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reform of the calendar, a reform the need of which had long
been apparent (§ 4), and for the foundation and endowment
of numerous ecclesiastical collegiate establishments. Colleges
were founded by this Pope for Hungary (the institution was

1 Knopfler, Die Kelchbewegimg in Bayern, 1891 ; Hist. J. 1892, pp. 144-57.

2 Mg. by F. Reusch, 2 vol. 1883-S5 ; J. Hilgers, 1904; G. H. Putnam.

3 Hausmann, Gesch. d. pdpstl. Reservatfdlle, 1S68, p. 89 ff.

Popes of the Sixteenth Century 145

soon after incorporated in the German College), for England,
for the Greeks, Armenians, and Maronites. The existence of
the Collegium Germanicum was assured by endowments, and
the Collegium Romanum was favoured to such an extent that
it still venerates him as its second founder, and received the
name of Universitas Gregoriana on being provided with the
higher faculties of Philosophy and Theology.

VIII. Under Sixtus V (1585-90),! previously a Franciscan
named Peretti, the emended edition of the Vulgate, which had
been demanded by the Council of Trent, was at last published
(1590),^ though it turned out to be so faulty that before long
a new edition had to be issued (1592). In other directions the
Pope was more successful, and gave proof of quite uncommon
administrative capacity. At the very commencement of his
pontificate he took measures of extreme severity against the
brigands who were disturbing the whole of Italy and were
especially numerous in the States of the Church ; for a time,
at least, brigandage was entirely suppressed within the papal
territories. To assist in the business of governing the Church
he also estabhshed fifteen congregations, of which those
entrusted with the spiritualities survive to our own day.
The city of Rome was enlarged and beautified. The dome
of St. Peter's, a wonder among works of architecture, was
completed, and the great obelisk which had thus far lain in the
dust was erected in the Piazza di San Pietro. The Pope had
also to face great trouble abroad. Owing to the civil war
and the dispute concerning the succession which were raging in
France, the Pope was subjected to constant pressure by the
French parties and by Philip II of Spain, \\\\o were all desirous
of obtaining his support, and the difficulties only grew with the
progress of time. After the assassination of the duke of
Guise and of the cardinal of Lorraine by Henry III (1588),
and the latter's murder (1589), the claimant to the French
throne who had the most right was Henry of Navarre, whom
the Pope himself had excommunicated as a Huguenot at the
beginning of his pontificate, and who still clung to Protestantism.
For a time it seemed that the Pope would have to yield to the
pressure of the Spaniards. Trusting, however, in the proniised

1 Mg. by HiJBNER, 2 vol. 1871 (Engl. Trans. 1872) ; Capr.-^nic.a, 3 vol. 1884.

2 Kaulen, Gesch. d. V. iS68<

VOL. II. • t

146 A Manual of Church History

conversion of the Bourbon, and dreading also any increase in
Spain's power, the Pope refused to be led into further action
against Henry IV.

IX. French affairs were to occupy the next popes also.
Urban VII indeed was unable to do anything, as he died before
his coronation. On the other hand cardinal Sfondrato, as soon
as he had succeeded under the title of Gregory XIV (1590-91),
took a more determined line. As the neutrality thus far
observed did not seem of any avail, he embraced the cause of the
League, sending them troops and bidding the Catholics forsake
Navarre. The same policy was followed by Innocent IX
and by Clement VIII (1592-1605) of the house of Aldobrandini.
When, however, Navarre himself returned to the Church (1593)
and his cause began to gain ground, it became necessary in the
interests of peace and of the Church to adopt a different line
of conduct, and Henry IV was finally acknowledged (1595).
This step soon proved fortunate for the Papal States. On the
death of duke Alfonso II of Este without issue (1597), the
Pope was able with the help of France to claim Ferrara as a
lapsed fief.

X. Leo XI, one of the Mediceans, reigned for only twenty-
six days, and was succeeded by cardinal Borghese as Paul V
(1605-21), who almost immediately entered into a violent
altercation with Venice. The pretext for the quarrel was the
imprisonment of two criminal clerics by the Repubhc, and the
re-enactment of two laws forbidding the bestowal of landed
property on the clergy or the erection of new churches without
the consent of the government ; the Republic had flatly refused
either to yield up the clerics to be tried by the Church, or to
repeal the laws in question. Other complaints were also made
against Venice, and as the Republic, convinced by the arguments
of the Servite Paolo Sarpi that the exemption of the clergy and
the immunities of the Church rested on human and not on
Divine law, refused to reconsider its actions, it was laid under
excommunication and interdict (1606) . The only result of this
measure was to intensify the conflict. The sentence was
rejected by the Republic as invalid, and the clergy, with the
exception of the Jesuits, Capuchins, and Theatines, continued
to hold the customary services. WTien the parties were already
on the eve of war, the intervention of France led Venice to give

Popes of the Seventeenth Century 147

way, though only on such conditions as to make it impossible
to speak of the event as a victory for the Pope. Nor was there
anything really strange in this issue of the quarrel. The claims
of Paul V were too mediaeval in character to be made good.
How circumstances had changed is also apparent from the
fact that this was the last occasion on which a whole state was
placed under an interdict.

XL After the short reign of Gregory XV (1621-23)
of the house of Ludovisi, a great patron of the Jesuits, who
canonised Ignatius and Francis Xavier, there followed cardinal
Barberini as Urban VIII (1623-44). His pontificate was rich
in events. He corrected the Breviary, and practically gave the
Bull In coena Domini its present form. To his time belongs
the trial of Galileo ^ and the condemnation of the Copemican
system by the Holy Office. The Papal States were enlarged
by the addition of the duchy of Urbino, a papal fief which
was occupied on the death of the last of the race of Rovere
(1631). On the other hand. Urban was drawn into a lengthy
war with the duke of Parma, which, after depleting the
papal treasury, ended without any satisfactory result. In
his foreign policy this Pope was too much inclined to favour
France, and his conduct in this respect, as well as his
concern for the promotion of his relatives, has often been
made a subject of reproach, some even going so far as to
allege that he rejoiced over the victory of the Swedes in

XII. Innocent X (1644-55), a member of the house of
Pamfili, soon after his accession was compelled to put his
predecessor's nephews on their trial. On their fleeing to France
their dignities and possessions were confiscated, though at
France's request the trial was afterwards abandoned and the
fugitives restored to their offices. A new quarrel now broke
out with the duke of Parma. Not only did he refuse to fulfil
his obligations, but he was also suspected of having murdered
the bishop of Castro, in consequence of which this town was
destroyed and the whole territory incorporated in the Papal
States. In spite of Innocent's severity, at least for a time,

> Mg. by K. V. Gebler, 1876-77 ; Schanz, 1S78 ; Reusch, 1S79 ; Grisar,
1882 ; Funk, A.u. U. II, 444-76.

- Hist. J. 1895, pp. 336-341 ; ^- S«- 1899, pp. 151-262.

L 2

148 A Manual of Church History

to the Barberini, he himself allowed his own relative, his sister-
in-law Donna Olympia Maidalchini, an undue influence over
the conduct of affairs. How unworthy she really was of his
confidence was to be seen after his death, when she refused
even to bear the costs of his funeral.

During this period a change had become apparent in the election
of the popes. Since the end of the fifteenth century it had been
the practice to retain permanent ambassadors at Rome, and at the
conclaves the various States strove for the upper hand. In the
first half of the sixteenth century it was France and the emperor
who practically controlled the proceedings. Later on the cardinals
were left to their own devices, with the result that there were usually
two parties on the one hand, the creatures of the late Pope led by his
nephews, and on the other, the remaining cardinals, the latter as a
general rule being successful, the opposite party again coming into
power only at the subsequent conclave. Since Julius III the
election was almost invariably by ' Adoration ' ; the candidate was
made to sit on the altar, and homage was rendered him, his supporters
endeavouring to induce as many of the electors as possible to accom-
plish the action. This method was not one to safeguard the free-
dom of election, or to prevent outside influences, and accordingly
Gregory XV, in his Bull Aeterni Pair is, 1621, decreed that the election
should in future be made by the Scrutinium, and that the vote
should be secret. The method of compromise, or ' inspiration,' was
only to be permitted when the cardinals were unanimously in its
favour. In the many discussions respecting the reform of the
election we frequently hear of the right of exclusion. Very httle is
known of the origin of the right of exclusion as claimed by the
Catholic great powers (the emperor, France, and Spain), i.e. the
right of each excluding one candidate at each conclave. Sagmullek
{Die PapshvaJilen, 1890 ; die Papstwahlbullen, 1892 ; A.f. K. KR.
1895, I, 193-256) traces it back to Charles V and Philip II,
Wahrmund {Das Atisschliessungsrecht der kath. Staaten, 1890 ;
A.f. K. KR. 1894, II, 201-334) can find no certain use of it before the
conclave in 1721. ' Lector' {Le conclave, 1894) thinks it originated
in 1691.

The famous Predictions concerning the popes, which were
published by the Benedictine Wion in the Lignum vitae, 1595, as
emanating from St. Malaclty, archbishop of Armagh (f 1148), and
which deal with the popes from Celestine II (1143) till the end of
the world (printed inGiNZEL, Kirchenhist. Schriften, 1872, II, 83-90),
were without a doubt composed shortly before their publication,
under Urban VII. the last Pope to be clearly described, or during the
conclave after his death (1590). J. Maitre, La prophetie des papes
attrihiiee a saint Malachie, 1901 (on their authenticity), Festgabe
fiir H. Finke, 1904, pp. 1-40 ; Th. Qu. 1873, pp. 162-68.

Missions 149


The Missions 1

Whilst the Church was losing wide districts in the home-
lands, others were being won for her elsewhere. The dis-
coveries of the Spaniards and Portuguese in East and West
excited, particularly among the Jesuits and Capuchins, a
desire to convert these new countries. Missionaries departed
in every direction. The various missionary undertakings were
put by Gregory XV under the supreme direction of the Con-
gregaiio de propaganda flde^ (1622). The Collegium Urhanum,
added by Urban VIII (1627), was a seminary in which young
men were to be trained to act as missionaries in every part
of the world. Later on, at Paris, similar institutions were
established — the College of Foreign Missions (1663) and the
College of the Holy Ghost (1703).

The Church's greatest conquests were made in the New
World. ^ All the countries taken possession of by the Spaniards,
the Portuguese, or the French were won over to the Faith.
It penetrated into the West Indies, or at least into Haiti, San
Domingo and Cuba, the largest of the islands,into South America,
Guiana, Venezuela, New Granada, and the kingdom of the Incas,
i.e. the modern States of Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Chile
(conquered by Pizarro, 1532), into the lands of La Plata and
Brazil, into Mexico or New Spain (conquered by Cortez, 1519),
into California and Canada or New France (where Quebec was
erected into a bishopric in 1674). Owing to the cruelty fre-
quently practised towards the natives by the conquerors, their
conversion was in many places a matter of much difficulty. In
spite of this, constant progress was made, here more slowly,
there more rapidly. The Indians soon discovered that the
missionaries were their best friends. One of the first to plead
on their behalf was Las Casas (ti566), whose life may be said
to have been devoted to the protection of the downtrodden

1 Henrion, Hist. gen. des missions cath. depuis le XIIP si&cle, 2 vol. 1847 ;
H. Hahn, Gesch. d. kath. M. 5 vol. 1857-63 ; Kalkar, German Trans, from
the Danish Gesch. d. rorn. kath. M. 1867 ; Gesch. d. christl. M. 2 vol. 1879-80;
O. Werner, Kath. Missionsatlas, 2nd ed. 1885 ; KL. I, 711-40.

• Cp. Phillips, KR. VI, C67 ff. ; O. Mejer, Die Propaganda, 2 vol. 1S53.

^ L. A. DuTTo, The Life of Bartvlome de las Casas and the fust Leaves of
American Ecclesiastical History, 1902.

150 A Manual of Church History

savages. The zeal, the kindness, the abihty, and the persever-
ance of the missionaries met their due reward, and at the
present day only a small remnant of the population of those
countries remains heathen.

The same thing happened in the Philippines, when these
islands (discovered in 1521) were occupied by the Spaniards
(1571), in whose possession they were to remain till 1901. In
the course of nine years 250,000 natives were baptised, an
archbishopric with three suffragan sees being established at
Manila towards the end of the sixteenth century.

Missions were also sent to India, Japan, and China, though
their labours met with no permanent success.

In the East Indies, as soon as the Portuguese had firmly estab-
lished their rule, a bishopric was erected at Goa (1534), ^^^ likewise
a seminary to educate the natives for the mission (1541). The work
of conversion assumed greater dimensions when it came into the
hands of the Jesuits, headed by St. Francis Xavier (1542). Such
was the success of his work that he obtained the name of the apostle
of the Indians. He reclaimed the careless colonists of Goa, and led
them to a Christian life, completed the conversion of the already
baptised Paravians on the coasts at the south of the peninsula, and
baptised many others, besides converting thousands of pagans on
the coast of Travancore(Bg. by BouHOURS, 1682; Reithmeier, 1846 ;
N. Greff, 1885 ; Cros, 2 vol. 1903). His companions continued
his work, and, little by little, the pagans in and about Goa were won
over to the Faith. Other missionary stations were established in
Cochin (a bishopric since 1557) ^^^ in Madura (1595). A great
improvement occurred in the outlook of these last missions when
Robert NobiH (1606-56) proceeded to put a new project into
execution. Until then converts had been required to quit their
caste, a demand which made conversion a matter of the greatest
difficulty. NobiH, on the contrary, saw in the caste a mere social
institution, and he accordingly decided to tolerate the various caste-
marks and the solemnisation of certain festivals so far as they did
not assume a specifically rehgious or heathen character. Becoming
himself a Brahmin he preached to the higher classes, whilst his
associate in religion, Fernandez, was appointed to teach the lower
castes. He also took into account other prejudices of the natives ; for
instance, he omitted in Baptism ceremonies such as the breathing,
the use of the sahva and of salt, which were particularly obnoxious to
the Hindus. He had not erred in supposing that thereby he would
facilitate conversions, but as the too great expectations which had
been built on his process of accommodation were not to be fulfilled,
only very few of the higher classes adopting Christianity, the
renewed complaints of the Capuchins led to his plans being

Missions 151

condemned at the beginning of the eighteenth century. Tournon, the
patriarch of Antioch, as papal legate, forbade sixteen of the so-called
Malabar customs (1704), and in spite of the opposition of the Jesuits,
the sentence was ratified by Rome. The last and definitive pro-
hibition is contained in the I3ull Omnium soUicitudinum (1744). Cp.
MiJLLBAUER, Gesch. d. kath. Mission in Ostindien, 1851.

The Japan mission was also a creation of St. Francis Xavier
(1549), ^^^ ^^^^ ^^'s success was very conspicuous. Thirty years
later the Christians in the land of the Rising Sun numbered already
300,000, and their number was yet to increase, in spite of the severe
persecution soon to break out (1596). Christianity even survived
the great catastrophe of 1638. In consequence of the jealousy of
the Bonzes towards the missionaries, of the official suspicion of all
foreigners, and especially owing to the instigation of the Dutch, their
bitter rivals in Asia, the Portuguese were banished from the kingdom.
The missionaries were massacred and the native Christians were
drowned in thousands. The Japanese Christians were now cut off
from the rest of the Church, and their Faith was banned. In spite
of this, Christianity was not extirpated, but survived to our day,
though in many points obscured and disfigured ; of the sacraments,
at least Baptism continued to be conferred. Cp. Crasset, Hist, de
I'eglise dii Japon, 1715 ; Pages, Hist, de la rel. chret. en J. depuis
1598-1651, 1869 ff. ; H. Haas, Gesch. d. Christent. in Japan, I-II (to
1570), 1902-4. Complaints were made against the Dutch of having
pretended not to be Christians, in order to retain their trade with the
Japanese, and of even having trampled on the crucifix. The charge
cannot indeed be established, but it is certain that the Dutch were
present when the crucifix was desecrated, and that they took at least
a passive share in an action abhorrent to every Christian. Cp. A. v.
HiJBNER, Spaziergang um die Welt, 3rd ed. (1875), II, 297 ff.

As the religious fortune of the whole of Asia rested, to some
extent, on China, the Jesuits at an early date prepared themselves for
a mission to this country by a thorough study of the language and of
the arts and sciences which were expected to appeal to the Chinese.
Three men especially were remarkable for their success : Matteo
Ricci of Macerata, who proceeded to China in 1583 in the company
of the Portuguese ambassador (f 1610) ; Johann Adam Schall of
Cologne (f 1666) ; and Ferdinand Verbiest of Bruges in the Nether-
lands (f 1688). In spite of the mandarins' opposition, they succeeded
in ingratiating themselves with the emperor. Here, too, use was
made of the process of accommodation, the missionaries permitting
certain acts of homage to Confucius and to the departed (a kind of
sacrifice offered before tablets inscribed with the names of the dead),
seeing in it a mere political and social usage ; God was styled Tien
(heaven) and Khangti (highest ruler). This toleration excited
adverse comment here as well as in India, and the so-called Chinese
rites were condemned by Innocent X (1645). The Jesuits again
obtained their toleration from Alexander VII (1656), and continued

152 A Manual of Church History

their practice in spite of the proliibitions issued by the legate
Tournon (1707), and Clement XI (1715). Ultimately they were,
however, obliged to submit to the sentence of Benedict XIV, con-
veyed in the Bull Ex quo singulari (1742). These quarrels were
naturally not to the advantage of the Christian cause, which, how-
ever, suffered yet more from the political changes then in progress.
The emperor Khangi (1662-1722), though he insisted on the observ-
ance of the Chinese usages, was not unkindly disposed to the mission-
aries, but his successor was of a different stamp, and allowed the
nation to give full expression to its hatred of the foreigners. Hence-
forth the only certain refuge of the Jesuits was at the capital Peking,
where they were employed by the court as mathematicians and
artists. Cp. Historica relatio de ortu et progr. fidei ortJi. in regno
Chin, collecta ex litteris J. A. Scliall, Vien. 1665 ; Ratisbon, 1672 ;
Pray, Hist, controversiarum de ritibus Sinicis, 1789. On Schall's
supposed marriage, cp. B. Duhr, Jesuitenfaheln, 3rd ed. p. 226 ff. ;
Z. f. k. Th. 1901, p. 331 f.

In the seventeenth century Christianity took firm root in Further
India, where the Gospel had previously been preached by isolated
missionaries. Missions were established in Cochin China (in 1615
by the Jesuit Buzomi), in Tonking (in 1627 by another Jesuit,
Alexander of Rhodes), in Cambodia (1617), Siam (1621), and other
places. In the former countries the Christians soon numbered
several hundred thousands, in the others their numbers remained
small. Cp. Pachtler, Das Christentum in Tonkin imd Cochinchina,
dem heutigen Annamreiche, 1861.

Of a very special character was the mission in Paraguay. To
make an end of the evil influence of the Spanish colonists, Philip III
handed over the government of the country to the Jesuits, the
inhabitants being only required to admit his suzerainty and pay a
small capitation-tax. This measure proved a great blessing to the
land. The Indians were converted in great numbers, were then
divided into ' reductions,' as the parishes were called, and taught
the arts and crafts, so that, with Christianity, they received all the
advantages of civilisation. Cp. Muratori, II Christianesinio felice
nclle missioni del Paraguai, 1743 ; Charlevoix, Hist, de P. 1757 ;
Pfotenhauer, Die Missionen der Jesuiten in P. 3 vol. 1891-93.


Controversies regarding Grace 1

The opposition of the Protestants moved Catholic theologians
to devote especial attention to the doctrine of the original state
of man and to Grace, their investigations leading to the renewal

^ J. ScHWANE, Dogmengesch. der neueren Zeit, 1S90; J. Turmel, Hist,
lie la thiol, positive du concile de Trente an cone, du Vatican, 1906.

Grace 153

of an old dispute. The questions then discussed, to tell the
truth, do not admit of any entirely satisfactory answer, and will
probably ever be solved differently. The theologians of the
period were not, however, the men to settle down to a quiet
exchange of ideas. The stringent Augustinian doctrine con-
cerning sin and grace, now that it had been explained by the
Protestants in an outrageously predestinarian sense, seemed
to many of the Catholics more intolerable than ever. Others,
however, full of confidence in the authority of the great bishop
of Hippo, not only wished to retain his doctrine, but even went
beyond him in the matter of severity. The first controversy
started in the Netherlands, and was followed by others of a
wider character in Spain and France.

A. Baius and Lessius

In his attempt to refurbish the Augustinian doctrine, Michael
de Bay or Baius of Louvain (1513-89) came to the following con-
clusions. Subsequently to the Fall, man by his own natural power
is capable only of sin ; all the actions of unbelievers and the un-
righteous are sinful and damnable. Man is therefore incapable of
preparing himself for the reception of Grace, which is consequently
always conferred on him, as it were, against his will. But though
man is necessarily sinful, he remains free, freedom being indeed in-
compatible with external compulsion {violentia), but not with simple
necessity {necessitas). These propositions were viewed with favour
by many, though the number of their opponents was far greater.
Among the latter the principal were the professors Tapper and Rave-
steyn of Louvain, and the Belgian Franciscans at whose instigation
the Sorbonne censured eighteen propositions extracted from Baius's
lectures (1560), among which were the above. This was the signal
for a general conflict, which continued for several years until Paul V,
in his Bull Ex omnibus afflictionibxis,^ condemned seventy-nine theses
advocated by Baius (1567), who, after some hesitation, submitted to
the decree. Mg. b}^ Linsexmann, 1867.

Soon after this the Jesuit Leonard Lessius (1554-1623), also a
Louvain professor, in opposition to Baius, extolled human freedom
at the expense of Grace. His view was that God gives to all men
sufficient Grace to render their conversion possible, and that this
sufficient Grace has been from all eternity willed by God out of His
entire good pleasure. On the other hand, man's will must be

^ The Bull will be found in the Leipzig ed. of the Canones et deer. Cone.
Trid., which also contains the Bulls against Jansenius and Pasch. Quesncl.
For the University censures see CoUectio iudicionmi de novis erroribus, cd.
P'Argentr^, 3 foi. 1724-36,

154 ^ Manual of Church History

considered to be the only ground why in some cases the gratia sufficiens

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