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more prominent points of divergence in discipline (Art. 22-28).
Melanchthon, who drafted this document, was not unaverse to
a compromise, and the same is true of others. Luther, however,
who, whilst the Diet was sitting, tarried at Coburg, refused to
hear of any such agreement, and indeed so great was the diver-
gency of views, that it is doubtful whether a settlement could
have been made, even with his connivance. The emperor's
motion, that the Confutatio — representing the views of the
Cathohc theologians, Eck, Wimpina, Cochlaeus, Faber, Dieten-
berger and others — should be adopted by the Diet, was opposed
by the Protestants. On the matter being referred to a committee
for further discussion, the landgrave of Hesse ostentatiously
left the assembly, thus protesting beforehand against any
union that might be decided on. The committee itself was
unable to come to a decision on certain points, nor was a
second and smaller committee one whit more successful. The
emperor's valedictory message to ponder until next spring
on the method of reuniting the Church, and in the meantime

^ Pastor, Die kirckl. Reunion sbestrehungen wdhrend der Regierung Karls
V, 1879 ; H. Lenk, Der Reichstag zti Augsburg im J. 1530, 1894 '> P- Tschac-
KERT, Die unverdnderte Augsb. Kon/ession, 1901 ; Th. Kolde, Dz'e dlteste
Redaktion der Augsb. Kon. 1906; J. Ficker, Die Konfutation des Augsb.
Bekenntnisses, 1891 ; A. Patzold, Die Konfutation des Vierstddtebekenntnisses,
1899 ; O. WiNCKELMANN, Der Schmalk. Bund, 1530-32, u. d. Niirnb. Religions-
friede, 1892 ; St. u. Kr. 1893, 83-124 ; 1894, 339-62 (Wimpina) ; M. Spai^n,"
/, Cochldus, 1898,

Progress of the Reformation 93

not to introduce any new novelties, was answered by the
presentation of the Apologia Confessionis Augnstanae, a
defence of the original Confession against the Catholic con-
futation. Negotiations which were entered into with the
cities were equally abortive. Some proclaimed themselves in
agreement with the Confession presented by the princes ;
four (Strasburg, Memmingen, Constance, and Lindau) presented
a Confession of their own, based on Zwingli's tenets {Confessio
tetrapolitana) ; whilst all unanimously refused to accept the
emperor's parting message.

Nor had any change occurred in the minds of the Protestants
when the time was ripe for the holding of the new Diet. On
the contrary, in the spring, 1531, eight princes and eleven cities
concluded at Schmalkalden a defensive alliance for six years.
They even refused to furnish any levies for the Turkish war
unless judicial proceedings against them were dropped. So
great was the emperor's fear of the Turks, who had just gained
the bloody victory of Mohacz (1526) at the expense of the
Hungarians, whose capital Buda was now in the enemy's hands,
that he consented to the demands formulated by the cities.
The truce, which was agreed to at Nuremberg, 1532, was to
hold good until the Council which the emperor was to summon
within six months for the following year.

§ 165

Further Progress of the Reformation — Attempts at Reunion
Previous to Luther's Death — The Conference at Ratisbon

To the great advantage of the Reformation, the truce
lasted longer than had been expected. The emperor himself
could not well summon a General Council, and Clement VII,
whom he sought out with this object at Bologna (1532-33),
could not be induced to go beyond the mere prehminaries.
In the meantime Protestantism was establishing itself especially
at Miinster in Westphalia, where it had found a clever and
determined advocate in Bernard Rothmann, a curate of the
city. On the death of Eric the bishop (1532) there broke out
a real revolt. The parish churches of the city were handed over
to the preachers, and they remained in the possession of the

94 ^ Manual of Church History

Reformers even after a settlement had been reached under
the next bishop, Franz von Waldeck (1533). The following
year the same town fell into the power of the Anabaptists,
though on their expulsion (1535) the older faith was once more
restored (cp. § 192). Whilst, however, Miinster reverted to
the Catholic Church, whole countries were being lost to her
for ever. Duke Ulrich of Wiirttemberg, who had been deposed
in 1519 for his misgovernment, after the victory gained by
the landgrave of Hesse near Lauffen on the Neckar (1534),
was restored to his dukedom, and one of his first acts was to
introduce the Reformation. 1 The same happened at about
the same time in the duchy of Pomerania, at Zweibriicken in
the Palatinate, in Nassau, and in several cities, namely Augsburg,
Frankfort, and Hamburg.

The advent of a new Pope did not greatly facilitate the
assembling of the promised Council. Paul III indeed sum-
moned one to meet at Mantua at Whitsun, 1537, but as the
king of France raised an objection to that town, whilst the
duke of Mantua put forward conditions unacceptable to
the Holy See, the place of meeting had to be transferred to
Vicenza (1538). The Council, however, never assembled.
The Protestants, meeting at Schmalkalden, as soon as it was
announced (1537), roundly refused to take any part in it.
They also, at the same time, drew up the Articles of Schmal-
kalden, clearly setting forth the difference between their
doctrines and those of the Catholic Church. Previously to
this they had renewed their military agreements and secured
the adhesion of several new members. The emperor and his
brother Ferdinand I for their part, in 1538 at Nuremberg,
entered into a treaty with two of the bishops (Mainz and
Salzburg) and with several dukes (Bavaria, Saxony, and Bruns-
wick-Wolf enbiittel) , and everything seemed ready for a war,
till, in 1539, new proposals were made at the Diet of Frankfort
for securing a truce founded on compromise. The main factor,
however, which determined the Protestants to abstain from
a declaration of war was the illness of the landgrave of Hesse.

The rehgious conference,^ after having been debated at

1 StAlin, Wirt. Gesch. vol. IV. 1873 ; Wiirttembergiscke, KG. 1893, p. 250 ff.

" DiTTRicH, Gasparo Contarini, 1885, pp. 505-777 ; Moses, Die Religions-
vevhandlungen zu Hagenau u. Worms, 1889 ; P. Vetter, Die RV. zu Regensburg
(1541), 1889; W. V. GuLiK, Johannes Cropper (1503-59), 1906.

Progress of the Reformatio7i 95

Hagenau (1540) and Worms, took place at the Diet of Ratisbon
in 1541. Agreement was then reached on the question of the
original state of man, free-will, original sin, and justification,
the doctrines being expressed in very general terms, and both
the Catholic and the Protestant teaching being drawn upon.
Further agreement was, however, not found possible, even
the articles actually accepted being rejected or received with
hesitation by the outer world, and the colloquy closed without
any abiding result. To obtain speedy help against the Turks
in Hungary, it was found necessary to renew and extend the
truce of Nuremberg. This was done at Spires the following
year, the truce being for five years.

During this time the cause of the Reformation had been
steadily gaining ground. In 1539 duke George of Saxony
died and was succeeded by his brother Henry, the duchy
(Dresden) now falling wholly into the power of the Protestants.
In the following year Protestantism was established by the
prince-elector Joachim II in the Mark of Brandenburg, and
by the margrave archbishop William of the same princely
house it was introduced into the archdiocese of Riga. The
conference of Ratisbon did not hinder its advance. To obtain
funds to pay his debts, the count-palatine Otto Henry of
Neuburg, following the example set by other Protestant
princes, seized the church property and established a new order
of divine worship (1543). Franz von Waldeck, who adminis-
tered the dioceses of Miinster, Minden, and Osnabriick, and who
had for time past allowed the new teaching to be preached
in his dioceses, now sought admittance into the confederation
of Schmalkalden. Even Cologne seemed on the point of
being lost to the Church. The archbishop count Hermann
von Wied, in spite of the protest raised by his clergy, published
a plan of reform composed by Bucer of Strasburg and
Melanchthon (1543). ^ On the appointment of prince August
of Saxony to be administrator of Merseburg, the Reformation
secured a footing in this diocese also (1544).

The Catholic Church was oppressed by the Protestants
even in locaUties where they were not supreme, and even at
a time when the bigamy which PhiHp of Hesse had committed

' G. Drouven, Die Reform, in der Koln. Kirchpr. u. H. v. Wied, 1876;
Varrentrapp, H. v. Wied, 1878.

96 A Manual of Church History

with their consent (1540) ^ was beginning to cause them anxiety j
their impunity was however ensured by the danger of a Turkish
invasion. On the election of the provost Juhus von Pflug
to the bishopric of Naumburg-Zeitz (1541), the elector of
Saxony, alleging his rights as temporal protector of that
Church, quashed the election and bestowed the See on the
Lutheran Amsdorf. He also appropriated a portion of the
diocese of Meissen, whilst duke Maurice of Saxony pushed for-
ward in the other the Reformation which his father had begun.
The Schmalkalden leaguers subjected the duchy of Brunswick-
Wolfenbiittel to a somewhat similar treatment, expelling duke
Henry and establishing Protestantism in the country (1542).

A Council was now promised at Trent, where it actually
was to assemble, though only three years later. Again the
Protestants at the Diet of Worms (1545) ^ declined the invita-
tion, and the depth of their feehngs against Rome may be
gauged by the tract then issued by Luther : ' Against the
Romish Papacy, founded by the devil.' Under such circum-
stances the effort of Charles V (agreeably with the parting
message at the Diet of Spires, 1544) to secure a new conference
at the Diet of Ratisbon in 1546 ^ was doomed to fail. Not
only was the attempt a failure, but it also served to show
that the breach was beyond repair. Only with difficulty
were the Protestants prevailed on even to attend the meeting.

Luther did not live to see the issue of the negotiations. He
died at his native place in the beginning of 1546 (February 18) of
a stroke of apoplexy.^^


The Schmalkalden War and the Interim — The Treaty of
Passau, 1552, and the Religious Truce of Augsburg, 1555 ^

All attempts to secure a settlement by peaceful means
having now failed, the emperor at last decided to make use

^ W. Rockwell, Die Doppelehe des Landgrafen Philipp v. H. 1904 ; Hist-
pol. Bl. 35 (1905), 317-33 (on the seal of confession and the bigamy of Philip
of Hesse).

2 Mg. by P. Kannengiesser, 1891. ^ Mg. by H. v. Cammerer, 1901,

■' N. Paulus, Luthers Lebensende, 1898.

^ A. Hasenclever, Die Politik der Schmalkaldener vor Ausbruch d.
schmalk. Krieges, 1901 {Hist. Studien, fasc. 23-25) ; G. Beutel, Vber den
Ur sprung des A,, Interims, 1889 ; D, Z.f, G, N,_ F, II, 39-88 (on the Interim) ;

The Schmalkalden War 97

of sterner methods, and laid the ban of the Empire on the
elector of Saxony and the landgrave of Hesse (July 20, 1546).
These had already prepared themselves for war and were
assured of the support of their confederates, especially in
the south of Germany. On the other hand, the emperor could
count on the help of several Protestant princes, particularly on
that of duke Maurice of Saxony, who had been won over by
the promise of the electorate and a portion of his cousin's
domains. The war was quickly over. The south German
Protestants made their submission without delay. John
Frederick of Saxony (1532-54) was defeated and captured
near Miihlberg in the spring, 1547. The landgrave Philip
soon after had to yield to superior might, and archbishop
Hermann of Cologne was forced to resign ; Julius von Pfiug
was restored to his see of Naumburg-Zeitz, and Henry to
his duchy of Brunswick- Wolfenbiittel, from which they had
been unjustly expelled.

The vanquished were forced to promise recognition to, and
attendance at, the Council of Trent. During the war a conflict
had, however, broken out between the emperor and the Pope,
with the result that the Council was transferred to Bologna.
Under these circumstances Charles V decided to act inde-
pendently. At the Diet of Augsburg (1548) an order of
worship was proposed, which, though Catholic in the main,
bore some resemblance to Protestantism, in that it admitted
priestly marriage and the use of the cup for the laity. This
decision was to hold throughout the Empire until the Council
should have decided the question of religious discipline.
As the Catholic Estates rejected the proposal as illegal, its
observance was enforced only on the Protestants, a number of
other decrees of reform being passed for the benefit of the
Catholics. As for a lasting result there was none whatever.
The Interim, as the arrangement came to be known, excited
everywhere the deepest aversion. Throughout the North,
save only in the Rhenish province and in Westphaha, it was
vehemently opposed. Even Saxony could not abide it,

G. BossERT, Das Interim in Wiirttemberg, 1895 '> F- Herrmann, Das I. in
Hessen, 1901 ; Barge, Die Verhandlimgen zu Linz u. Passatt, 1893 .' G.
Wolf, Der Augsb. Religionsfriede, iSgo ; Brandi, item (text), 1896 ;
Thudichum, Die Ein/Hhrung der Reform, u. die Religionsfrieden v. 1552, 1555
u. 1648, 1896,


98 A Manual of Church History

though it had been rendered somewhat more palatable to
the Protestants of that country by the later Leipzig Interim
obtained by Maurice. 1 Only in South Germany did the in-
habitants prove submissive, with this result, that Protestantism
there received a set-back which lasted for several years.

The subsequent happenings were not at all in accordance
with the emperor's expectations. On the re-assembhng of
the Council at Trent (1551) the Protestants indeed sent their
delegates But several of their princes, among them being
Maurice of Saxony, had beforehand taken the precaution of
entering into a treaty, and, to make more sure of their safety,
had even allied themselves with France. In the spring, 1552,
they overran the Catholic provinces, and the position of the
emperor, who, in addition, was at war with both the French
and the Turks, became one of great danger. Hence immediate
redress was given to the Protestants by the treaty of Passau,
which ensured the peace and promised that the Diet should be
summoned within six months to evolve a new compromise.

The Diet met at Augsburg in 1555. Again the question
of a conference was raised. At the same time, however,
it was decided that the religious differences between the
Catholics and the upholders of the Augsburg Confession were
no pretext for conflict or war. It was also agreed that the
Protestants should retain all foundations, monasteries, and other
church properties which were in their hands at the time of the
treaty of Passau, so far as their retention involved no prejudice
to the rights of the Estates of the Empire. Henceforth two
Confessions were to be permitted in the Empire, the Catholic
one and that of Augsburg. The choice between the two
depended, however, on the Estates of the Empire, i.e. on the
princes, imperial cities, and knights of the Empire, their
decision being obligatory throughout their domains. To use
a later phrase, they had the lus reformandi ; the principle
which had been tacitly obeyed from the beginning of the
Reformation : Cuius regio, eius religio, thus received formal
approval. The middle classes and other simple subjects
had no right to practise freely what religion they chose,
but were bound to follow the injunction of their lord, that
is, unless they preferred to emigrate, a right which was ensured

' A. Chalybaus, Die Durch/nhrung des L. Interims, 1905,

Reformation in German Switzerland 99

them by the treaties. In the imperial cities, where both
worships existed side by side, the same order of things was
to continue. According to the proposal of the Protestants,
prince-bishops, too, were to possess the lus reformandi. Against
this proposal the Catholics protested, and as an agreement
was not reached regarding the matter, it was solved by
Ferdinand, who, as the emperor's plenipotentiary, ordered
that in future any cleric adopting Protestantism should lose
his preferment, which was then to revert to the Catholic Church
[Reservatum ecclesiasticum) . On the other hand, he also permitted
all knights, towns, and communes belonging to ecclesiastical
princes to continue faithful to the Augsburg Confession,
provided they were able to show that they accepted it long
since. The latter declaration was not, however, like the
former, embodied in the text of the treaty, but was published
by special letter-patent.

This peace set the seal on the religious division of Germany,
and showed how idle had been the hope of Charles V of restoring
unity of faith. After this deception the emperor refused to
attend the discussions personally ; this he left to his brother,
abdicating in the following year, and retiring to the monastery
of San Jeronimo de Yuste near Placencia in Estramadura,
to spend the last days of his life praying for the unity of the
Church (t 1558).

§167 .

Zwingli and the Protestant Reformation in German
Switzerland ^

At about the time when the Reformation began in Germany, a
portion of Switzerland, then as yet only recently (1499) separated
from the Empire, also fell away from the Church. The birthplace

^ Zwingli's works, ed. Schuler and Schulthess, io vol. 1828-42; Siippl.
1862 ; Egli and Finsler, 1905 ff. {Corpus Reform atorum, vol. 88 if.) ; Mg.
on Zwingli by Morikofer, 2 vol. 1867-69 ; A. Baur (his theology), 2 vol.
1885-89 ; R. Stahelin, I-II, 1895-97 ; Finsler (the bibliography), 1897 .'
, S. M. Jackson, 1901 ; S. Simpson, 1903; B. Fleischlin, 1903; Archiv
fur d. schw. Reformationsgesch. 3 vol. 1869-75 ; Strickler, Aktensammlung
schw. Reformationsgesch. in den J. 1521-32, 5 vol. 1878-84 ; Egli, Aktens. z.
Gesch. d. Ziiricher Re/. 1879 ; Analecta reform. 1899-1901 ; Riffel, vol. Ill,
1846 ; R. Schmidlin, Bernhardin Sanson, 1898 ; Katholik, 1899, II, 434-58
(on Sanson),

H 2

100 A Manual of Church History

of the movement was Ziirich. Ulrich Zwingli, born in
1484 at Wildhaus, in the district of Toggenburg, after having
worked in Glarus (1506-16) and Einsiedeln, was appointed
missionary priest (Plebanus) at the cathedral of Ziirich (1518).
Here he zealously preached against the abuses, real and
imaginary, of the Church. On the arrival from Milan of the
Franciscan quaestor Bernard Sanson to preach the St. Peter
indulgence, he was fiercely opposed by Zwingli, who was now
beginning to be strengthened by the example and writings of
Luther. The first result of his preaching was the public neglect
of the law concerning fasting (1522). To the remonstrances of
Hugo von Landenberg, bishop of Constance, he replied with his
tract 'Von Erkiesen und Freyheit der Spysen.' He also
obtained from the city council an order that preachers should,
in their sermons, confine themselves to Holy Scripture, and,
alleging the difficulties he had himself experienced, he demanded
the aboKtion of the law of celibacy. The ideas of the Reformer
soon prevailed in the city. At the beginning of 1523 a great
disputation was held at Ziirich concerning the Mass, the
priesthood, purgatory, the right of the Church to prescribe
fasts and attendance at Mass, &c., and the magistrates of the
town, who had arranged the debate at his request, proclaimed
Zwingli the victor. A second conference on the Mass and on
image-worship in the autumn of that same year ended likewise.
In the course of the next year all images were removed from the
churches, and in 1525 a new form of worship was introduced.
Originally this consisted in a daily sermon and four communions
yearly, Divine service being simplified to such an extent that
even hymns and the organ were excluded. The Last Supper,
which was partaken of under both kinds, was held to be merely
a memorial of Christ's Passion, Baptism likewise being con-
sidered in the light of a mere sign of admittance into the
Christian society. Catholic worship was sternly forbidden,
attendance at a Catholic church outside the city's rule being
punished by a fine (1529), and later on by banishment.

The other cantons were not disposed to stand idly by
whilst Ziirich was shuffling off the Faith. They warned their
neighbour to desist, adopted various measures for their own
reform (1525), and, to re-establish the unity of the Church,
arranged for a conference to take place at Baden (1526). The

Reformation in German Switzerland loi

latter indeed was a victory for the ancient faith, on behalf of
which no less than eighty-two disputants appeared, against only
ten for the opposition. In spite of this success, the new
movement continued.

The next city taken possession of by Protestantism was that
of Basel, where OEcolampadius of Weinsberg i had been labour-
ing in its interests for several years. Here the Reformed
religion, after having before received some minor privileges, was
formally recognised in 1527 ; two years later the Protestants
were in a majority sufficient to assume the offensive against the
Catholics. Yet greater conquests awaited the Reformers in
1528, when Bem,^ the most powerful of the cantons, besides
St. Gall, the district of Toggenburg, the Rheinthal, and the
free county of Biel (Bienne) declared in their favour. At Bern
the painter and poet Nicholas IManuel and canon Berthold
Haller of Aldingen near Rottweil, and at St. Gall the burgo-
master Joachim von Watt (Vadian),^ had been the principal
exponents of the new doctrines. In 1529 Glarus, Schaffhausen,
and Thurgau, and in 1530 the county of Neuchatel also, joined
the Reformers. Appenzell and the Grisons remained neutral,
and left to each parish the choice of its religion (1524-25). The
only cantons to remain entirely true to Catholicism were those
which had formed the original Switzerland.

The religious divisions gave rise to much bitterness and
animosity, and the cantons sought support in alliances. The
chief subject of quarrel was furnished by the common districts,
such as Thurgau, administered by agents appointed by several
cantons alternatively ; owing to the Reformation, the religious
interests of one canton were constantly being crossed by those
of the other. In 1529 Ziirich declared war on the older cantons, S;^
and though a peace was patched up, Zwingli's fanaticism, his
efforts to repress Catholicism throughout Switzerland and to , ^^^
obtain for Ziirich the leadership of the Confederation, again led V \
to an outbreak of war (1531). At the battle of Cappel, where
Zwingli himself was slain, and at that of Menzingen, victory
remained with the Catholics. The peace , which followed

1 Mg. by Hagenbach, 1859.

- M. V. Sturler, Ur/iunden der Bern. Kirchenreform, 1S62-73 ; T. de
QuERVAiN. Kirchl. u soz. Zustdnde in Bern, 1528-36, 1906,
3 Mg. by Pressel, 1861,

102 A Manual of Church History

ensured to the cantons the right to practise their religion,
whilst in common districts the choice was to be left to each
parish. Under the protection of the older cantons, many
churches in these districts were re-incorporated in the Catholic
body, whilst the abbey of St. Gall received back its ancient
princely privileges.

The Reformation at Geneva — Calvin ^

In the fifteenth century, with the help of Rome, the dukes
of Savoy were at last successful in bringing the bishopric of
Geneva into the hands of their family ; of this the result was a
long-lasting disagreement between bishops and citizens which
contributed not a little to Geneva's apostasy. For protection
against duke Charles III, the Genevese entered an alliance
with Bern and Fribourg (1526), thus coming into contact
with the Reformers. In 1530, when they formally joined the
Swiss Confederation, and made an end of the temporal power
of de la Baume, their bishop, the Protestant Bernese troops
excited a frenzy of image-breaking in the city. After the
departure of the allies the old worship was restored, only to
be again repressed. Its greatest gainsayer was now William
Farel. At a disputation arranged to be held in 1535 only two
clerics, both of them Protestants at heart, could be found to
undertake the Church's defence, and the larger churches of the
city were accordingly appropriated by the Reformers, a war
was declared on images, and the town council prevailed upon
to prohibit the Mass.

The function of establishing a new form of church govern-
ment was to fall to John Calvin of Noyon in Picardy (1509-64).

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