. 259
Old Roman, I Brugnon Violet Musquee,
^ Roman, | Brugnon Musquee.
Foreign. An old variety which proves best adapted to our northern
sections. Flowers large, glandsreniform. PVuit above medium, roundish^
greenish yellow, with dull red cheek, and russety speck^ flesh firm, green-
ish yellow, deep red at stone, juicy, vinous. Early September. Cling-
As yet we do not know of this variety having fruited in this country,
but from its high praise in England, where it originated, and the fact of
our clear, sunny clime adding to the richness and sugary character of
both Peach and Nectarine, as compared with England, we are led to sup-
pose this will prove the very best Nectariue extant.
It was grown from a stone brought from Syria, and is described in the
journal of the London Horticultural Society as above medium size, round-
ish oval, slightly heart shape at base ; pa'e greenish white, shaded into
deep, rich violet in sun ; flesh, white, tender, juicy, rich, sugary, and with-
out the slightest trace of prussic acid flavor ; stone, middle size, ovate, a
prominent sharp edge, rugged, and of chocolate color ; kernel, sweet.
CLASS III. — Unworthy farther Culture.
American. Glands, reniform ; fruit, large, roundish ; dull yellow, red cheek ;
flesh, yellow, pleasant ; second rate. Middle September. Clingstone.
Foreign. Glands, reniform ; fruit, small, round; yellowish green, red cheek ;
flesh, yellow, dry, poor. Early August. Freestone.
Orange, | Fine Gold Fleshed.
Foreign. Glands.reniform ; fruit, medium, roundish ovate ; light yellow,
red in sun ; flesh, orange yellow, firm, sweet ; second rate. Early September.
Murry, | Black Murry.
Foreign. Gland8,reniform ; fruit, medium, roundish ovate ; pale green, red
cheek ; flesh, greenish white, sweet, good flavor ; poor bearer. Last Aug-
Foreign. Glandless ; fruit, large, roundish ; greenish yellow, red in sun ;
flesh, firm, juicy, deep red at stone. Middle September. Clingstone.
American. Glands, reniform ; about one-fourth larger and a week later ;
otherwise, of second quality, and resembling the " Golden."
Late Green, | Vermash,
Gen'ja or Genoese.
Foreign. Under the last synonym it has, of late, been disseminated as new.
Glands,reniform ; fruit, small, roundish ; green, with dull red in sun ; flesh,
greenish white, juicy. Early October. Freestone.
Jatine Lisse, | Late Yellow.
Foreign. " Glands, reniform ; fruit, small ; yellow, with dull red 3heek io
iun ; flesh, yellow, dry. October. Freestone.
Persica vulgaris, Dec. Rosacea of Botanists.
Found wild on the Himalayan mountains, and not mentioned by
Jewish history, it is doubtful whether the Peach is, as generally un-
derstood, a native of Persia and also of China. It was, however, in-
troduced into Italy by the Romans, and, as early as 1550, was culti-
vated in Britain. About the year 1680 it was introduced into this
country, and, with the exception of portions of the northern New
England States and northern New York, it is now cultivated in every
settled portion of our States. History clothes the peach with hav-
ing once possessed deleterious qualities, and Pliny mentions that it
was supposed the King of Persia had sent them into Egypt to poison
the inhabitants, with whom he was then at war. This, however,
with traditions, making the fruit of a Peach tree, when eaten, to con-
fer immortality, knowledge, and the like, are now regarded as mys-
ticisms of a past age, of which, nought but the tradition is left. In
portions of China, Spain, Italy, and the South of France, as well as
our own country, the Peach is grown without aid of glass, or artifi-
cial, or condensed heat, by means of walls, etc. ; we have therefore
looked to receive some variety from thence that would surpass our
American Seedlings, but, as yet, none have been introduced.
The wood of the Peach, being of a more open, coarse fibre than
that of most fruits, we find it more susceptible to sudden and severe
changes of temperature, and therefore less hardy, and of shorter du-
ration. That this character is materially affected by soil, seems not
to admit of a doubt ; writers generally conceding that while in
unflivorable soils the Peach decays in four to ten years, in favor-
able soils it continues healthy and vigorous for forty or fifty years,
and, with the addition of being annually, correctly and freely pruned,
may be made to produce regularly for near one hundred years.
Of this we speak more at length under the head of Soil.
Propagation. — By Seed. The seed of the Peach, if carefully
planted in the autumn, will often vegetate in the ensuing spring,
and, in good soil, make a growth the first year of three to four
feet ; but in order to succeed surely, it is best to gather the stones
from late fruiting varieties, of hardy, healthy trees ; spread them
about four inches thick on some light, sandy knoll and cover with
about four inches earth. In spring, when the frost is fully out of the
ground, leaving it fit for working, these stones will be found to have
262 THE PEACH.
mostly cracked and the genn just started ; they should then be care-
fully planted in rows, four feet apart, and one seed every foot in the
row, covered ab«ut two inches deep. The stones that are not
cracked by the frost should be taken and care-fully cracked, by plac-
ing on a wooden block and striking the side edge with a hammer ; this
will not injure the germ, as is often done when they are cracked by strik-
ing the ends. Separated from the stone, the kernels should be
planted same as above, but in rows by themselves, as all are not sure
to grow, and, even if they did, would not as soon as those already
started, and therefore the rows in culture would often have trees un-
fitted for budding at same time ; or frequently those coming frona
the last named kinds would be entirely too small for budding the
It is well to know that most of the yellow fleshed Peaches have a
tendency to produce varieties similar to the parent ; hence the in-
numerable new sorts that now swell the nurserv-men's catalogues,
and that are yearly being introduced to the public as " highly svperi-
or.^'' If an orchard is desired to be produced of seedlings, by select-
ing seeds of the Yellow Rareripe, Crawford's Early, Bergen's Yel-
low, Lemon Cling, and Crawford's Late, it is very probable a col-
lection would be obtained preserving in great measure the charac-
ters, qualities, and times of ripening of these varieties. So, also,
may the periods of ripening of each kind be, to a certain extent,
hastened or retarded, by selecting pits of the first or last that ripen
on each particular tree.
The grower should, however, recollect that while there is a strong
tendency in these varieties to reproduce themselves, their capability
so to do is often destroyed by the intermixture, while in flower of
some other variety which is perhaps adjoining them only a few feet ;
hence, in order to feel any degree of certainty toward the raising of
kinds valuable, or resembling the parent, it is necessary that the
tree from which the pits are taken should stand perfectly isolated,
or certainly distant two hundred rods from any other Peach tree.
Those who have not the dry sandy knoll whereon to place the pits,
to prepare them for the ensuing spring, may place them in a moist
cellar until nearly the close of winter ; then take them out, soak
them in water two or three days, spread them on the ground and
cover -two or three inches of saw-Hu-t or leaf mo^dd over them ; thus
exposing them to action of fro^^t mini the season for planting.
By Budding. — The seed sown as above will, early in the month
of September, be found to have grown, in good soil, from three to
four feet, Mhen they should be budded as near the ground as possi-
ble ; and in October one-half of the entire top should be cut hiiak —
not the limbs pruned off, leaving bare stems — but the growth of