and satisfactory pecuniary returns, it has found a place in every
garden, farm, and plantation, from the size of a bed four feet square
to the field of five times that many acres ; yet withal^ there is not
sufficient quantity grown to meet the demand. Olden records have
been made of cures effected in the human frame from use of straw-
berries. We consider the fact, that during strawberry" season there
is less of sickness in cities well supplied with that fruit, a most
agreeable testim.onial to its healthful and invaluable qualities at
the present day. The distinctive name Fragaria is highly expressive
of the fragrant scent emitted by the fruit.
Raising from Seed. â€” When the fruit is perfect!}' ripe, it should
be gathered and cut into small pieces, or with great care each seed
separated. Select ground of light sandy soil, where only the morn-
ing sun will shine ; or, better, perhaps, have ready a cold frame with
the lights sloping to the north. Sow the seed at distances of about
one inch, and cover lightly by sifting fine sand, or, what is preferable,
vegetable mould from the woods. Thi?; done in June, the plants
will need care until about OftoV)er. at which time, if not grown in a
frame, they should have tan-bark or decayed leaves strewed among
them to the depth of two inches. Early in April following, trans-
phmt into deeply trenched ground, mcR manured with vegetable
Propagation from Runners and Divisions. â€” All varieties of the
strawberry, except the Wood and Alpine, propagate rapidly by
means of runners. These, when a new variety is procured, should
be carefully watched, and as fast as they make joints, should be
pegged down, and have fine soil or sharp sand scattered over them
to induce them more readily to make roots. In this way from fifty
to one hundred new plants can be obtained from a single one in a
To secure a bed of those most prolific in old grounds, select while
in fruit, and set stakes by side of those from which you wish to
renew ; after fruiting, destroy all around, thus giving them light
and room to form abundance of new plants. The Wood and
Alpine varieties are propagated easily from seed with but little
variation. They are also propagated by dividing the roots or cluster
of roots early in the spring.
Fertile and Barren Plants. â€” It is an old saying that " every
person enjoys some hobby on which to ride." Mr. N. Longworth,
of Cincinnati, has received the credit of starting the hobby of (in
common phrase) male and female strawberry blossoms; and so
vigorously has the hobby been ridden, that, with locomotive power
and speed, it has found its way into every journal in the country,
whether horticultural or otherwise ; and so generally is the dis-
tinction of staminate (male) and pistillate (female) flowers under-
stood, that we do not deem it necessary here to re-describe.
'â€¢ The European Wood and Alpine strawberries always maintain
a natural character of the blossom, no matter how cultivated, and
therefore every blossom gives a perfect fruit."
Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Tig. 3.
Natural StuU Sterile Staminate Blcssom. Sterile Pistillate Blossom.
The " Scarlets " and " Pines," as they are classed, when grown
from seed in highly cultivated grounds, have a tendency to become
imperfect in either stamens or pistils, as the case mav be. and hence
448 THE STRAWBERRY.
arises the necessity as well as apparent reality of the terms male
In the production of new varieties, even in our wildlings, the seed-
ling plants, by means of highly enriched and stimulating soils, in
exhibiting the full and even enlarged development of one organ, the
other remaining imperfect, has given rise to the theory of strictly
borren (staminate) and fertile (pistillate) plants, which when once
formed, it is well known, seldom change. We coincide with Mr.
Downing, that " the organs are always present, though inaperfectly
developed," and that when "deficient in pistils, (see Fig. 3,) they are
called male plants ; if deficient in stamens, (s-ee Fig. 2,) female plants,
the terms are incorrect ;" yet these terms have become so commonly
accepted that we have for the better understanding continued their
This deficiency in the one or other organ arising from the original
state of cultivation, cannot be changed by placing the plant in dif-
ferent soil and preserving an even temperature. The runners will,
when grown in open air and usual cultivation, in nine hundred and
ninety-five instances out of every thousand, continue to maintain the
habit of the parent plant. A change from imperfect or perfect con-
struction in the flower of the strawberry cannot be depended on from
a plant whose habit is once established, by means simply of varied
cultivation, although very high and exciting cultivation from enrich-
ing of animal manures, will often produce over-luxuriance of foliage,
Mdth corresponding decrease of fruit stems ; hence the necessity of
forming beds or plantations of the two distinct fully developed plants,
and also the care requisite to prevent the staminate or male plants
from occupying too much ground, their supjjly of food derived from
the root being given to creation of new plants by means of runners
instead of fruit, as in the pistillate or female variety.
With this understanding, therefore, that varieties are continu-
ally being produced, m which one organ is most prominently devel-
oped, and measurably to the destruction of the whole as a fruit-
bearing flower, it has become a requisite in planting to secure such
proportion of fruit-bearing or pistillate plants with the fructifying or
staminate varieties as to return the desired yield of fruit. The pis-
tillates, being regarded as the female, are counted valuable in newly
formed beds as of ten to one of staminates or males.
Varieties however exist, like the Large Early Scarlet, Burr's Old
Seedling, and Longworth's Prolific, which have generally been classed
as staminate or male plants, and yet produce abundance of fruit.
These varieties possess both organs perfect, in proportion of about
three out of five flowers, and we have therefore classed them as her-
Varieties and their Classification. â€” The varieties of this fruii
. CULTURE. 449
have within ten years past become so numerous as to be burdensome
to the author who describes, as well as the amateur or nurseryman
who grows, while for all practical and useful purposes, but very few
are retained as desirable to cultivate where quantity of produce and
character, or rather flavor in fruit is expected.
The character exhibited in varieties often marks their parentage,
yet, as it is known that a plant. can be fertilized by two or more
varieties, it is sometimes diflicult to select the distinct class, and
writers are often not a little confused in endeavoring to place them.
Authors have classed 'the strawberry as Scarlets, the original
type being our wild strawberry ; Pines, originating from Pine or
Surinam strawberry ; Woods and Alpines, from the common wood
strawberry of Europe ; PIautbois, or High wood^ from Bohemia ;
Chili, from South America.
The Scarlets are designated in their character by small flowers ;
long, thin, light green, sharply serrate leaves ; acid or sub-acid fruit,
of bright scarlet color, with seeds deeply imbedded.
The Pines are designated by large flowers ; broad, dark green
leaves ; fruit of pineapple flavor, and generally soft in texture ; seeds
The Alpines and Woods have small flowers, perfect in their
organs ; small, thin, light green leaves ; fruit small, sweet, and sepa-
rating freely from the calyx.
The Hautbois have large, pale green leaves, on tall foot-stalks,
the fruit-stalk tall and erect, the fruit of a dull red or purplish color.
The Chili, designated by hairy, thick, obtusely serrate leaves, fruit
pale red and insipid.
The Green strawberries have light green foliage, plaited fruit, solid
flesh, so unworthy cultivation as rarely to be found in this country.
We have dropped the arrangement into classes in order, simply
designating each in our descriptive text.
Soil and Situation. â€” Rich, deep, loamy, inclining to clayey soils
are generally found to produce the largest berries as well as most
in quantity ; but a sharp sandy soil, well manured with compost of
animal manure, bones, decayed weeds, old mortar, brick-dust or
rubbish, has, to our knowledge, produced some crops equal to any
recorded in the public journals. Deep the soil must be, say twenty
inches, to insure the perfection of an entire crop. If only a mode-
rately deep soil of six to eight inches, the first berries will fill and
perfect, while the heat and drought so usual throughout the West and
South-west in strawberry season, will cause too rapid exhaustion,
and prevent the filling and perfecting of the remaiuider.
Trenches, three feet wide and two feet deep, with one foot of
straw or leaves laid in the bottom, then filled up with good soil, well
repays the labor in the extra crop produced.
450 THE STRAWBERRY.
Where beds have beon long established and rendered rich by dig.
ging in liberally of barn-yard manure, it frequently happens that too
much growth of foliage ensues, to the destruction of flowers or fruit
stems. Where such is the case, application of one quart of gyp:tum
(plaster of Paris) to every four feet square of ground, with two
inches over the surface of leaf or vegetable mould from the woods
or old pastures, will again bring m fruit. It also often occurs, that
the staminates have become too numerous. These are easily de-
tected, as they flower some four or five days earlier than the pistil-
lates, and may then be drawn out.
The situation of a bed or plantation affects only the earlier or
later maturity of a variety. A side hill sloping south-east, with
springs of water gushing from several points near its summit, has
enabled an acquaintance of ours to send to market the " Early
Scarlet" strawberry some ten days or two weeks in advance of
others who have the same variety on warm soils and open level
exposures. Situations so selected that water can be supplied
liberally throughout the fruiting season, will increase the product
nearly one-third. Wet ground, where water stands after rains, or
springy, cold soils, should never be selected.
Season for Transplanting and Preparation of Plants. â€”
South of Philadelphia, the best season for forming new plantations
is either the last of September, first of October, or in March. In
latitudes north of this range it will generally be found best to trans-
plant in April or early in May. July or August planting in either
section will be found unprofitable, owing to the clear drying heat of
our sun ; while September or later planting in the northern range
will require additional care, heavy mulching with tan-bark, saw-dust
or the like ; and even then, many of the plants will be drawn out by
frosts of winter.
The plants when set should be trimmed of all but two leaves, the
roots immersed in muddy water, and if possible a damp or rainy
time selected for the work ; and in order to have the bed profitable,
one hermaphrodite should be planted to every eight pistillate plants.
Time of Ripening. â€” This varies according to latitude. In the
latitude of Cincinnati, the season usually commences about the
25th May, continuing until the first of July, and for every degree
of latitude a difference often days may be counted on, either earlier
or later, as you go north or' south.
The fruiting season may also be controlled at pleasure by means
of cutting foliao;e and flowers, and liberal or restrained watering.
If, for instance, a bed of Jenney's Seedling be taken of eight feet
square, the first two feet square shall be permitted to bloom and
fruit at its usual time ; the next two feet shall have only its first
fruit-stems plucked when just about to bloom ; the third shall have
its entire foliage and fruit-stems cut close to the ground, and when
the second fruit-stems appear, they are also to be picked as in the
second plat ; the fourth shall be treated as the third, but receive no
moisture after the first cutting for a space of ten days or two weeks.
The result will be a succession of fruit in order.
Modes of Culture. â€” Different varieties require measurably dif-
ferent modes of culture in order to insure full and perfect fruit.
That of cultivation in hills of about two feet apart, one plant to a
hill, the runners regularly destroyed, is most successful with the
Wood and Alpine varieties,"^ and also returns the largest and most
perfect berries with nearly all the Scarlets and Pines ; but at the
price of labor in this country, it is regarded as too expensive to com-
pare favorably with the following modes in rows or strips, which
liave been successfully and largely practised in this country, and are
thus described by A. J. Downing :
'-'â– Culture in Rows. â€” The rows should be two feet apart, and the
plants of the lar^e srowina; kinds two feet from each other in the
rows ; of the smaller growing kmds, from one foot to eighteen inches
is sufficient. The runners must be kept down by cutting them off
at least three times a year, and the ground maintained in good order
by constant dressing. During the first year, a row .of any small
vegetables may be sown in the spaces between the rows. Every
autumn, if the plants are not luxuriant, a light coat of manure should
be dug in between the rows ; but if they are very thrifty, it must be
omitted, as it would cause them to run too much to leaf
"A light top-dressing of leaves, or any good compost, applied late
in the fall, greatly promotes the vigor of the plants, and secures the
more tender kinds against the effects of an unusually cold winter.
Before the fruit ripens, the ground between the rows should be
covered with straw or new-mown grass, to keep it clean. A plan-
tation in rows is generally in full perfection the third year, and must
always be renewed after the fourth year."
Culture in Alternate Strips. â€” " Strike out the rows three feet
apart with a line. Plant along each line, about a foot apart in the
row. The plants will soon send out runners, and these runners
should be allowed to take possession of every alte rnatestrip of thi-ee
feet, the other strip being kept bare by continually destroying all
runners upon it, the whole patch being kept free of all weeds. The
452 THE STRAWBERRY.
occupied strip or bed of runners will now give a heavy crop of
strawberries, and the open strip of three will serve as an alley from
which to gather fruit. After the crop is over, dig and prepare this
alley or strip for the occupancy of the new runners for the next sea-
son's crop. The runners from the old strip will now^ speedily cover
the new space allotted to them, and will perhaps require a partial
thinning out to have them evenly distributed. As soon an this is the
ease, say about the middle of August, dig under the whole of the old
plants with a light coat of manure. The surface may be then sown
with turnips or spinach, which will come off before the next season
" In this way the strips or beds occupied by the plants are reversed
every season, and the same plot of ground may thus be continued in
a productive state for many years."
Specific Nutrition. â€” R. G. Pardee, of Palmyra, N. Y.^says : "I
fertilize the plants, on opening of spring, with a liberal sprinkling of
a solution of one-fourth of a pound each of sulphate of potassium,
Glauber salts, and sal so(Ja, and one ounce of muriate ammonia, to
eight gallons of w^ater ; continue this once a week or ten days until
they blossom ; then pure cold water until they ripen."
An old recipe published in the " Friends' Review," Philadelphia,
says that "A bed 30 feet by 40 should have applied, about once a
week, for three times, commencing when the green leaves first begin
to start, and ihaking the last application just before the plants are in
full bloom, the following preparation : Of nitre, of potash, of Glauber's
salt, and sal soda, each one pound ; of nitrate of ammonia, one-quar-
ter of a pound, dissolved in thirty gallons of rain or river water.
One-third applied at a time, and the application made at evening."
If dry weather, free application of clear soft water should be made
between the times of using the preparation. Throughout most of
the Western soils there is as yet no necessity for specific application
of food to the strawberry, except it may be in old gardens. For
field or market culture, new clover-ley will be found better than
specific manures on old grounds. The applying specific nutrition in
solution to all fruit-bearing plants, undoubtedly increases their sus-
ceptibility, while it increases the vigor, and foliage, and size of fruit ;
vet we doubt the success of such increased action in the soils of the
Western States, as combined with the great changes of climate. On
the other hand, we advise such course as will rather check than en-
hance vigor. We append analysis of the strawberry plant made by
Mr, Bilius Kirtland for guidance of those whose grounds have become
exhausted, and who prefer this method :
WORTHY GENERAL CULTIVATION.
In one hundred and sixteen grains of the ashes
Charcoal and Sand,
Perphosphate of Iron,
Sulphuric Acid, ....
Carbonic Acid, ....
Organic matter and loss.
CLASS I. â€” Worthy General Cultivation
Burr's New Pine. >
Originated at Columbus, Ohio, in 1846, on a
clayey soil. Flowers, pistillate, large for the sex ;
vines, hardy, vigorous, very productive ; fruity
large, obovate or rounded, light pale red ; seeds,
slightly imbedded ; Jlesh, whitish pink, delicate
aromatic flavor, sweet and delicious ; core, firm,
long, rounded, too tender for a market fruit, highly
desirable in gardens. Ripens among the very
Originated at Cleveland, by Prof J. P. Kirt-
land, in 1849, on gravelly loam. Flowers, pistil-
late ; vines, very hardy ; foot-stalks, long ; foliage,
dark, acuminate ; truss, well spread, very pro-
ductive ; /rwt7, medium to large, regular, rounded,
conical, very little inclination to form a neck ;
color, rich dark glossy red ; seeds, dark ; fesk, yel-
lowish stained, firm, juicy, sub-acid, sprightly and
agreeable flavor ; core, long, conical. This variety
bears carriage well, and being less acid as well as
larger than Hudson or Willey, should supersede
Originated at Cincinnati at same time
as McAvoy's Superior, and on similar
ground ; both on the land of Mr. Long-
worth known as the "Garden of Eden."
For market culture we regard it of more
value than McAvoy's Superior. Flowers,
hermaphrodite ; vines, hardy ; foot-stalks,
long, stout ; leaf, broad, round, bold, up-
right, with a curve; trusses, large, full, stand
up well from the ground; productive, regu-
lar, and sure bearer. Fruit, above me-
dium to large, generally regular, roundish,
or obovate, sometimes slightly conical or
coxcomb ; color, rich, dark crimson ; seeds, small, deeply imbedded ;
flesh, firm, bright red, with veins of white, and a white rim sur
rounding the core, which is obovate rounded, sub-acid, rich, high,
not delicate flavor; cali/x, around stem, is large, long acumJnate,
and the stem set deeply into the fruit. Ripens medium season, oi
with " Hudson. "
McAvoy's No. 12.
Originated at Cincinnati, in 1848, on loamy clay soil underlaid
with limestone. Received the prize of $100 from the Cincinnati
Horticultural Society, 1851. Flowers, pistillate: vines, hardy ; foli-
age, broad, dark, wavy, and sharply serrated ; foot-stalks, long :
tricsses, full and wxll formed ; fruity very large, exceeding by one-
WORTHY GENERAL CULTIVATION.
eighth that of any other variety ; form^ varied, as shown in our draw-
ings, generally roundish, irregular, conical, and occasionally slightly
necked ; color^ rich, dark, glossy crimson ; seeds^ large, slightly im-
bedded ; jlesh^ red crimscfi, lighted and veined with white, the white
most apparent at the apex, tender, juicy, rich, with an exquisitely
fine, high flavor ; core^ round, oblong, rather open and coarse in tex-
ture. Too tender to endure carriage long distances, desirable for
market gardens near town, as well as for private gardens. Ripens
at medium season.
For ripening late â€” say one week after " Long-
worth's Prolific," or about same time as " Dun-
dee" â€” and for its firm texture, and desirable
qualities as a variety for preserving, we place
the Jenney's Seedling in our list for general cul-
tivation. Flowers^ pistillate; viWs, very hardy ;
leaf and fruit- stems both long, stiff, and up-
right ; calyx^ very large, distinctive ; fruity
large, very regular, roundish conical ; color ^ rich,
glossy dark red ; seeds^ deeply imbedded ; fleshy
white, tinged with pink at the core, while the
red of surface is shaded in one-sixteenth of dis-
tance, firm, rich, sub-acid, delicious ; core^ long
conical, open texture, sometimes hollow. Sea-
son^ late. Very productive, 3,200 quarts having been gathe:
less than *:hree-quarters of an acre.
Lafayette (of some,)
La Grange (of some.)
Of all the Hautbois or high-wood class of straw-
berries, this we regard as the only one worth culti-
vating ; and even this is only adapted to private
gardens of those who relish its peculiar musky fla-
vor. One pint of these berries, mixed with a dish
of two quarts of any of the Scarlet or Pine varie-
ties, imparts a richness and character that few can
avoid liking, after once tasting. Plants of both
s6xes require to be carefully selected, in order to
give product. Foot-stalks^ long, bearing the fruit
above the foliage ; vines^ hardy, and very product-
ive ; fruity medium, sometimes large, rounded con-
ical, dark purplish red; seeds^ light crimson, prominent; fleshy firm,
musky, very rich, sweet, and delicious ; core^ ovate conical, partially
456 THE STRAWBERRY.
hollow. Ripens with " Western Queen ;" and sometimes, when the
season is "rainy, gives a partial second crop.
John Saul, Washington, D. C, says the Fertilized Hautbois of
Myatt is a larger fruit and better bearer Aan above.
CLASS II. â€” Worthy further Attention by Amateurs^ and adapted to
Princess Alice Maude.
English. Hermaphrodite ; large flowers, conical, dark crimson, glossy,
flavor sprightly, abundant bearer, grown largely in some sections of Vir-
English. Staminate ; globular, sometimes cock's comb, dark crimson,
fine flavor. New.
English. Pistillate ; large, rounded, deep purplish red, glossy ; seeds
slightly imbedded, very showy; flesh rich, red, sweet ; in some localities,
as at Newburgh, N. Y.*, and on the Canada shore opposite Detroit, proves
of the very highest flavor ; wants a rich loamy clay ; core full, firm,
surrounded by a light pink Une. There is another variety of Black Prince
which is long, conical, somewhat acid.
Orange Hudson Bay, | Bishop's New.
Pistillate ; medium, light orange scarlet, conical ; fruits in clusters, mod-
erately prolific ; desirable in warm, deep, sandy soils.
Burr's Slammate Seedling, j Burr's Old Seedling .
American. Hermaphrodite ; foliage light green, vines strong, vigorous
and hardy. Fruit above medium, roundish oval, often conical ; seed light-
colored ; color light pale red ; flesh tender, mild and pleasant flavor, does
not bear carriage well, and is of too pale color to sell well in market ;
productive, and as a fertilizer for pistillate varieties, valuable.
American. Staminate ; requires high cultivation in hills ; vines vigor-
ous. Fruit large, roundish, slightly conical : seeds yellow, slightly imbed-
FOR AMATEUR CULTURE. 457
ded; color deep, rich shining red; flesh pale scarlet, firm, juicy, sweet,
with a sprightly agreeable flavor. C. M. Hovey, the originator of this
variety, claims for it earliness and great productiveness.
English. Staminate ; large, ovate, dark red, hardy, and said to be pro-