Soil, Hardihood^ and Cultivation. The soil should be well
drained ; but in our clear, sunny clime, a warm, sandy soil is not
essential. The long, hard shell variety is hardy, and productive
in the middle, and portions of the northern States; while South, the
soft shell, or ladies' almond, is grown without difficulty. The
cultivation needed is same as that of the peach.
Uses. The kernel of the sweet almond is esteemed as an article
of food, and used in confectionery, cookery, and perfumery. Bitter
almonds are used in medicine, furnishing somewhat of the prussic
acid of the shops.
46 • THE ALMOND.
CLASS I. Varieties worthy cultivation.
Long Hard Shell.
Long Hard Shell Almonct, | Amandier a gros fruit, | Amandier a gros fruit doux.
Flowers, large, pale rose color, opening before the leaves ; stone,
about as large as the soft shell, but the kernel larger and plumper ;
very hardy ; ripens about last September.
Greal-fruited sweet, j Great Soft Shell, | Large Persian
The trees are hardy, but its fruiting qualities we do not know
It is said to be very large and sweet.
Soft Shell Sweet.
Ladies' Thin Shell,
Sultan a coque tendre,
Amandier des Dames,
Soft Shell Sweet Almond,
Doux a coque tendre,
Amandier a coque tendre,
Ou Amande Princesse.
This is the variety common in the shops of the confectioners, wtih
a shell so thin as to be easily crushed between the fingers ; and
the kernel of which is so generally esteemed at the dessert. The
flowers open at same time with the leaves, and are deeply tinged
with red. Fruity oval, compressed ; nut, oval-pointed, one-sided,
tender shell ; kernel, sweet ; ripens in August, or m July at the
South, where it is only adapted.
CLASS III. Varieties unworthy Cultare. •
• Common Almond.
Common Sweet, | Amandier a petit Fruit, | Amande Commune.
V variety usually found in nurseries, inferior to the Long Hard Shell.
Sultana Sweet Almond.
Amande Sultane, | Sultan.
A tender-shelled variety, inferior to the Soft Shelled Sweet.
Small, pointed, inferior fruit.
Pecher, | Amandier Pecher.
A cross between the Peach and Almond. Nearly sweet — often bitter.
Differing from the common Almond in its bitter kernel.
Armeniaca vulgaris — Dec. Rosacce of Botanists.
The common apricot is a fniit tree in occasional, but not generjil
cultivation. It is of olden date, having been mentioned by Colu-
mella, and, afterward, hy Pliny and Dioscorides. The latter describea
it as known in Italy under the name prcccocii ; while the former
mentions, that it was introduced into that jountry about the six-
teenth year of the Christian era. Thunberg describes it as abound-
ing in Japan, and attaining the size of a large spreading tree. ''The
Chinese," says Grossier, "have many varieties, which they cultivate
both for ornament and use." The barren mountains west of Pekin,
are described by the same author, as being covered with these trees.
And Professor Pallas states it to be " a native of almost the whole
range of the Caucasus." It is, also, stated to Ije from Armenia and
Arabia, and its name, derived from the Arabic, berkoche, whence the
Tuscan, bacoche or albicocco, and the English, apricocJt\ and, finally,
apricot, about the end of the last century. Ci^xe, in his work, pub-
lished in 18»17, says of the apricot, " This fruit is extremely tender,
in our severe winters in exposed or open situations, unprotected by
a wall." And similar statements have been made by Avriters, from
time to time, until, on account of this erroneous impression, of late
years, its cultivation has been too much neglected. It is not more
tender as a tree than our sweet cherries; and, contrary to general
statements, they do not require sheltered southern positions ; for in
climates like ours, such situations are the most objectionable, tend-
ing suddenly to excite or check the circulation of sap, expanding and
breaking the tissue of liber, often destroying the tree in an hour,
during the months of February or March, -although not, perhaps,
apparent, until the flow of sap commences returning toward the root,
in June or July fallowing. Northern or eastern exposures are best,
but, in southern or western positions, shielding the bodies and lower
limbs with cotton cloth dipped in whitewash, will often act as a
preventive. The trees should be shortencd-in "freely, as with the
peach; and standards should always be grown more in manner of
round-headed dwarfs, than otherwise; for if so grown, injury to the
fruit fi om late spring frosts, can often be prevented, by covering
them with a cloth.
Propacfation. The apricot is generally propagated by budding
40 . TMiC ArKiUUi.
on the plum. The small, yellow wild plum of our Western States
makes one of the best stocks for it. Some use the peach, which
answers very well on light, t«ancly soils, but generally gives too
much tendency to wood growth rather than producing fruit. The
seeds grow readily, and pits from isolated trees often produce very
good sorts ; few, however, ever get into notice, from not surpassing
the parent in size, although often proving more hardy and produc-
livc. Budding into the limbs of a standard peach, or plum-tree, has
been thought to add hardihood to the apricot.
Soil and Diseases. Deep, strong, loamy, but not wet soils, are
best adapted to .successful fruiting the apricot ; although they are
often grown readily and beautifully on light sand. In the latter
case, however, it req lires mulching or free watering, otherwise the
tree ripens its wood a.^d drops its fruit before fully matured.
The diseases belonging to the apric<^t as a tree are only the result
of exposure, as stated previously: but the fruit is a favorite of the
curculio, and frequently destroyed ere half grown. Trees trained
against buildings and near walks are often exempt from attacks of
Uses. " A very handsome and delicious dessert fruit, only inferior
to the peach, ripening about midsummer, after cherries and before
plums, at a season when it is peculiarly acceptable. For preserving
in sugar or brandy, for jellies or pastries, it is highly esteemed, and,
where it is abundant, an admirable liquor is made from the fruit ;
it is also dried for winter use." It is also used, when partially grown,
in the preparation of tarts.
CLASS I. Worthy General Cultivation,
Amande Aveline, j Ananas,
DeHollande, I Persique,
This old variety withstands severe frosts in spring, is hardy as a
tree, a good grower, productive although small, and hangs well, even
after ripe. Fruit, small, roundish, often approaching four-sided ;
suture, well marked ; skin, orange, becoming rich brownish orange
in the sun ; Jiesh, deep orange, parting freely from the stone,
juicy, rich, and high-flavored ; stone, small, roundish, compressed ;
kernd, sweet. Season, first of August.
WORTHY GENERAL CULTIVATION. 49
Dubois' Early Golden, | Dubois' Early Golden Apricot.
Raised by Charles Dubois, Fishkill Landing, N. Y. Tree, thrifty
yet close wood, hardy, productive, and said to bear considerable of
late frosts without injury to the blossom.
Fruity small, one and a quarter inch diameter, roundish oval,
narrow suture ; skin^ smooth,, pale orange ; fiesh^ orange, moder-
ately juicy and sweet, but not high flavor ; separates from the stone ;
kernel^ sweet. Season^ 10th to 15th July. Very valuable as a
Gros Precoce, I De St. Jean Eou^e,
De St. Jean, J Gros D'Alexandrie,
Tliis proves to be the finest large early apricot known, and an
abundant bearer : foliage, large, leaves, tapering toward the foot-
stalks, with little ear-like appendages in place of glands.
Fruit, medium size, oblong compressed ; suture^ deep ; skUi ,
downy, pale orange in the shade ; fine bright orange with a few
ruddy spots in the sun ; flesh, pale orange, rich, juicy, separates
freely from the stone ; stone, brown, much flattened, oval, perfora-
ted along the back from base to apex ; kernel, bitter. Season^
10th to 15th July.
Dunmore 's Breda,
This variety has its name from Moorpark, the seat of Sir William
Temple, who began gardening in England about 1672, and previous
to his decease, in 1698, this variety w^as cultivated. Moderate bearer.
Fruit, large, roundish, about two and a quarter inches. diameter
each way, larger on one side of the suture than the other ; skin,
orange in the shade, but deep orange or brownish red in the sun,
marked with numerous carmine specks and dots; flesh, firm, bright
orange, parting free from the stone, quite juicy, with a rich and lus«
cious flavor ; stone, uneven, peculiarly perforated along the back
50 THE APRICOT.
where a pm may be pushed through nearly from one end to the
other ; kernel^ bitter. Season, early in August.
We have been unable to detect any diflerence between the Moor-
park and Peach apricot, and have therefore made the Peach a syno
nym of Moorpark.
CLASS II. Adapted to certain Localities ; or, Gardens of Amateurs,
New and untested.
This variety originated at Burlington, K J., from a seed of the Peach
Apricot planted by Mrs. Sarah Woolman in 1838. Native soil, poor
gravel. Tree, vigorous, young wood reddish. Fruit, medium size, oblong,
somewhat compr'essed at sides, with distinct suture ; skin, golden yellow,
with red spots, and a ruddy cheek in sun ; flesh, yellowish, juicy, fine
flavor ; stone, rough, perforated. Season, last of July.
Origin Chelsea, INTass. Fruit, large, short oval, yellow, bright red cheek;
flesh, yellow, melting, rich, juicy, luscious flavor. Season, middle to last
A foreign variety, ripening at same time as the Peach Apricot. Tree
very short jointed wood. Fruit, above medium, roundish, compressed ;
Bkin, orange, with a brownish red cheek ; flesh, bright clear orange, tender,
juicy, rich flavor ; stone, small ; kernel, partially bitter. Season, last of July.
From Syria, new, and but recently introduced into this country. The
Journal of the London Horticultural Society, describes it as " roundish,
semi-transparent, skin slightly downy, pale citron color in shade, tinged,
and marked with red in sun. Flesh, tender, juicy, citron :!olor, sugary
and delicious, parting freely from the stone, which is small jundish, with
a sweet kernel."
Under this name we received a tree three years siace, but it has not
yet fruited. Mr. Downing, in the Horticulturist, speaks of it as large,
round, dark orange red,, sweet, and juicy.
Musch Mu«ch, | D' Alexandrie,
This variety takes its name from the city of Musyh, on the frontiers
ADAPTED TO CERTAIN LOCALITIES. 51
of Turkey in Asia. The Moorpark is often sent out for this variety ; and
BO, receiving it from three diflerent sources, we for a long time supposed
them identical. The true variety is not of quite as strong growth a?
Moorpark, wood being very short jointed. Fruit, medium, roundish,
about one and a half inch in diameter; skin, rich yellow, with orange red
spots and marblings on the sunny side ; flesh, yellow, tender, melting,
sweet; kernel, sweet. Season, last of July.
Origin, Lynn, Mass. Fruit, medium, short, oval, bright orange, deep
red cheek, tender, juicy, rich delicious flavor; clingstone; season, last July,
early in August. (Cole.)
Abricot Commun, I Grosse Germine,
Germiue, J Transparent.
A strong grower, hardy tree, suited to cold unfavorable situations ; good
bearer ; poor flavor. Fruit, medium, oblong, compressed, pale yellow,
dotted with a few red spots ; flesh, dull yellow, soft, dry ; stone, oblong;
kernel, bitter; season, first August.
A French variety, with large leaves, and vigorous habit of growth-
Fruit, above medium, roundish oval, slightly compressed, dull yellow, with
a little red; flesh, pale orange, firm and juicy; last of July.
Shipley's Large, | Blenheim.
From England, a good grower, and productive. Fruit, large, oval,
orange yellow, juicy, sweet; kernel, bitter; season, last July.
A variety not yet, to our knowledge, introduced. We have only seen
it noticed in the journal of the London Hort. Society. Its name, meaning
"bit of sugar," is the only description given.
Large Turkey, | De Nancy.
Fruit, medium, round, deep yellow in the shade, mottled with brownish
orange in the sun; flesh, pale yellow, firm, juicy; kernel, sweet; seasoa,
The Blotched Leaved Turkey, or Gc^Id Blotched, is a sub-variety, in all
respects resembling the common Turkey, except having most of tlie leaves
more or less blotched with yellow.
II I lUrklO IIODADV
62 THE APRICOT.
CLASS III. Varieties unworthy farther Culture.
Fruit, small, roundish, yellow, flesh, firm, vinous. Middle of August,
Fruit, medium, oval, compressed, pale yellow, with dark brown specks ;
flesh, yellow, firm, brisk flavor. Middle of August Kernel, bitter.
Purple, I Noir,
Angoumois, | Violet,
Fruit, small, resembling a plum, round, reddish violet, or purple; flesh, tender,
juicy, adhering to the stone, astringent ; kernel, sweet. August. George
Hoadley, Esq.. informs us that this variety has been brought from Germany
under name of " Hamburgh Apricot," probably from Booth's nursery, near
Early Orange, I Royal George,
Royal Orange, | Persian,
Fruit, medium, roundish, orange color, with a ruddy tint in the sun ; flesh,
dark orange, dry, insipid ; kernel, sweet. Middle July.
Early Masculine, I Abricot Precoce,
Brown Masculme, | Abricotier Hatif,
Fruit, small, round, yellow, spotted with dark red on the sunny side ; flesh,
yellow, poor flavor ; kernel, bitter. Season, middle July.
White Apricot, I Abricotier Blanc,
Abricot Blanc, | Early White Masculme,
Differing from the above only in its color, and ripening a few aays later.
Pyrus Malus, L. — Rosacea of Botanists.
Of all fruits natural to temperate climates the apple has ever
had preference. The " crafte of graftynge, alterynge, and plantynge of
fruits," was written on by a British writer in 1502, but it had then
long received the attention of " wise men of the East," and had
arrived to all the perfection of the present day ; the art of producing
and propagating varieties, probably, being then as well understood
as now, except however, as compared to the population, by a less
number of -persons. A native, in its wild state, of this country and
of Europe, it is generally understood, that, from the variety pyrus
mains of Lindley, our cultivated sorts have originated. Twenty-
two varieties are the number first mentioned and named by Roman
writers ; these have increased, until now probably 2000 would not
include the whole number named and partially or wholly de
To the labors of Thompson, Downing, Thomas and others, as
well a-s of local and national Pomological Societies, we owe much
in aid toward winnowing from this immense number, the wheat
from the chaff; and yet such is the extent of our country, and the
habit of all our pioneer settlers to sow seeds of the best apples,
that we are yearly in the production of vast numbers of new seed-
lings, adapted mainly only to their own locality, but occasionally of
such excellence as to warrant their general introduction. It is
owing to tliis, fhat, notwithstanding pomological waiters are daily-
condemning, our list of esteemed varieties is constantly swelling, to
the almost'utter confounding of the seeker after a knowledge rela-
tive to " what varieties to plant."
Orcharding in its profits pecuniary, as relating to the apple, has
become well understood, and no one, who has land in any way
suited now hesitates to plant. We have no certain data, but think
we do not overstate when we say, that, besides large quantities im-
ported from Eastern States, there are propagated and planted annually-
over 6,000,000 trees in the States of Ohio, Michigan, Indiana,
Illinois, and Wisconsin. The Western country is already pro-
ducing by millions of bushels, and her "orchards," so to speak, are
not yet planted. Such is the value placed on fruit, such the rapid
increase of people in cities, that no one should be at all deterred
64: THE APPLE.
from continued planting ; for, we have not only the wants of in-
creased population of our own land to supply, but that of foreign
countries. Already our fruits are sent to England and other distant
shores, and eagerly sought for and purchased at what would here
be termed high prices. Although the Newtown pippin as sent from
the Pell orchard on the Hudson River, has done much toward
establishing our reputation abroad, we anticipate an advance in good-
favor, when the same variety grown on our Southern Ohio, Kentucky,
Indiana and Illinois soils, shall be shown ; for certainly they are, like
all our Western growths, when compared with those of the East,
far superior in size.
The duration of the apple when worked and grown on a healthy
seedling stock, was regarded by Mr. Knight, of celebrity in horticul-
ture, at 200 years ; yet trees are recorded as being over 1000 years
old, and in annual healthy fruiting condition. So also Mr. Knight
regarded " many varieties" as in his time " already on the decline,"
which Coxe, in his "View of Fruit Trees" published in 1817, says
" grow and appear more healthy than any variety in the orchard."
Trees of over 200 years are known, in this country, to be healthy
and yearly producing their abundance of fine fair fruit.
The puberty or fruit bearing age of the apple tree varies accord
ing to variety, climate, and cultivation. In the rich deep soils, and
under the clear sun of our western states, most varieties come into
bearing at about eight years from the bud ; or about four or five
years from planting out. We speak here only of the cultivated
varieties. Wild seedlings would probably require from twelve to
Propagation — By seeds. These should be selected if intended for
stocks to work varieties upon, from native seedling trees of strong,
vigorous, healthy growth. The common practice is to visit a cider
mill in the months of October or November and take therefrom in-
discriminately such as first come to hand ; but he who desires to grow
fine healthy trees had much better purchase the apples from such
trees as we describe, and, if he choose, take them to the press himself.
The seed should be entirely separated from the pumice or pulp, al-
though much of it will grow if spread immediately on the land thinly
and plowed in lightly ; but this is a coarse unworkmanlike method.
To free it from the pulp, take a coarse sieve, and after it has lain upon
boards for forty-eight hours, proceed to sift it ; tlie next process, is
washing in tubs, when most of the pulp which passed through the
sieve will rise to the top of the water and may be taken off. If the
ground is ready it may now be sown, the ground being made rich
in vegetable, or partially mixed with ivell rotted animal manure,
trenched or plowed twenty inches deep ; sow the seed in drills of
about one foot wide and two feet between each drill ; scatter the
seed so that when it grows there will be one plant to every two
inches and cover with about one inch of earth, and one inch of leaf
mould, or tan bark, or sawdust. Fresh raw manure induces insects,
and consequently diseased roots. If the seed is intended for ship-
ment or keeping over until the spring planting, boxes not over six
inches deep should be procured with holes made in the bottom for
drainage, and then the seed packed in shallow layers with sand or
moss, and placed in the open air on the n(yrth side of some building
By Grafting. All of the modes described in previous pages are
used in propagating the apple. Seedling stocks of diameter at
crown of from one quarter to three-eighths inch are the best ; these
are generally obtained from seedlings of one year's growth in our
rich western soils; they should be dug up, have their side roots
trimmed to within one inch of the main root, and that cut off to about
eight inches; the graft should then be inserted, in the whip or tongue
method, just at the crown or union of top and root. The same
course may be adopted with seedlings in the ground, with excep-
tion of shortening the. roots.
Grafting on small pieces of roots, may answer for the growing
of some varieties in the nursery ; but very few, when removed, are
found to have made much but small fibrous roots ; and when planted
in the orchard, require staking for years, and rarely ever make good
trees. The practice has been largely followed, but is now condennied
by most nurserymen, and that of grafting only on the whole of a root,
as first mentioned, advised. Cleft grafting is generally pursued on
trees of large size in the orchard, and may be done in October or
November often with as good success as in spring.
Nurserymen generally practise taking up the seedling trees late in
autumn, and heeling them in, as it is termed, viz., covering them,
when laid down at an angle of 45°, with earth. This is done in the
cellar or root house, from whence they are taken and grafted in
February and March, and repacked in boxes just deep enough to
allow one inch of sand on the bottom ; and the stock grafted just
coming level with the tops, sand is mixed intimately among them,
covering all of root and union of graft. They are then set away in
a cool place, but free from frost, until the day of planting.
By Budding. This course, from the immense demand for trees
and the more ready and extended propagation by means of roots,
has almost been discarded during the past six or eight years. Bud-
ding is now again, however, coming into favor. * Stocks for bud-
ding should be thrifty, of about half inch diameter, and the bud,
inserted about four to six inches above the ground, and as much on
the north side of the stock as possible. The time when, is usually
66 THE APPLE.
the month of August, varying from early to late in month, as the
location is South or North, and the season early or late.
By layers and cuttings. This course is only pursued to increase
the quantity of stocks of the Paradise apple on which to dwarf
varieties. Some growers, however, west, have reputation for increas-
ing largely, and making fine saleable trees more rapidly by means
of layers, than otherwise : we have never seen them.
Cutting of Scions. These may be cut at any time from the fall
of the leaf in October, to the swelling of the bud in spring —
always, however, taking care that there is no frost in the wood at the
time of cutting. We consider the best time late in the fall, when
they may be packed m moss, damped, and wrapped in oil silk, laid
in a cool cellar, where they will usually keep well until spring. The
wood of the past season's growth is that required, and best to cut, if
possible, from bearing trees. When the cuttings are not made until
toward spring, a black and diseased appearance at the pith will oft
be seen in those of vigorous growth. This, while it would, perhaps,
be of no moment on the originaltrce, sometimes is thought to lessen
the vitality and success of the scion.
Selection of Trees from a Nursery. Trees of thrifty, not over
luxuriant habit, five to seven feet high, three years from bud or graft,
with branches from three feet up, well formed into rounded heads,
are worth double the price of trees six years old, ten and twelve
feet high, without a branch within eight feet of the ground. It
should, however, always be recollected by the purchaser, that all
varieties have not the same habit and regular form of growth ; that
while a nursery-man can supply a tree of the Baldwin, straight, and
just to the fancy, he may often find it difficult, nay, impossible, to
do so with the Fall Wine, American Pearmain, and many other
varieties at the same age. All this should be remembered by
the purchaser, and in his selection be guided more by the stocky
pyramidal form of the stem, and the position of branches, rather