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from the ministry of the pulpit and confessional all the
Jesuits living under his jurisdiction (1758). The attempt
which was shortly afterwards made on the king Joseph's life
gave Pombal an opportunity for going yet further. The
Jesuits were charged with having been privy to the con-
spiracy, and were, some of them, imprisoned, and the rest
embarked on ships and landed on the coast of the Papal
States (1759).

Shortly after this clouds began to gather in France also.
Here the Jesuits were opposed not only by the encyclopaedists,
who hoped to strike the Church through them, but also by the
Jansenists, by the minister Choiseul, and by Madame de Pompa-
dour, the mistress of Lewis XV, the last because pere Perisseau,
the king's confessor, had urged her removal from the court.
The occasion for the persecution was, however, provided by
the insolvency of pere Lavalette, procurator-general of the
island of Martinique, or rather by the refusal of the Society to
pay the sum of 2,400,000 francs owed by him to a business house
at Marseilles. The first adverse measures were taken in the very
year (1761) in which the Society was condemned by the courts to
make good its debt. Some time after (1763) the parliament
at Paris decreed the abolition of the Order. Finally (1764),
the king gave his assent to the law, after his petition for a

1 DuHR, Pombal, 1891 ; Revue hist. 60 (1896), 272-306,

Suppression of the Jesuits 175

change in the constitution of the Society had been decHned at
Rome with the words : Sint ut sunt aut non sint. As a result of
the law the Society as such was dissolved, though its members
were not forced to leave . the country ; on the contrary, they
were henceforth to work as secular priests under the jurisdiction
of the bishops.

The Order having now lost two of its most important
branches, Clement XIII thought it his duty to come to its
assistance, and in his Bull Aposiolicum pascendi (1765) he again
bestowed on it the papal approbation and repelled the spiteful
calumnies which had been made against it. His action was,
however, of little real help to the Society, for simultaneously
the aggressive was assumed by Spain. At first, restraints
were placed on the activity of the Jesuits, and their pupils
and admirers were removed from the higher offices of the
State. Two years later, following the example of Portugal,
the Spanish Jesuits were granted a small pension and dismissed
to the Papal States (1767). Ferdinand of Naples, being a son
of Charles III of Spain, the latter's proceedings were forthwith
imitated in the kingdom of Sicily. A conflict with the Holy
See regarding the question of church reform afforded a pretext
to the duke of Parma, grandson of Lewis XV and nephew
of Charles HI, to abolish the Order in his country also (1768),
The Monitorium addressed by Clement XHI to these sovereigns
even moved the Bourbon courts to attack the Pope himself ;
France seized Avignon and Venaissin, and Naples Pontecorvo
and Benevento.

The Bourbons were, however, not content with expelling the
Jesuits from their States. Their plan was to obtain the utter
suppression of the Society, and, on the death of Clement XHI,
France and Spain exerted every nerve to secure the election of
a Pope who might be expected to meet their wishes. The
votes of the cardinals fell on a Franciscan, Lorenzo Ganganelli,
who assumed the name of Clement XIV (1769-74). Till then
he had observed an attitude of reserve on the burning question,
but it was his opinion that, now that things had gone so far,
the Society should be sacrificed for the peace of the Church.
At the conclave he handed a note to the Spanish cardinal de
Solis declaring that, in his view, the suppression would not be
contrary to the rules of canon law, of prudence, or of justice.

176 A Manual of Church History

To the French cardinal de Bernis he even expressed his intention
of putting the project into execution. Soon after his election
he gave still clearer assurances to the sovereigns of France
and Spain. In spite of this, the actual decision was postponed,
the matter being more difficult than he had at first supposed.
For a time he endeavoured to conciliate the courts by offering
to reform the Society. As this offer was declined, and as the
suppression seemed the only means of securing peace and of
preventing the irrevocable loss to the Church of the provinces
which had been seized, he reluctantly issued the Brief of
suppression, Dominus ac redemptor (1773). The members of the
Society received permission to join other Orders, to remain
in their own houses, though without exercising any functions,
their obedience being transferred to the bishop, or to offer their
services to the ordinaries for parish work. Ricci, the general,
his assistants, and a few other fathers were put on their trial,
and at the request of the sovereigns, and in order to prevent any
attempt to restore the Order, were long kept in prison. In the
event a portion of the Society was very loath to submit ;
in Russian Poland, and for three years in Prussian Silesia,
the Order continued to subsist under the protection of Catherine
II of Russia and of Frederick II of Prussia, in spite of the papal
enactment. This it was enabled to do, owing to the fact that
Clement XIV had died within a year, whilst his successor
Pius VI, so far as considerations of policy allowed, was favour-
ably disposed to the Jesuits. The trial of the general and of his
companions came to an end with Ricci's death (1775).

The abolition of the Society of Jesus was the beginning of further
reductions. In France all Orders were forbidden to occupy more
than two houses at Paris, or more than one in any city in the pro-
vinces. The taking of vows before the age of twenty-one in the case
of men, or of eighteen in the case of women, was prohibited. E\'ery
conventual establishment was to have a certain minimum number of
inmates, failing which it was to be closed, or forbidden to receive
new novices. The consequence of these enactments was that in
twelve years nine religious associations had been wiped out, among
them the Order of Grandmont, the Servites, Celestines, Bridgittines,
and Antonines, whilst in twenty^ j^ears 386 monasteries had been
closed. Cp. GuETTEE, Hist, de I'Eglise de France, vol. XII. We have
already spoken (§ 185) of the similar regulations adopted in Austria.
Two Orders, the Humihati (1571) and the Jesuats (1668), had already
been dissolved by the Holy See on account of their irregularities.

The Papacy 177

§ 187
The Papacy in the Second Half of the Seventeenth Century i

I. On the death of Innocent X, cardinal Chigi was elected
as Alexander VII (1655-67). Animated by the best inten-
tions, he, at the beginning of his reign, was minded to put an
end to the nepotism so commonly practised. He was, however,
persuaded to relent, and in the second year of his pontificate
summoned his relatives from Siena to Rome, where they
settled down in princely estate. As for the rest, he was a well-
meaning ruler, a friend of learning and of scholars, and not
devoid of a certain zeal for reform. The most remarkable
event of his pontificate was the conversion of queen Christina
of Sweden, daughter of Gustavus Adolfus. In the year of his
election she had visited Rome and been received with every
honour ; after having spent several years in France and at
Hamburg, she returned and took up her permanent residence
in the Eternal City (1669-89). On the other hand the Pope
had to suffer much from France. The pretensions of the
duke of Crequi, the French ambassador (1662), might even
have led to further complications had not Alexander, being
left without support by the other powers, submitted to the
demands of the French at the peace of Pisa (1664).

II. He was succeeded by his Secretary of State, Rospigliosi
under the name of Clement IX (1667-69) ,2 a worthy ruler and
a man of education, whose pontificate was, however, all too
short. He was instrumental in making with the Jansenists
the peace which bears his name, and actively supported the
Venetians in their war with the Turks, without, however, being
able to prevent the capture of Crete.

III. After a vacancy of nearly five months, cardinal Altieri
mounted the papal throne as Clement X (1670-76). ^ Being
already eighty years of age, he left the conduct of affairs in the
hands of his favourite cardinal, Paluzzo Altieri. No event of
importance marked this pontificate.

IV. Innocent XI (1676-89),* of the Odescalchi family,

1 Literature as above, § 179.

- Ch. Terlinden, Le pape Clement IX et la gnevve de Candie, 1904.
•* C. N. D. BiLDT, Christ ine de Suede et le conclave de Clement X, 1906.
•• Innocentii PP. XI epistolae ad principes, 1890 ; IjMmich, Papst Innocenz
VOL, II, ^(

178 A Manual of Church History

had to encounter difficulties with France. To the dispute
already pending about the regalia there was now added the
conflict concerning the Gallican freedoms, and the right of
asylum of the French ambassador at Rome. Owing to the
determination with which Lewis XIV made use of all the power
at his disposal, the quarrel soon assumed dangerous dimensions
(cp. § 182). At the same time the new incursions of the Turks
also caused the Pope great concern. To the pretensions of the
French monarch the Pope was only able to oppose his steadfast
resolution not to abandon the Church's cause, but in the East
he had, at least, the consolation of learning of the deliverance
of Vienna (1683), and of the capture of Buda-Pesth by the
Christians (1686), by which the arch-enemy of Christianity
was not only deprived of its power of further conquest, but
actually driven out of a portion of the countries which it had
vanquished. Among his reforms was the abolition of the
college of the twenty-four Apostolic notaries, which had been
in existence since the time of Calixtus III, and of which the
appointments were regularly bought and sold.

V. Under Alexander VIII (1689-91), ^ formerly an Otto-
boni, the relations with France were improved. The
pontificate, which lasted only sixteen months, is remarkable
only for the promotion of the Pope's family, and the securing
for the Vatican Library of the precious collection of books
left by Queen Christina.

VI. To Innocent XII (1691-1700),^ whose family name
was Pignatelli, the Church owes a great debt for the strong
action which he took against papal nepotism. The Bull which
he issued in the second year of his reign made an end of this
deplorable abuse, at least as a regular system, though it did
not prevent its recurrence in isolated cases.

VII. Five weeks after this Pope's demise, died Charles II,
and with him, the male line of the Spanish Habsburgs. War
was imminent between France and Austria regarding the right
of succession, the difficulty of the situation being felt even at
the Conclave, and being to a large extent accountable for the

XI, 1899 ; W. Frakn6i, Papst Innocenz XI und Ungarns Befreiung von der
Tiirkenhert schaft (from the Hungarian by P. Jekel, 1902).

' S. V. BiscHOFSHAUSEN, Papst Alexander VIII und der Wiener Hof, 1900.

- Internation. theol. Z. 1904, pp. 1-22 (on his election).

Popes of the Eighteenth Century 179

election of cardinal Albani as the man most likely to prove
equal to his task. Clement XI (1700-21),! as he named
himself, did not deceive the hopes which had been built on him,
but it was impossible to dissociate himself from the Spanish
war of succession, seeing that he was, as Pope, the suzerain of
a portion of the heritage concerning which the quarrel raged.
In effect he was immediately approached by both sides, each
demanding to be invested with the crown of Sicily, the Pope
being faced, whichever alternative he chose, with the certainty
that the slighted party would take its revenge. To begin with,
he favoured the Bourbons, whereupon the emperor Joseph I
advanced on the States of the Church. Later on, when he
acknowledged the emperor's brother Charles III as king of
Spain (1709), 2 Phihp V, who was already in possession of the
country, promptly broke off his relations with Rome. When,
by the truce of Utrecht (1713), it had finally been settled that the
kingdom of Sicily should be conferred on duke Victor Amadeus
II of Savoy, a prince whose ecclesiastical pretensions had already
brought him into conflict with the Holy See, a still more violent
dispute broke out concerning the so-called Monarchia Sicula,
a certain right of intervention in matters ecclesiastical which
had originated in a privilege granted by Urban II to count
Roger, but which had been unduly enlarged by his successors.'
Matters were not put to rest until the treaty of London, in
1720, had settled that Savoy should be content with Sardinia,
and had assigned the kingdom of the Two Sicilies to Charles III,
after which peace prevailed for rather more than a decade.
Clement was to die soon after. At the beginning of his reign
he had protested against the election of the elector of Branden-
burg to the kingdom of Prussia (1701),'* a protest which, needless
to say, was futile, as it was founded on a state of things which
had long ceased to exist. In the truce and the subsequent
peace, the change of things was also apparent. Without
seeking the assent of the Holy See, the Powers disposed of
countries over which it had possessed suzerain rights.

' Archivio della R. Societa Roniana, XXI (1898), 279-457; XXII, 109-179 ;

XXIII, 449-515.

- M. Landau, Gesch. K. Karls VI als Konig von Spanien, 1889.
* Sentis, Die Monarchia Sicula, 1869 ; E. Caspar, Die Legaiengewalt der
normannisch-siz. Herrscher in 12 Jahrh. 1904.
•» Hist. Z. 87 (1901), 407-28.

N 2

i8o A Manual of Church History

VIII. The pontificates of Innocent XIII (1721-24) ,i a
former Conti, and of Benedict XIII (1724-30), an Orsini,
passed without any event of note. Both were worthy men,
but the latter's government was unsatisfactory. As archbishop
of Benevento he had proved an excellent administrator, but as
Pope he allowed far too much power to unworthy favourites,
especially to Coscia, his former menial and secretary, whom he
now created a cardinal. So great was the vexation excited by
their proceedings that, after the Pope's death, a revolt broke out.
Coscia was ultimately condemned to ten years' imprisonment in
the Castle of Sant' Angelo and to other penalties (1733).

IX. The reign of Clement XII (1730-40), of the Florentine
family Corsini, falls within a period during which Italy was
again thrown into commotion. The question of the Polish
succession issued in a war in which France, Spain, and Sardinia
were pitted against Austria. The political situation in Italy
was thereby changed anew. The ruling families of the Farnese
(1731) and of the Medici (1737) having shortly before died out,
the peace of Vienna (1738) assigned Naples, by the rule of
secundogeniture, to the Spanish Bourbons, Tuscany to the
duke Francis Stephen of Lorraine, husband of Maria Theresia,
Parma and Piacenza to the emperor. Clement, though already
seventy-nine years of age at his election, in spite of his sickly
disposition and of the blindness which overtook him, gave
proof throughout these negotiations both of a strong will and of
discretion. Rome also owes to him many public buildings.

X. After a six months' vacancy, the Roman See fell to
cardinal Prosper Lambertini, archbishop of Bologna, or
Benedict XIV (1740-58), the most learned of the popes,
equally noted for his simplicity and courtesy in private life,
and for the cautiousness and moderation which characterised
his public actions. In the Austrian war of succession which
occupied the first half of his pontificate, and which largely
affected Italy — the peace of Aachen (1748) handed Parma,
Piacenza and Guastalla to the Spanish Infante Philip —
he maintained strict neutrality. In ecclesiastico-political ques-
tions he showed a wise spirit of compromise, and abandoned
many rights which he perceived could no longer be maintained
under the new state of things. Concordats were signed with

' Internal, theol. Z. 1897, PP- 42-61.

Church Literature i8i

Sicily (1741), Sardinia (1742-50), Spain (1753), and Milan (1757).
The king of Portugal received the right of nominating to all
bishoprics and abbeys in his realm, and the title of Rex fide-
Ussimus. At Rome a new delimitation of the regions of the
city was undertaken, and the aristocracy was brought under
better control.

XL The pontificates of Clement XIII (1758-69), of the
Venetian family Rezzonico, and of Clement XIV (1769-74)
were wholly taken up with the disputes concerning the Jesuits
(cp. § 186). Clement XIV was the first Pope to omit the
customary pubhcation of the Bull In coena Domini (§ 179, VI).

XII. A lengthy conclave ended in the election of cardinal
Braschi of Cesena, as Pius VI (1775-99).^ A man of good
education, of noble birth and yet eminently affable, he was to
taste both magnificence and misfortune in far more than the
common measure. The Papal States owed to him the draining
of a portion of the Pontine marshes, and the improvement
of the government. He also erected many buildings at
Rome, among them the Museum Pio-Clementinum. Sur-
rounded by his treasures of art he received the visit of many
a king and prince. In his pontificate also fell, on the other
hand, the downfall of public order, both civil and religious, in
France, a catastrophe which resulted in the loss of the Papal
States and in his being himself led into exile.

The papal elections in this period, owing to political opposition
and to the intrigues of the cardinals, were frequently — even apart
from the instances mentioned — delayed very considerably. Cp. KL.
IX, 1441.

§ 188

Church Literature 2

The period just dealt with was rich in learning. The
clergy secular and religious rivalled each other in mental work.
France was especially prominent, where, in the Congregation

^ Mg. by Artaud, 1847 ; Wolf [Gesch. d. rom.-kaih. K. unter P. VI), 7 vol.
1793-1802 ; KL. X, 55-60.

- HuRTER, Nomendator lit. rec. theologiae cath. 3 vol. 2ncl ed. 1892-95 ;
Backer, Bihlioth. des dcnvatns de la comp. de Jesus, 7 vol. 1S53-61 ; ed.
SoMMERVOGEL, 8 vol. 1890-98 ; K. Werner, Gesch. d. kath. Theologie sett dent
Tr. Konzil, 1866; 2nd ed. 1889.

1 82 A Manual of Church History

of St. Maur, tliere had been established a reHgious association
of which tlic primary object was scholarship.^ Owing to
confessional differences, the literary productions were at first,
and to a certain extent even later, mostly of a polemical char-
acter, though the other branches of Theology soon came in
for their share of interest.

The most famous names are the following : —

(i) Among the Apologists and polemics the first rank was taken
by cardinal Bellarmine with his DispiUationes de controvcrsiis christ.
fidei adv. huius temporis haereticos (3 fol. 1581), and the two bishops,
Bossuet of Meaux {Histoire des variations des eglises protestantes,
1688), and Huet of Avranches (Mg. by J. N. Espenberger, 1905).

(2) Dogmatics were well represented from the standpoint of
the Schoolmen by the Dominican Banez (f 1604), and the Jesuits
Vasquez (f 1604), Suarez (f 1617) (mg. by Werner, 1861), and Ruiz
de Montoya (f 1632). On the other hand, the Loci theologici of the
Dominican Melchior Canus (f 1560), a work on the fundamentals of
Theology directed against the Protestants, is of a more Biblical and
patristic character. Still more weight was laid on the teaching of
Scripture, of the Fathers and of the Councils, in the Opus de iheologicis
dogmatibus oi the Jesuit Petavius (f 1652), the founder of the History
of Dogma (Mg. by Stanonik, 1876). Tournely (f 1729) and Billuart
(t 1757) were also to earn themselves a repute as dogmatic theologians.

(3) Among the many Moralists a few merit notice : Bartholo-
mew de Medina (f 1572) as the founder of Probabihsm ; Concina
(f 1756) and Patuzzi (f 1769) as exponents of rigorous Tutiorism ;
Alphonsus Liguori and Eusebius Amort (f 1775) as mediators between
the extremes ; also Azor (f 1607), La3^mann (f 1635), J. Lugo (f 1660),
Busenbaum (f 1668), and Lacroix (11714).

(4) Among the more distinguished Canonists were Pr. Fagnani,
an interpreter of the Decretals (3 fol. 1661), Reiffenstuhl (f 1703),
Schmalzgruber (f 1735), van Espen (| 1782), and Prosper Lambertini
{De servorwn Dei heatificatione et heatorum canonizatione, 1734-38 ;
De synodo dioecesana, 1748). Thomassin by his Ancienne et nouvelle
discipline de I'Eglise touchant les Benefices et les Beneficiers (3 fol.
1678-81 ; Lat. 1686, and often since) has a claim to be ranked
among the Canonists, though the work also gives him a place among

(5) The best-known Exegetists were the Jesuits Maldonatus
(t 1583) and Toletus (1596), Estius at Douai (f 1613), Cornelius a
Lapide at Louvain (f 1637), and Dom Calmet of the Congregation of
St. Vannes (| 1757) . The Bible critic of the period was the Oratorian
Richard Simon (| 1712).

' [Tassin] Hist, htteraire de la Congregation de St. Alaur, 1770; Th. Qii.
1833-34 ; E. De Broglie, Mabillon et la Societe de I'Abbaye de St. Germain
des Pres, 1888 ; Bernard de Montjaucon, 2 vol. 1891.

Christian Art 183

(6) The famous Preachers of the time were the Jesuit Bour-
daloue (f 1704 ; mg. by Pauthe, 1900 ; Castets, 1900) ; Bossuet
(1 1704 ; mg. by Bausset, 4 vol. 1819 ; Lanson, 1891) ; Fenelon,
archbishop of Cambrai (f 1715 ; mg. by Bausset, 3 vol. 1809 ;
Mahrenholtz, 1896) ; Flechier, bishop of Nimes (f 1710) ; Massil-
lon, bishop of Clermont (f 1742 ; mg. by Sanvert, 1891).

VII. Historical Theology, which had been so utterly
neglected during the Middle Ages, now began to be cultivated vvith
great success. The literature of the past was put within the reach
of all by superb editions, comprising, some of them separate works,
others whole collections. Nor did the editors confine their work
to mere editing: inmost instances the editions of the Fathers contain
a critical account of their hfe and works. Other aspects of the
Church's life, and, in fact, the whole domain of Church History were
carefully studied. The sciences which are now considered necessary
auxiliaries of Church History were practically an invention of the
period, and many of the works then devoted to them retain their
value even now. Several of these works have already been alluded
to in the present Manual (§§ 2-5 ; 36-40 ; 74-78, &c.), and it is,
therefore, unnecessary to mention them again. Among the other
capable editors were D'Achery [Spicilegiiim veterum scriptonim, 13
vol. 1655-77) '' Martene and Durand [Thesaurus novus Anecdotorum,

5 fol. 1717 ; Veterum scriptonim et tnonumentorum amplissima
collectio, 9 fol. 1724-33) ; B. Fez [Thesaurus Anecdotorum novissimus,

6 fol. 1721-29). Among the archaeologists : A. Bosio, the first to
compose a Roma Sotteranea (1632), and Pellicia [De christ. eccl.
politia, 3 vol. 1777 ; ed. Ritter et Braun, 1829 ; Engl. Trans.
The Polity of the Christian Church, 1883). Among the critics :
Jean de Launoy (0pp. 5 fol. 1731). Conspicuous for his mastery
of the whole field of historical Theology was Gerbert, prince-abbot
of St. Blasien (f 1793 ; mg. by C. Krieg, 1897). Among those who
occupied themselves with the history of national Churches were
Ughelh [Italia sacra, 9 fol. 1644-62 ; ed. Coleti, 10 fol. 1717-22),
Sainte-Marthe and others [Gallia Christiana, 15 fol. 1715-1860),
Hansiz [Germania sacra, 3 fol. 1727-54), and Florez, &c. (Espana
sagrada, 51 vol. 1747-1879).


Christian Art : Music, Architecture, Painting ^

I. The introduction of harmony into the Church's chant
vi^as an improvement due to the Middle Ages,^ but music of

^ Literature, §§ 131, 157; Burkhardt-Holzinger, Gesch. dev Renaissance
in Italien, 3rd ed. 1891 ; Fabriczy, Fil. Brunnelleschi, 1S92.

- W. Baumker, Palestrina, 1877 ; Orlandus de Lassus, 1878 ; Katsch-
thaler, Gesch. der Kirchenmusik, 1893 ; H. A. Kostun, Gesch. der Musik,
5th ed. 1899,

184 A Manual of Church History

this kind soon came to involve unnatural interruptions of the
text, the curtailment of words through the use of counterpoint,
the adoption of secular melodies, &c., so that even as far back
as the time of John XXII it was found necessary to denounce
these excesses {Extrav. commun. Ill, i). As the abuse never-
theless persisted, the prohibition was re-enacted by the Council
of Trent (Sess. XXII). The question even arose whether
polyphonic music should be permitted at all, and whether a
return to simple Gregorian chant should not be enforced.
Palestrina (f 1594), by his Missa papae Marcelli, was, however,,

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