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two sessions were devoted to the doctrines of original sin
(Sess. V) and Justification (Sess. VI), the two main points of
difference between the old and the new Faith. After this
consideration was devoted to the sacraments, the Christian
means of grace generally, and to Baptism and Confirmation
in particular (Sess. VII). A few decrees of reform were also
passed, and the Fathers separated for four years.

The seat of the Council was not Rome's choice, assent to
its being held at Trent having been given only under pressure.
The legates accordingly demanded that the assembly should

The Council of Trent 135

either be translated or suspended, and on the outbreak of an
epidemic in the town in the spring, 1547, the moment seemed
come to adopt one of these alternatives. By the vote of the
majority the Council was transferred to Bologna (Sess. VIII).
The Italians and a few others, altogether about two-thirds of
the whole, immediately proceeded thither, whilst the Spaniards
remained at Trent. The translation was duly ratified by the
Pope, but the emperor was exceedingly annoyed, as it spoilt
his hopes of effecting a reconciliation with the Protestants.
The latter had just been subdued, and his plan now was that
the Council should win them over to the Church ; it was,
however, manifestly hopeless to expect the Protestants to
attend at a city within the Papal States. Hence the emperor
strove with might and main to bring about the return of the
Council to Trent, and succeeded at least in hindering the
publication of the decrees passed at Bologna. The two
sessions held there (IX, X) were devoted merely to discussing
the postponement of the next publication, the difference of
view between Pope and emperor finally leading to the sus-
pension of the sittings (1549). The Pope died that same year,
and though his demise caused the dispersal of the Fathers who
had remained at Trent, it also facilitated a renewal of the
negotiations. At the conclave the cardinals promised to
hearken to the emperor, and in accordance with this promise
the new Pope Julius III, del Monte, the former president of
the Council, assented, though not with the best grace, to the
assembly being again summoned to Trent.

The first, or rather the eleventh, session was held in the
spring, 155 1. The discussion regarding the sacraments was
continued, and decrees were published concerning the Eucharist
(Sess. XIII), Penance, and Extreme Unction (Sess. XIV). On
account of the war which was proceeding between the Pope
and the French king regarding the duchy of Parma (§ 179),
no Fathers were in attendance from France. In spite of their
absence, the number of members present had soon grown
larger than in the earliest sessions. A few Protestant envoys
also attended, though their mission had no success. It was,
however, not found possible to bring the discussions to their
normal ending. The Protestant princes having rebelled against
the emperor, and Maurice of Saxony having descended on

136 A Manual of Church History

the Tyrol (§166), it became necessary in the spring, 1552, to
prorogue again the Council.

The Fathers had hoped that at the end of the war, and at
any rate before two years were over, it would be possible
to resume their labours. Neither Julius III nor his two
next successors were, however, to witness the resumption of
the Council ; Marcellus II died three weeks after his election ;
whilst Paul IV would not hear of a Council. Only under
Pius IV (1559-65) was the matter again mooted. In spite of
this Pope's willingness, two years of his pontificate had passed
before any agreement could be reached. Not only did the
question regarding the seat of the Council again come up for
discussion, but the emperor and the French were also anxious
that the Council should be an entirely new one instead of a
continuation of the previous, and refused to be bound by
the decrees so far issued.

On the re-opening of the synod at the beginning of 1562,
the principal subjects to be decided concerned Communion
under both kinds, the sacrifice of the Mass, Orders, and jMarriage
(Sess. XXI-XXIV), in a word the completion of the Church's
doctrine regarding the sacraments. The debates were very
lengthy, and occasionally stormy. Not a few of the Fathers
were in favour of the use of the cup, but, as the Spaniards and
the Italians were opposed to any such change of discipline,
it was agreed that the matter should be referred to Rome.
On the matter of Orders, there cropped up for renewed dis-
cussion the question of the relations between the episcopate
and the Pope, whether the episcopate is a divine or an ecclesias-
tical institution, whether, in a word, the bishops receive their
power from Christ or from the Pope. The Spaniards were
strongly in favour of a definition in the former sense, the
Italians, headed by the papal legates, were as strongly in favour
of the opposite ; the French adopted a middle view. As the
different parties were in no mood for compromise, the question
was finally left unsettled. On the question of marriage, not only
had the indissolubility of the tie to be defined against the
view which had gained ground among the Protestants, but
stringent disciplinary measures were also to be taken. To
put an end to clandestine marriages it was decreed that such
marriages should not only be illegal (this they were already by

The Council of Trent 137

decree of the fourth Lateran Council, c. 51) but also invalid.
Only such marriages should hereafter be accounted valid
which were celebrated praesente parocho et duohus vel iribus
testihus.^ A number of important decrees of reform were
passed at the same time. They dealt with the abolition of the
office of indulgence preachers, or Quaestors, the duty of
publishing indulgences now falling on the bishops,^ increased
the severity of the existing laws regarding episcopal residence,-'^
insisted on the obligation of bishops and other dignitaries
to receive consecration within three months of election,*
decreed the erection of seminaries for the training of the clergy, ^
the annual and triennial holding of diocesan and provincial
synods,^ the more frequent visitation of the dioceses, of the
chapels belonging to exempted monasteries or other founda-
tions, and even of the institutions themselves when necessary, 7
the institution of a concursus for the appointment of parish-
priests,^ forbidding any Cumulus beneficiorum, and making
no exception even for the cardinals, ^ abolishing provisions,
expectancies, &c.io Finally, in the twenty-fifth session in
December, 1563, the discussion bore on Purgatory, the invocation
of the saints, the worship of relics and images, and indulgences.
A certain number of reforms were also left to the Holy See
to carry out. With this session the Council was able to end
its labours. Its attendance then numbered 255 ; Germany
was represented only by the imperial ambassadors and a few
episcopal deputies having no right to a vote ; fear of the
Protestants accounts for the absence of the German bishops.
The decisions of the Council were ratified by Pius IV, and were
accepted by the Catholic governments, and though in France
the State refused to publish them, they were received by the
provincial synods and thereby obtained practical recognition.
As cardinal Morone, the president, pointed out in his con-
cluding discourse, there were many other matters of which a
discussion would have been desirable. At the same time, the
results actually obtained by the Council were sufficiently
remarkable. The Church's doctrine was made clear on the

• Sess. XXIV, de re/, matr. c. i. - Sess. XXI, de ref. c. 9.
=* Sess. XXIII, de ref. c. i. •* Ibid. c. 2.

* Ibid. c. 18. « Sess. XXIV, de ref. c. 2.
' Sess. XXI, de ref. c. 8 ; XXIV, c. 3. » Ibid. c. 18.

3 Ibid. c. 17, ' "> Ibid. c. 19.

138 A Manual of Church History

points in which it had been threatened by the Reformers, the
more crying scandals were removed, and the long-desired
reform was, at least to some extent, accomplished. Its import-
ance was immediately manifested by the deeper feeling of unity
and greater self-reliance, which now took the place of the
indecision and diffidence until then shown by the Church.

§ 178

Religious Orders in the Sixteenth Century — The Jesuits

Owing to the state of decay into which monasticism had
fallen in the course of the Middle Ages, and which had recently
issued in the wholesale apostasy of members of Religious Orders,
a commission of cardinals and prelates, in 1538, had recom-
mended the abolition of all Orders, urging that their influence
could only be for evil. The demand was too far-reaching
to be accepted. There was also some hope of amending
matters without having recourse to such extreme measures.
At the Council of Trent a number of decrees were issued for
the reform of monasticism (Sess. XXV, de reg. et mon.). The
monks were forbidden to hold private property, the visitations
of the monasteries were to be more regular, the rules for the
enclosure of convents of women were made more stringent, the
practice of bestowing monastic foundations on men who were
not Regulars was prohibited, and, to obviate the evils which
had arisen through the entry into religion of children, it was
enacted that no youth should be allowed to make his profession
before the age of sixteen, whilst girls, even in exceptional
cases, were not to be professed until twelve years of age.
Reforms were also undertaken on their own initiative by certain
Orders. St. Theresia of Avila (f 1582),! with the sanction of
the Holy See, and the support of St. John of the Cross, success-
fully laboured to introduce greater severity into the rule of the
Carmelites, whilst a similar work was undertaken among the
Cistercians by Jean de la Barriere, abbot of Feuillans (|i6oo),
the founder of the Feuillantines. Especially noteworthy were

* St. Theresia's autobiography was turned into French by Bouin-Peyr6
{Vie icrite par elle-meme), 1904, edited in English by B. Zimmerman, 1904;
Bg. by PosL, 2nd ed. 1856; E. D'Orves, 1S90; Graham, 2 vol. 1894.

The Jesuits 139

the attempts at reform made by the Franciscans. They
resulted not only in the formation of a new division of the
Order, the Capuchins, but also led to further developments
among the Observants, whose rule was now imitated by the
Reformed Friars, the Recollects, and the Discalced Franciscans
— the latter founded by Peter of Alcantara (f 1562) — so that
henceforth this branch of the Franciscans comprised altogether
four families, the older Observantia regularis and the three
others of more recent creation, the four together being
designated by the title of Fratres minores strictioris ohservantiae.
Even before these reforms had been carried out, several new
Orders had come into existence, and a few were to follow some-
what later. The most important of all these was the Society
of Jesus. ^ Its foundation was laid when Ignatius of Loyola
and six friends, among them Francis Xavier, Laynez, and
Lefevre (Faber) — all of them Spaniards with the exception of
the last, who hailed from Savoy — took a vow at Montmartre
near Paris to observe poverty and chastity, and to undertake a
spiritual crusade to the Holy Land, or, in the event of this
proving impracticable, to offer their services to the head of the
Church for any mission which he might assign (1534). Accord-
ing to the Bull Regimini militantis ecclesiae (1540) by which the
Society was formally approved, its main task was to consist
in preaching and in the education of youth, a task which could
all the more easily be performed by its members, seeing that
they were dispensed from service in choir and from similar
monastic obligations. An additional vow, of unconditional
obedience to the Holy See in all matters relating to the mission,
was also imposed on them. In the event the whole strength
of this powerful Order was devoted to education and preaching,
the higher education of Catholic Europe soon being almost
entirely in their hands. Ignatius himself founded the Collegium
Romanum (1551), the greatest of the educational establishments

' Cr^tineau-Joly, Hist. rel. pol. et litter, de la compagnie de Jesus, 6 vol.
1845-46 ; J. HuBER, Der Jesuitenorden, 1873 ; Reusch, Beitrcige ztir Gesch. des
Jesuitenordens, 1894; Bg. of Ignatius by Polanco (in the Monumenta hist,
^ocietatis lesu, 4 vol. 1894-96) ; Bartoli, 1650 (Engl. Trans. Hist, of
the Life and Institutes of St. Ig. of L., 2 vol. 1856) ; Gothein, Ign. ton
L. u. die Gegenreformation, 1895 ; W. v. Nieuwenhoff, 2 vol. 1900 ; Greff,
1903 ; Ratio Studiorum et institutiones schol. S. I. per Cermaniam olitn vigentcs
collectae per Pachtler, 4 vol. 1887-94 ; Duhr, Die Studienordnioig d. G, J.
1896 ; Jesuitenfabeln, 4th ed. 1904.

140 ^ Manual of Church History

controlled by the Society, comprising colleges for the teaching
of Humanities, Philosophy, and Theology ; he also instituted
the Collegium Germanicum at Rome (1552), a seminary for the
formation of zealous German priests.^ Besides this, the Order
laboured with great success in the defence of the Church against
the Reformers. The zeal and ability of the Jesuits were
responsible for the expulsion of Protestantism from many
localities, and for the retention of the older Faith in others. One
of its members who deserved well in this connection was Peter
Canisius (f 1597),^ whose catechisms were particularly valuable.

The Monita privata Societatis lesii (Cracow, 1612), or Monita
secreta, as the later and fuller edition was called, are spurious, and a
mere satire on the Society (Huber, pp. 104-108) . It is now generally
held that their compiler was the ex- Jesuit Jerome Zahorowski. Cp.
Z.f. k. Th. 1890, p. 398 ; J. B. Reiber, Monita secreta, 1902.

The remaining Religious Orders may be divided, according to the
field of their activity, into two classes, some concerning themselves
with the education and improvement of the clergy, or with the
instruction of the laity by means of missions, &c., others devoting
themselves to the teaching of children or the nursing of the sick.
Among the former we find : (i) The Theatines, an Order founded
in 1524 by Cajetan of Thiene and Peter Caraffa, bishop of Theate
(Chieti). Its members were bound to the severest poverty, were
forbidden to beg, and had accordingly to subsist on free gifts. Cp.
W. LuBEN, Der hi. Cajetan v. Th. 1882 ; Maulde de la Claviere,
S. Gaetan, 1902.

(2) The Capuchins originated in 1528 through the efforts of
Matteo di Bassi to bring back the Franciscans to their older observ-
ances. The rule was to be enforced more strictly, a pointed hood
and the beard were also to be worn. The Capuchins became a dis-
tinct Order in 1619.

(3) The Barnabites were founded at Milan in 1530 by three high-
born priests — Zaccaria, Ferrari and Morigia — and took their name
from the monastery of St. Barnabas which was bestowed on them.
Paul III gave them the title of ' clerks of St. Paul,' for which
reasons they are sometimes termed Paulines. In their work with
the opposite sex they were assisted by the ' Angelicals,' or S or ores
angelicae, founded by the pious Luigia di Torelli, countess of Guas-
talla, a sisterhood which from the beginning had been under the
direction of the Barnabites.

(4) The Oratorians, or congregation of the Oratory, founded
at Rome by St. Philip Neri, and approved in 1574. Bg. of St. Phihp

^ Steinhuber, Gesch. d. Collegium Germanicum, 2 vol. 1895.
2 Petri Canisii episiulae et acta, ed. Braunsberger, I-IV, 1896-1905 ;
F. RiEss, P. Canisius, 1865,

Popes of the Sixteenth Century 141

by PosL, 1857 ; Reiching, 1859 ; Capecelatro, 1879 ; F. I.
Antrobus, 1903.

(5) The Oblates, a congregation of secular priests established in
1578 by St. Charles Borromeo. Bg. of the founder by Dieringer,
1846 ; Sylvain, 3 vol. 1884.

(6) The Regular Clerks minor {Clerici regular es minor es),
established by Giovanni Adorno and Francis Carraccioli (1588).

The Orders belonging to the latter category are :
(i) The Somaschans, founded in 1528 by Jerome .^mihan for the
care of orphans, and named after its mother-house at Somascha
between Bergamo and Milan. W. E. Hubert, Der hi. Hier
Amiliani, 1895.

(2) The Ursulines, a sisterhood established in 1537 by St.
Angela of Brescia for the education of girls, and for the care of the
sick. Mg. by Postel, 2 vol. 1878 ; At, 1885 ; by an Ursuhne
(Innsbriick), 1S93.

(3) The Brothers of Mercy, founded as an association of
seculars for the care of the sick, having its headquarters in a
hospital at Granada erected by St. John of God in 1540. After the
founder's death (1550) they were constituted into an Order.

(4) The Fathers of a Good Death, a congregation of Clerks-
regular for the nursing of the sick, founded at Rome by St. Camillus
of Lelhs (1584).

(5) The Fathers of the Christian Doctrine {Peres de la
doctrine chretienne), estabhshed in 1592 by Cesar de Bus, and for a
while (1616-47) united to the Somaschans.

(6) The Piarists, or Patres piarum scholaruni, founded at Rome
in 1597 by the Spaniard Joseph Calasancza for the education and
instruction of boys. Bg. by W. E. Hubert, 1886.


The Papacy to the Middle of the Seventeenth Century 1

The first popes of the period were so closely connected with
the Protestant Reformation, and with the Council by which
it was to be opposed, that the main outlines of their history is
already known to the reader. A few details may, however, be

' Reumont, Gesch. d. St. Rom, vol. Ill, 2 ; Ranke, Die rom. Pdpste im
16 u. 17 Jahrh. 3 vol. 1838-39 ; loth ed. 1900 ; WW. vol. 37-39 (Engl. Trans.
The Popes of Rome, their eccl. and polit. Hist, during the 16th and 17/A
centuries, 3 vol. 1866); M. Brosch, Gesch. d. Kirchenstaatss, 2 vol. 1880-82
(cp. the same author in the Cambridge Modern History, ed. by Lord Acton,
vol. IV.) ; A. PiEPER, Die pdpstlichen Legaten und Nuntien, I, 1897 ; RHE.
1906 (Origines des nonciatures permanentes) ,

142 A Manual of Church History

I. Adrian VI (1522-23) ' was a native of Utrecht and was
the last foreigner to sit on the throne of Peter ; henceforth
the popes were to be Itahans.

II. Under Clement VII (1523-34), a cousin of Leo X, the
quarrels proceeding between the emperor and France, the two
greatest of the European powers, had results unfortunate for
Rome. As a cardinal the Pope had favoured the cause of
Charles V, and even in the first period of his pontificate he had
generally remained neutral. In 1526, however, fifteen months
after the battle of Pavia in which Francis I had fallen into the
hands of his enemies, Clement entered into the so-called Holy
League with France, England, and several Italian States, It
was the Pope who had to bear the brunt of the war. In May
1527 there occurred the famous Sacco di Roma,^ the Eternal
City being stormed and sacked by the imperial troops, and
Clement himself being imprisoned in the castle of Sant' Angelo.
After having been a captive for seven months, a peace was
concluded at Cambrai in 1529. At the beginning of the next
year Charles was crowned by Clement at Bologna. He was
the last German king to receive from a Pope the imperial
crown, a fact which is significant of the political and religious
changes which were then being accomplished.

III. Paul III (1534-49) ,3 of the house of Farnese, was
undoubtedly a great prince of the Church. The loose morals
of the later Middle Ages had, however, left their mark on him,
and his earlier weaknesses were responsible for the misfortunes
of his pontificate. Besides his concern in the affairs of the
Church, he laboured with great zeal for the worldly advance-
ment of his family. To his grandson Ottavio he gave Camerino
and Nepi as fiefs (1540), and on the gift being withdrawn, his
son Pietro Luigi Farnese, Ottavio's father, was appointed duke
of Parma and Piacenza (1545). Two years later, the new
duke was murdered and Parma was re-incorporated in the
States of the Church, whilst Piacenza was occupied by the
imperial governor of Milan. As the murdered man's son
refused to relinquish his claims on Parma, the city was conferred
on him by Julius III (1550-55). Ottavio, however, in order

* K. HoFLER, Papst Adrian VI, 1880.

- H. ScHULz, Der Sacco di Roma, 1894 ; D. Orano, II Sacco di Roma, 1902.

^ C. Capasso, La politica di Papa Paolo III e l' Italia, I, 1901.

Popes of the Sixteenth Century 143

to ward against a possible attack from the emperor, who
claimed both cities for the duchy of Milan or the Empire,
concluded an alliance with France, which resulted in the war
which prevented the attendance of the French at the Council of
Trent in 1551.

IV. After the brief pontificate of Marcellus II, formerly
cardinal Marcello Cervino, Peter Caraffa ascended the pontifical
throne under the title of Paul IV (1555-59).^ Already seventy-
nine years of age at his election, he was nevertheless still full
of the vigour and zeal which he had already shown in founding
the Theatines. His great concern was now to uphold the
Faith and to abolish abuses. In the interests of the former
he issued his Bull Cum ex apostolatus officio (1559), in which,
giving as his grounds the plenitudo potestatis super gentes et
regna possessed by the Pope, he withdrew from all apostates,
clerical or lay, princes or subjects, all their dignities and rights,
and conferred their properties on the first claimant. His
harshness of character led him to hate the house of Habsburg,
and through fear of the emperor's power he allied himself with
France. The alliance soon embroiled the Pope in an unsuccess-
ful war with the king of Naples, Philip II (1555-56). Partly
on account of his distrust and partly on account of the peace
of Augsburg, the Pope refused to recognise Ferdinand I as
emperor. For all his zeal on behalf of the Church, the Pope did
not forget his own family. His affection to his nephews was
not, however, reciprocated, and he had finally to degrade and
banish them. Under his successor they were compelled to
stand their trial, cardinal Caraffa and the duke of Palliano
being ultimately both condemned to death.^

V. The attention of Pius IV (1559-65), of the Milanese
family of the Medici, was almost exclusively devoted to the
Council of Trent, which largely owed to him the success of its
concluding sessions. Having dissolved the Council, he occupied
himself in putting the decrees into execution, and in completing
the reforms which had been begun by the assembled Fathers,
but had ultimately devolved on the Pope. No time was lost
in drawing up a profession of Faith in accordance with the

1 MI(E^ (1904), 470-89 (on the conflicts of Charles V, Philip II, and Paul

- Rev. B6nM. 1905, pp. 525-35.

144 -4 Manual of Chiircli History

decrees of the Council {Profcssio fidci Tridcntina). At the
earnest request of the emperor Ferdinand I and duke Albert
of Bavaria, permission was given for the administration of
Communion under both kinds in a portion of Germany, though
the permission for priestly marriage which had also been
requested was steadfastly refused.^ A new and revised
edition of the Index lihrorum prohibitormn was also issued
(1564).^ Further work was prevented by the Pope's death. A
large share in the activity of this pontificate must also in justice
be ascribed to the Pope's nephew, cardinal Charles Borromeo,
archbishop of Milan.

VI. The next Pope, the Dominican Ghislieri, or Pius V
(1565-72), was the last to be canonised. During his occupancy
of the See the catechism, which had been designed to meet the
needs of parish-priests {Catechismus Romanus), was completed
(1566), and the correction of the Breviary (1568) and of the
Missal (1570) were successfully achieved. The remainder of his
pontificate was devoted to the upholding of the Faith and
of discipline, and to the conflict with the Turks. The Bull
In coena Domini, a list of the crimes and more grievous sins
of which absolution was reserved by Rome, which it had been
customary to read solemnly at Rome every Maundy Thursday
since the time of Urban V (1364), was now made yet more
stringent. 3 The Bull of Paul IV, to which allusion has already
been made, was also renewed, and the penalties therein
decreed against apostates and those suspected of heresy
were actually enacted against Elizabeth of England (1570),
though without any result, the Bull being already an anachron-
ism. The Turks took Cyprus, but their further progress
westwards was effectually barred by the great naval victory
gained over them at Lepanto (1571).

VII. The reign of Gregory XIII (1572-85), a Buoncam-
pagni, was remarkable for two things, the carrying out of the

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