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Happening to visit Geneva (1536) after the publication of his
great theological work, Institutio religionis christianae, he was
prevailed upon by Farel to stay and devote himself to preaching.
His uninterrupted work in the city, however, really dates from

' Calvini opp. 59 torn. 1863-1900 (Corpus Reformaionim, vol. 29-87) ;
Mg. on Calvin by Stahelin, 2 vol. 1863 ; K.-^mpschulte, 2 vol. 1869-99 ;
ScHEiBE (his doctrine on predestination), 1897 : Doumergue, I-III, 1899-
1905 ; Cornelius, Hist. Arheiten, 1899 ; Nachr. Gottingen, 1905, pp. 188-255 ;
Z.f. KG. XXVII (1906), 84-99 (on his conversion).

Calvin 103

1541 ; the three previous years were spent in Germany, mainly
at Strasburg, whither he retired when he and Farel were
driven from Geneva owing to their intolerable severity (1538).
The new constitution of the Church, Ordonnances eccUsiastiques,
which he drew up on his return, was adopted after undergoing
a few corrections. A kind of vigilance committee, styled the
consistory, composed of both clergy and laity, was established
on the model of the Inquisition and charged with the oversight
of the religious and moral life of the whole community. To
test the belief and conduct of the citizens all houses were
searched annually. Those with whom fault was found were
refused Communion, whilst grievous sinners, obstinate opponents
of the new doctrine, blasphemers, adulterers, &c., were handed
over to the secular arm to be punished, the penalty being not
unfrequently death. The city was now compelled to accept
the yoke of the Reformers. The church festivals dis-
appeared with the exception of the Sundays, which alone were
permitted by Calvin. Even social life was altered, all display
and noisy rejoicings being strictly prohibited. Not that
opposition was wanting ; people long accustomed to freedom
were exasperated by the yoke, and there were many revolts.
Calvin was, however, sure of his position. The difficulties with
which he was faced, when Bolsec attacked his predestination
doctrine (1551), and when the Spaniard Michael Servetus at
his instigation had been condemned to perish at the stake on
a charge of heresy (1553), ultimately turned out to his advantage.
The opposition party was crushed (1555), and henceforth the
Reformer was virtually ruler of the city. The Ordinances
were now applied in all their rigour, and even rendered more
severe, and to crown his work a new school was established
(1559). comprising a faculty for teaching advanced students
in Theology, besides an academy in which the ordinary branches
of learning were taught. This college, of which the first rector
was Theodore Beza, owing to the fact that, through its situation
and language, Geneva was a centre for the Protestants of many
nations, was largely responsible for the subsequent success of
Calvinism. Not only did the latter oust Zwinglianism in
Switzerland (§ 191), it also made its way into France, Great
Britain, Holland, and even into Germany (§ 169). The two
most remarkable of its tenets were a severe predestinarianism.

104 ^ Mamml of Church History

and, concerning the Last Supper, a doctrine intermediate
between that of Luther and that of Zwingh. Though Calvin
considered the Bread and Wine to be mere signs of the Body
and Blood of Christ, he also taught that Christ by His spirit
or power is received in the Sacrament. He may be said,
therefore, to have held the virtual presence of Christ in the
Eucharist. At the same time, this being a consequence of
his predestinarian doctrine, he maintained that only the
predestined could receive Christ, the reprobate receiving
merely bread and wine.

For Eucharistic purposes common broken bread was used
instead of hosts, and the Bread and the chalice, instead of
being tendered by the minister, were taken by the faithful.


Germany after the Truce of Augsburg — Further Progress
of the Reformation and Counter-Reformation i

Though under the circumstances nothing else could have
been expected, the settlement arrived at at Augsburg was far
from satisfactory. The emperor Ferdinand I (1556-64) con-
tinued accordingly to strive after the restoration of religious
unity. At the Diet of Worms in 1557 the pre-arranged colloquy
took place. A little later George Witzel and George Cassander,
at the emperor's invitation, drafted tracts of a conciUatory
character, that of the former being entitled Via regia (ed. 1650),
that of the latter, ConsiiUatto de articulis religionis inter
Catholicos et Protestantes controversis (ed. 1573). At the Diet
of Augsburg (1566), Maximilian II (1564-76) made a last
effort to secure a compromise. At the request of the papal
legate the matter was, however, dropped ; the Protestants,

' Janssen, vol. VII-XVI (Engl. Trans.) ; M. Ritter, Deutsche Gesch. im
Zeitalter der Gegenreformation, 18S9 ff. ; G. Wolf, item, I, 1898 ; J. Loserth,
Reform, u. Gegenref. in den innerosterreich. Ldndern, i8g8 ; Akten u. Korres-
t>ondenzen zur Gesch. d. Gegenref. in Innerosterreich (1590-1600), 1906 ; {Pontes
rer. Anstriac. vol. 58) ; V. Bibl, Einfiihrung der kath. Gegenref. in Niederos-
ierreich durch K. Rudolf II (1576-80), 1901 ; Ph. Knieb, Gesch. der Rejorni. u.
Gegenref. auf dem Eichsfelde, 1900; W. E. Schwarz, Brief e u. Akten zur
Gesch. Maximilians II, 1889-91 ; Hopfen, K. Maximilian II u. der Kom-
promisskatholizismus, 1895 '• R- Holtzmann, K. Maximilian II bis zii s.
Thronbesteigung, 1903 ; M. Lossen, Der Kolnische Krieg, 2 vol. 1SS2-97.

Progress of the Reformation 105

too, were opposed to anything of the kind. This was the last
time that the question was discussed at a Diet.

The respective strength of the two confessions had already
greatly changed since 1555, and to the disadvantage of the
Cathohcs. The peace of Augsburg, by giving the Estates the
free choice of a religion, removed any fear of imperial reprisals
which might attend the adoption of the Augsburg Confession,
and thus, indirectly, assisted the Reformation. In point of
fact, Protestantism was immediately introduced into the
elector's portion of the Palatinate, and into the dominions of
the margrave of Baden (1556) ; in Baden-Durlach it had
come to stay, but in Baden-Baden the margrave Phihp II
again replaced it by the older worship (1570). At the death
of Henry the Young, he was succeeded by his son JuHus, who
established Protestantism in the duchy of Brunswick-Wolfen-
biittel (1568). The greatest conquests of the Reformation
were, however, among the spiritual principaHties. In spite of
the Reservatum, the Church was soon to lose no less than
fourteen dioceses in northern Germany, the two archdioceses
of Magdeburg and Bremen, and twelve simple dioceses (those
of Liibeck, Verden, Minden, Osnabriick (in part), Halberstadt,
Meissen, Ratzeburg, Schwerin, Camin, Brandenburg, Havel-
berg, and Lebus) . The North-West alone remained faithful to
CathoKcism, and even there Protestantism sought to enter by
violence. Gebhard von Waldburg, who had been elected
archbishop of Cologne after the resignation of Salentin von
Isenburg (1577), and whose election had been ratiiied after
three years' negotiations with Rome, two years after his
confirmation, declared in favour of Protestantism. He wedded
a certain countess Agnes von Mansfeld, and on being deposed
and the archbishopric coming into the hands of duke Ernest of
Bavaria, he sought the help of the Protestant princes to
regain his rights by force of arms. The conflict was, however,
disastrous for him (1584) and, by the victory, peace was ensured
not only to the Catholics of Cologne, but also to all the neigh-
bouring dioceses. The division among the Protestants them-
selves contributed not a httle to this victory of the Cathohcs.
Lutherism was now no longer the only reformed religion in
the field. The elector Frederick III (1559-76) had already,
in 1563, introduced into his portion of the Palatinate the

io6 A Manual of Church History

Calvinistic Heidelberg Catechism, and though Lewis VI
(1576-83) had suppressed the innovation, Calvinism was again
established by Frederick IV, or rather by his tutor John Casimir.
Calvinism was likewise adopted later on by Nassau (1578),
Bremen (1584), Zweibriicken (1588), Anhalt (1595), Hessen-
Cassell (1604), and several other states.

Progress was likewise made by the Reformation in the
dominions of the temporal princes, especially in those belonging
to the house of Habsburg. It had made its way into Silesia
during the reign of Ferdinand I. Maximilian II (1564-76),
who had long been secretly attached to it and who, even later,
in his efforts to secure reunion, took up a very independent
position, issued a permission to the Austrian nobility on either
side of the Enns to introduce the Augsburg Confession into
their churches (1568-71). His brother the archduke Charles
gave a like permission for Styria (1572), Carinthia, CarnioHa, and
Goricia (1578). The disputes which afterwards broke out
between Rudolf II (1576-1612) and his brother Matthias also
helped on the Protestant cause. The Bohemian Brethren and
the Lutherans had already (1575) united on the basis of the
Bohemian Confession, and had received from MaximiHan II a
verbal assurance of toleration ; Rudolf now, by a letter of
Majesty (1609), granted to all adherents of the Bohemian Con-
fession hberty of conscience, and to all the Estates, lords,
knights, and royal cities freedom of worship for their churches
and subjects. A like right was also accorded to all inhabitants
of the royal dominions by a compromise made between the
Catholic and Protestant nobles. Simultaneously, Silesia was
awarded a letter of Majesty, assuring to all classes of subjects
full freedom of worship and of building churches.

Whilst political weakness and anxieties were here counselling
compliance with the demands of the Protestants, in other
localities the reforms of the Council of Trent and the activity
of the newly-founded Society of the Jesuits had stimulated
a strong Cathohc reaction. Following the example of the
Protestants, the Catholic princes now began to exercise their
right of reform more severely. The result was what is now
known as the Counter-Reformation. This was commenced
by duke Albert V of Bavaria (1564). He was followed by the
prince-abbot Dernbach of Fulda (1570), archbishop Daniel

The Counter-Reformation 107

Brendel of Mainz in the Eichsfeld (1574), bishops Julius
Echter von Mespelbrunn at Wiirzburg (1582) and Theodore von
Fiirstenberg at Paderborn (1585). Greater energy was also dis-
played in Austria. Rudolf II forbade Protestant worship at least
in the towns (1578), and his cousin the archduke Ferdinand
prohibited it entirely in Styria, Carinthia, and Carniolia (1598).
These proceedings of the temporal overlords were undoubt-
ably in perfect order according to the principles of law univer-
sally admitted. Nor was there any real ground for complaint
against the action of the spiritual princes. It is true that the
declaration of Ferdinand I might be urged against it, but the
Catholics for their part could also point to the far greater
violations of the right of reservation of which the Protestants
had been guilt}'. The Protestants were nevertheless very
wroth, and the hostility between the two Confessions soon
assumed a dangerous character. The impatience of the
Protestants in Donauworth led to the banning of the city and
to its incorporation in Bavaria, and this action was followed
at the Diet of Ratisbon (1608) by a formal secession of the
Protestants. The link which thus far had, at least to a certain
extent, bound together the various Estates in spite of their
religious divergence was now broken, and separate confedera-
tions became the rule. In that same year, at Ahausen in
Ansbach, there came into being the Protestant Union, of which
the head was the elector Frederick IV of the Palatinate. In the
following year there was formed, under the leadership of duke
Maximilian of Bavaria (1598-1651), a Catholic confederation,
the so-called League, and the death of duke John William
of Julich-Cleve-Berg (1609), whose succession was disputed by
the houses of Bradenburg and Neuburg, brought the Union into
armed conflict with the League. This dispute was, it is true,
settled a few years later by a compromise. The duchy was
divided among the heirs, who, in the meanwhile, had both of
them changed their religion. The count palatinate Wolfgang
William wedded the sister of the duke of Bavaria, and together
with his country returned to the fold. The elector Sigismund,
on the other hand, accepted the tenets of Calvinism, though
he abstained from imposing them on his subjects. The two
confessions remained, however, very hostile, nor was it long
before war again broke out in dead earnest.

io8 A Manual of Church History

§ 170

The Thirty Years' War and the Peace of Westphalia i

In Bohemia the Protestants had gradually outnumbered
the CathoHcs. The indefinite wording of the compromise of
1609 was to help on their cause yet more. Under the im-
pression that church temporalities were comprised under the
royal dominions, the subjects of the abbot of Braunau and
the Protestants of the little town of Klostergrab, a dependency
of the diocese of Osseg, set about erecting a church. The
government was, however, disposed to interpret the law
otherwise, and an order was issued for the closing of the
churches (1614). The emperor Matthias (1612-19) next
directed the introduction of Catholic reforms into all the royal
domains. The letter of Majesty, which had been issued in
favour of the Protestants by his brother Rudolf II (1609),
was to be, moreover, interpreted strictly. His plan seems to
have been to reduce little by little the concessions which had
been wrung from his brother, a plan which quite agreed with
the moral standards of the time. Everywhere the religious
question was one of might rather than of right. So far as
possible it was everywhere the practice to oppress those who
dissented from the rulers. The prevalent conception of the
State sanctioned and even required this practice ; the existence
of several religions within a single state seemed incompatible
with pubhc order, and, as a matter of fact, was often a disturbing
element. The Protestants were, however, much disappointed,
and as no attention was paid to their remonstrances, their
church at Klostergrab being, on the contrary, levelled with the
ground (1617), at the instigation of count Thurn they rose in
rebelHon at Prague (1618). The governors, Martinitz and Slavata,
and the secretary Fabricius were pitched out of the windows

* K. A. Menzel, Neiiere Gesch. d. Deutschen, 2nd ed. vol. III-IV, 1854-55 J
F. HuRTER, Ferdinand II, 11 vol. 1850-64; O. Klopp, Der ^ojdhr. Kri'eg
bis 1632, 3 vol. 1891-96 ; GiNDELY, Gesch. d. 30/. Kr. I-IV (to 1623),
1869-80 (Engl. Trans. Hist, of the Thirty Years' War, 1884) ; Gesch. der
Geqenreformation in Bohmen, ed. Tupetz, 1894 ; A. Huber, Gesch. Osterreichs,
vol. V (1609-48), 1896 ; L. WiNTERA, Braunau u. der 307. Kr. 1903 ; M.
RiTTER, Die pfdlz. Politik u, die bohmische Konioswahl im J. 1619, 1897 [Hist,
Z. 79, 239-83).

The Thirty Years' War 109

of the castle, and a new government was formed under thirty
Directors. On the death of Matthias and the succession of
Ferdinand II (1619-37), the Bohemian crown was bestowed
on the elector-palatine Frederick V (1619). The rebellion,
with which began the most deplorable period in German
history, soon gained the neighbouring countries, Moravia,
Silesia, and Lusatia, as well as the archduchy of Austria and
the kingdom of Hungary. When the knell of the Habsburg
monarchy and of the Catholic Church seemed already to have
sounded, Ferdinand at last succeeded in obtaining the help of
powerful alHes. Banded with Spain, the League, and the
elector of Saxony, he was victorious at the battle of the White
Mountain near Prague (November 8, 1620), and at one blow
secured the position of his house. The victory was of great
importance from the Church's point of view. The right of
reform was made a pretext for abolishing Protestantism in
Bohemia, Moravia, in the archduchy of Austria, and in the
hereditary principalities of Silesia, though not indeed in those
parts of Silesia which were under their own princes, Brieg,
Liegnitz, Miinsterberg, and Ols, nor at the city of Breslau ; in
lower Silesia, moreover, it was not found possible to make any
great change. The same happened in the higher Palatinate
(Amberg),^ which was bestowed on Bavaria as its part in the
indemnity of the war in Bohemia, and also in the Rhenish
Palatinate, which came into the possession of the Spaniards
and the Leaguers. On the banning of the ' Winter King '
the Palatine electorate was handed over to Bavaria, and
the Catholics thereby again secured a majority in the college
of electors. The war was, however, by no means at an end.
The count of Mansfeld, Frederick's general, continued hostili-
ties, pillaging the countries through which he passed. Similar
raids were undertaken by the margrave George of Baden and
duke Christian of Brunswick, though both of them were soon
to be overthrown by Tilly (1622). In 1625, Christian IV of
Denmark, with the support of England and Holland, declared
war on behalf of the Palatinate, though without an}^ conspicuous
success. He was defeated by Tilly near Lutter on the Baren-
berg (1626), and a like fate befell Mansfeld at the hands of

' M. HoGL, Die Bekehnmq der Oberpfah durch Kurfiirst Maxtmtlian I,
2 vol. 1903.

no A Manual of Church History

Wallenstein near Dessau. These defeats paved the way to the
peace of Liibeck (1629).

Whereas the war now seemed over, the seed of a new
conflict was already sown. Ferdinand, after the victory of
1620, had, in virtue of his rights, re-estabhshed Cathohcism in
his dominions, and now considered it his duty as emperor to
reduce the frontiers of Protestantism to those which had been
assigned to it by the treaties of Passau and Augsburg. He-
accordingly issued in 1629 (March 6) an edict, the so-called edict
of Restitution,! dealing with the vacancies which had occurred
within the Empire. The Protestants were summoned to restore
all the church properties which they had seized since 1552,
commissaries being immediately dispatched to attend to the
execution of the decree. By the autumn, 1631, there had
already been restored two archdioceses, five dioceses, two
abbeys immediately subject to the Empire, 150 churches and
monasteries, and about 200 parishes, all of them in towns and
villages which had hitherto been Protestant. These pro-
ceedings, which resulted in Catholic worship being re-established
for nearly twenty years throughout a great part of the Empire,
were not without legal foundation. The Protestants were,
however, not disposed to abandon their claim to the properties
which, though illegally obtained, had long been in their posses-
sion, and without which the Protestant power would have been
greatly weakened. Ferdinand's plan became all the more
difficult to fulfil when the Leaguers, headed by Bavaria, had
persuaded him to dispense with the services of Wallenstein
and his army, and when France had promised the Swedes a
yearly subvention to assist them in their war against the
emperor. Fortune no longer smiled on the emperor's under-
takings. Tilly, who had been able to boast of never having
lost a battle, was, soon after the capture of Magdeburg, defeated
by Gustavus Adolf us at Breitenfeld (1631). The conqueror
was indeed slain at Liitzen (1632), the battle of Nordlingen
(1634) was a victory for the imperial troops, and the elector
of Saxony was forced into the peace of Prague (1635). The

* TuPETZ, Der Streit um die geistl. Giiter u. das Restitutionsedikt, in SB,
Wien, 1883, vol. 102, pp. 315-566; Hist. Z. 76 (1895), 62-102 (origin of the
edict) ; H. Gunter, Das Restitutionsedikt v, 1629 u. die kathol. Restauration
AHwirtembergs, 1901,

The Thirty Years' War iii

emperor's position remained, however, one of great danger,
and the edict of Restitution had to be withdrawn as a condition
of the peace. It was agreed that the church properties, con-
fiscated since the treaty of Passau and which were in the
possession of the Protestants on November 12, 1627, should
remain in their keeping for forty years more, and ever after-
wards, should no agreement be reached before the expiry of
the term, the emperor merely reserving to himself the right to
assign disputed cases to the arbitration of an imperial court
consisting of an equal number of Catholic and Protestant
judges. The war, in which Fiance now took open part, lasted
yet thirteen years, during which Germany was overrun by
troops eager only for blood and plunder, a large part of the
Empire being turned into a wilderness. Peace was at last
signed in 1648, at the Westphalian cities of Miinster and
Osnabriick, at the former with France, at the latter with
Sweden. Historically the more important is the Insirumentum
pads Osnabrugense.

A general amnesty was proclaimed, and matters were
henceforth to stand where they had stood in 161 8. In con-
sequence of this, the duke of Wiirttemberg and the margrave
of Baden, whose possessions had been much diminished
during the war, received back their lands entire ; the Rhenish
count Palatine obtained the lower Palatinate and the title
of elector, an eighth electorship being established for his
benefit in restitution for that which had been bestowed on
Bavaria. The princes who had suffered at the hands of
Sweden, for instance those of Brandenburg and Mecklenburg,
were empowered to compensate themselves out of the church
properties, which were, however, already to a large extent in the
possession of the Protestants {I. P.O. art. II-IV). The treaties
of Passau and Augsburg were confirmed (V, i) and enlarged.

(i) Besides the Catholic and Augsburg confessions, Calvin-
ism, or the Reformed Religion as it was styled, was to be
tolerated and placed on the same footing as the other confession
(Art. VIII).

(2) Church properties were to remain in the possession
of those in whose hands they were on January i, 1624 (V, 14),
the Reservatum ecclesiasticum being made obligatory on Catholics
and Protestants alike (V, 15).

112 A Manual of Church History

(3) The form of worship in tlie imperial cities was also to
depend on what it had been at the beginning of 1624, each
city being henceforth obliged to remain Catholic, or Protestant,
or mixed (V, 29). In the remaining states, any religion which
could be proved to have been followed publicly or privately
during the course of the year 1624 was to be permitted for all
future time (V, 31). Apart from this, dissenters, whether
Catholic or Protestant, were entitled to pray at home, to attend
churches outside the limits of the district, to freely exercise
their trade, and to dispose of their property should they elect
to migrate elsewhere (V, 34-37). In Silesia and Lower Austria,
no concessions were made to the Protestants on the basis of
the status quo ante ; they were, however, to be permitted to
attend church elsewhere and were not to be banished

(V, 32).

(4) At the Diets, when religious matters — or any other
questions in dealing with which the Estates would cease to
form one corporation — came up for discussion [lura singulorum) ,
or whenever one of the Confessions declared a notion to be
a party question, the two confessions were to divide into a
Corpus Catholicorum and a Corpus Evangelicorttm [Itio in
partes), the question being decided, not by a majority of
votes, but by arriving at a friendly understanding

(V, 52).

(5) The lus reformandi was to be a privilege of all the
Estates, ecclesiastical as well as temporal (V, 30). In spite
of this acknowledgment and enlargement of the privilege, the
latter was much reduced by the introduction of the status quo
of 1624 ; the privilege could now no longer be invoked save in
cases of uncertainty as to what had prevailed in 1624. The
measure ensured their religion to all subjects, this being even
expressly stated. Among other matters it was decided that
should a Lutheran prince pass over to Calvinism, or vice versa,
he might establish at his court Divine worship suitable to his
convictions, and also permit such worship for the benefit of
those of his subjects as had likewise been converted, but that,
otherwise, he was not to interfere with church matters in his
country (Art. VII). As was only consistent, CathoHcs were to
be bound by the same rules as the Protestants.

By the peace most of the property which had been restored

The Thirty Years* War II3

to the Church by the edict of Restitution was lost to her for

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