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able to show that the art as such was not responsible for the
faults complained of, and that good music could perfectly
well conve}^ the words ; he thus became in some sort the
saviour and reformer of Church music. Among his other
compositions his Missa Assunta, his Improperia and Stahaf
mater are especially remarkable. At about the same time
Orlandus Lassus (f 1594) was also creating his masterpieces
at Munich. Born in the Netherlands (at Mons), which during
the last centuries had retained the first place as a musical
country, and which, ever since the Babylonian Exile, had
provided the singers for the papal chapel, he brought the art
of his native land to its highest pitch, and carried it with him'
into South Germany when he entered the service of the dukes;
of Bavaria (1557).

Not only were the works of Palestrina of a nature to excite
imitation, but he himself also laboured as a master to propagate his
form of the art. Among those who followed him must be reckoned
AUegri (f 1652), the composer of a striking Miserere for two choirs;
also Vittoria. The severe style did not, however, continue in vogue
everywhere, and, though it was still long after to be represented by
Lotti (f 1740), the rise and development of oratorios and operas
again brought a worldly spirit into the Church's music. Violins
and other instruments, which about this time made their entrance
into the Church, soon took a leading part instead of serving as a
mere accompaniment, and so great was the influence exerted by the
new current that even masters such as Mozart (f 1791), Joseph
Haydn (f 1809), ^^^ Beethoven (| 1827) were not able to escape it.

II. Whilst north of the Alps the mediaeval architecture
survived into the sixteenth century and even later, in Italy a
style of completely different character had made its appearance

Christian Art 185

c. 1420, As it was essentially nothing else than a revival of the
old Roman style, and as its origin coincided with the new
birth of classicism, it received the name of Renaissance Style.
Its foundation is usually ascribed to the Florentines Brunellesco
and Alberti. Its pecuharities are mainly in the decorations.
The walls were adorned in antique fashion with leaf-work,
fruits, scrolls, wreaths, garlands, and other designs, with statues
and high reliefs, the cornices were formed on the ancient system,
and the lintels of the doors and windows assumed the shape
of an obtuse triangle or of a segment of a circle.

During the fifteenth century the style remained in its infancy,
being now known as Early Renaissance. A kind of uncer-
tainty prevailed, the architects being still gingerly feelmg
their way, and as yet not willing to abandon entirely the
mediaeval principles. The masterpiece of the period is the front
of the Certosa near Pavia. By the beginning of the sixteenth
century uncertainty had ceased, and the style had already
spread from Italy over the rest of Europe, Its greatest
monument is St. Peter's at Rome, the largest church in the
world, in shape a Latin cross, with a dome rising above the
point of intersection. Its erection occupied 120 years (1506-
1626). Among the architects who had a part in the building
we must mention Bramante, the draughtsman of the earliest
plan, Michelangelo, whose creation was the huge dome, Maderno,
who built most of the nave and the front, and, finally, Bernini,
who planned the superb colonnade enclosing the court, which,
however, was not finished until forty years after the completion
of the BasiHca, The Renaissance Style did not long survive
in its purity, the decay beginning even before the close of the
sixteenth century. Caprice now took the place of order and
rule, the columns were twisted, the pediments interrupted, and
the ornamental details tastelessly multiplied, the result being
the debased style termed Rococo.

III. The lives of some of the Italian Painters already enumerated
(§ 157) partially belong to the present period. Paolo Caliari, gener-
ally known after his birth-place as Veronese (f 1588), a painter of
the Venetian school, belongs entirely to this period. For a while
the Italian school retained its eminence, though it soon degenerated
into mannerism. Two artists, however, merit a passing mention,
Vasari (f 1574), whose ' Lives of the best Painters, Sculptors, and

1 86 A Manual of Church History

Architects ' is one of the main sources of the History of Art, and
Baroccio (j 1612). Towards the end of the sixteenth century there
occurred a sort of second spring. Two new schools were estabhshed.
Of these, one, cultivating a noble eclecticism, was represented at
Bologna by Ludovico Caracci (| 1619) and his two nephews Agostino
and Annibale. Domenichino (f 1641), Guido Reni (f 1642), and
Carlo Dolci (f 1686) belonged to the same school. The other was
noted for its, often crude, naturalism. It was founded by Caravaggio
(t 1609).

In the seventeenth century painting rose to great eminence in
the Low Countries and in Spain. Rubens (f 1640) was a first-rate
master. Some of his works, such as the Crucifixion and the Descent
from the Cross, at the cathedral of Antwerp, are among the finest
creations of Art ; other works of his are, however, too naturaHstic
to satisfy the claims of healthy idealism. The greatest of his pupils
was Sir Anthony Van Dyck (| 1641). In Spain two stars of the first
magnitude blazed out : Velasquez at Madrid (f 1600), court painter
to Philip IV, a realist, whose paintings are mostly of a worldly
character, and Murillo at Sevilla (f 1682), an ideahst, who so ably
combined his rare use of colour with the deepest feeling and
devotion that he is numbered among the greatest of religious
painters (Mg. by K. Justi, 2nd ed. 1904).

§ 190

The Graeco-Russian Church 1

The capture of Constantinople by the Turks, and their
further progress westwards had not for Christianity the same
unhappy results as the invasions of the Saracens in the seventh
and eighth century. The policy of the conquerors was not to
oppress their new subjects in the practice of their religion,
the consequence being that, though a few apostates were not
wanting, the mass of the people remained true to their Faith,
Not only did the Greeks resist the allurements of the Moham-
medans, but they also stood firm against the attempts made
to introduce Protestantism into their midst. The proselytising
efforts of Melanchthon (1559), of the Tubingen professors M.
Crusius and J. Andreae (1573-81), and of Cyril Lucaris, patriarch
of Constantinople (f 1638), who had embraced Calvinism as a

^ D. Kyriakos, Gesch. der onentaltschen Kirchen von 1 453-1 898, German
Trans, by E. Rausch, 1902 ; Leroy-Beaulieu, L' empire des Tsars et Iss
Ritsses, 3 vol. 3rd ed. iSqS ; Z. f. k. Tk. 1894, PP- 417-56 I Kattenbusch,
Vergleic'hende konfessionskunde, I, 1892 ; J. Gehring, Die Sekten der russ.
Kirche (1003-1897), 189S.

Russia 187

student at Geneva, were utterly fruitless. On the questions of
Justification, of the sacraments, of the sacrifice of the Mass, &c.,
the Greeks persisted in opposing the Catholic doctrine to the
Reformers. In other respects, however, the situation of the
eastern Church was eminently unsatisfactory. Great corrupti on
reigned amongst the clergy, especially in the appointment to
the patriarchate, which was often made a matter of barter.

The Russian Church — of which the metropoHs was origin-
ally Kief, but, subsequently to the middle of the fourteenth
century, Moscow, the capital of the realm — remained throughout
the Middle Ages dependent on the Church of Constantinople.
The political alterations of the time were, however, soon to
break the link by which the two Churches were joined. Whilst
the Byzantine Empire was being slowly occupied by the Turks,
the Russians were engaged in delivering themselves from the
yoke of the Tartars or Mongols, under which they had been
since 1250. Under Ivan IV, who in 1547 was crowned czar of
all the Russias, the Russians at last obtained complete
independence (1550). No sooner was this done than they
sought to secure the independence of their Church also, their
wish being fulfilled without delay. Jeremias II of Constanti-
nople, with the consent of his eastern colleagues, bestowed
on the patriarch Job the title of metropolitan (1589), thus
creating a new independent province. The new patriarchate of
Moscow was, however, not to retain its dignity. In spite of
the patriarch being wholly in the emperor's power, his position
appeared too high, and likely to prove a hindrance to the
autocracy, and accordingly, after the patriarch Adrian's death
(1702), a great alteration was made in the government of the
Church. The patriarchate remained unoccupied for near twenty
years, only an administrator being appointed, and was then
formally abolished, the supreme direction of Church matters
being assigned to the Holy Synod (1721), a college consisting of
bishops and others of the higher clergy, together with a pro-
curator-general representing the Slate. Simultaneously the
dignities of the metropolitans and archbishops, with the excep-
tion of those of Kief and Novgorod, were extinguished, their
positions being afterwards taken by simple bishops. They
were to exist henceforth merely as titles of honour which the
czar might bestow as he pleased. In instituting a Synod the

1 88 A Manual of Church History

Russians were following the lead of Constantinople, where the
patriarch was also assisted by a Holy Synod, the only difference
being that in Russia the place of the patriarch was taken by
the czar.

Though by these reforms the Russian Church was centralised, and
made utterly subservient to the secular ruler, this did not prevent
the rise of numerous sects. The first rank among these is taken by
the Raskolniky (separatists) orStarovertzy (Old Behevers), to use the
name they apply to themselves. They parted from the Church in the
latter half of the seventeenth century. The patriarch Nikon having
(1652-58) undertaken a revision of the liturgical books, which had
been much corrupted, the Old Believers refused to accept his altera-
tions. With their intense attachment to the older rites and usages
they combine a horror for all new-fangled customs such as shaving,
smoking, and the use of coffee, &c. At the present day they number
over 10,000,000 and are split into two bodies, those having priests
(Popovtzy) and those without priests (Bespopovtzy), the latter
holding that the priesthood lost its power through Nikon's heresy ;
instead of priests they are ministered to by elders whom they elect.
Other sects either originated or first came into notice during the
eighteenth century. Two of these are remarkable for their semi-
gnostic fanaticism, the Chlyssty or flagellants, and the Skoptzy or
eunuchs. Two others hold peculiar views, partaking at once of
spiritualism and rationalism, and reject all external worship : the
Molokans or milk-drinkers, so named because they do not scruple
to break the law of the Orthodox Church and use milk during the
fasting season, and the Dukhobortzy or spiritual combatants, who,
after the habit of the nearly allied Quakers, hold both oaths and
military service to be unchristian. Cp. Z.f. k. Th. 1890, pp. 416-46 ;
K. K. Grass, Die russ. Sekten, 1905 ff.



§ 191

Doctrinal Controversies to the Middle of the Seventeenth

Century i

Though the Reformers were unanimous in their rejection of
one portion of the doctrines and institutions of the Cathohc
Church, they were far from agreeing among themselves when
the time came for them to state their own attitude. Even
within one and the same denomination there existed many
divergences, especially in Germany, where Luther's followers
were not all of them inclined to give to their master's views the
unconditional assent which he demanded. In consequence
of this, numerous controversies broke out in the Protestant
body, two of which are of special importance.

I. The Eucharistic Controversy. Owing to his belief
in the bodily ubiquity of Christ, Luther taught that, when the
consecrated Bread is received, Christ is present in, with, and
beneath the Bread (Impanation theory). On the other hand,
Carlstadt and the Swiss, possibly owing to the influence exerted
by an epistle of the Netherlander Honius which had circulated
widely, not only denied Transubstantiation, but any real
presence, though they did not all justify their denial in the
same way. Instead of connecting the words hoc est corpus
meum with the previous words accipite et mandiicate, Carlstadt,
at the expense of the text, applied them to the suffering of
Christ. The Swiss interpreted the words of consecration
figuratively, Zwingli, for instance, taking ' is ' to mean

' DoLLiNGER, Die Reformation, vol. III. 1848; Heppe, Gesch. des deutschen
Profestantismus in den J . 1555-81, 4 vol. 1852-59 ; Dorner, Gesch. d. prot. Th,


I go A Manual of Church History

' signifies,' and (Ecolampadius the word ' body ' to mean
' sign of the Body.' The divergency led to a conflict. Carl-
stadt, whose actions had long been a source of annoyance to
Luther, and who had at last been banished by him from
Saxony, revenged himself by publishing a tract, ' On the
Antichristian Abuse of the Bread and Chalice of the Lord '
(1524). Luther replied in 1525 by his work ' Against the
Heavenly Prophets.' As in the same year Zwingli {Comm. de
vera et falsa reUgione) and (Ecolampadius [De genuina verborum
Domini, Hoc est corpus meuvi iuxta vetust. auctores expositione)
both appeared in the field with their doctrine concerning the
Eucharist, Luther attacked them, his first tract being followed
by others of even more violent character. At the religious
conference held at Marburg (1529) 1 the disputants indeed
promised to desist from insult, and in the following years
attempts were repeatedly made to come to some understanding,
a temporary one being actually arrived at by the Concord of
Wittenberg (1536). The peace was not long kept, the signal
for the renewal of hostilities being given by Luther's work,
' A Short Avowal concerning the Blessed Sacrament, against
Fanatics ' (1544). For the rest, the Zwinglians did not uphold
their doctrine long. Ziirich, by the Consensus Tigurinus (1549),
accepted Calvin's teaching on the subject, and its example was
followed by the other Protestant cantons ; a little later the
union was still further cemented by the Confessio Helvetica
posterior (1564), a profession of faith drawn up by Bullinger,
Zwingli's successor, for the elector-palatine Frederick IIL

IL Cryptocalvinism and the Formula of Concord.
Melanchthon, though little inclined to countenance Zwingli's
Eucharistic doctrine, was in later life drawn to favour that
of Calvin as opposed to that of Luther. Owing to the esteem
in which Melanchthon was held, this doctrine, especially after
Luther's death, won many adherents at Wittenberg and in
Saxony generally. Subsequently to Melanchthon's demise (1560)
it was defended by his son-in-law, Caspar Peucer, who, being the
elector's medical attendant, wielded considerable influence.
In 1564 a collection of Melanchthon's doctrinal confessions of
Faith and other works, the Corpus doctrinae Philippicum seu

^ Erichson, Das M. Religionsgespr. iSSo; Th. Z. aus d. Schweiz, 18S4.

Controversies among the Protestants 191

Misnicum (1560), was declared the rule of Faith throughout
the land. The elector Augustus (1553-86), on assuming the
regency over the duchy of Saxony, banished from the country the
two most zealous of Luther's supporters, Hesshus and Wiegand
of Jena, and withdrew their preferences from many of their
friends (1573)- A change was, however, not long in coming.
A work, Exegesis perspicua de coena Domini (1574), caused
the institution of an inquiry, and an intercepted letter assisted
to make clear the real state of affairs. The result was that
the Cryptocalvinists, or Philippists, were either imprisoned or
banished. For the consolidation of Lutheranism, Jakob Andreae,
chancellor of the University of Tiibingen, M. Chemnitz, superin-
tendent of Brunswick, and other theologians met at Torgau
and drew up a new profession of Faith (1576), which was
further revised at the monastery of Bergen near Magdeburg
(1577), and ultimately, in 1580, together with the Confession of
Augsburg and its Apology, the Schmalkalden Articles, and the
two Catechisms issued by Luther in 1529, was published as a
formula of concord [Formula concordiae) } As it was not
accepted by several of the States, it became, in the event, a
Formula discordiae. Under the next elector, Christian I
(1586-91), Philippism was resuscitated, though only to sink
again at his death. Against his prime minister and chancellor,
Nicholas Krell, the feeling of the opposition was so strong
that, after having lingered ten years in prison, he at last perished
on the scaffold (1601).

Other similar disputes were :

IIL The Antinomist controversy (1537-41). Melanchthon in
his visitation-instructions issued in 1527 had ordered the clergy to
urge the people to repentance by preaching the Law. This order
was contravened by John Agricola, a preacher at Eisleben, who
opined that repentance could not be the outcome of a dead Law,
but only of the Gospel. As, however, he thereby came into conflict
with Luther's doctrine regarding the mere consolatory character
of the Gospel, he was (after 1537) opposed by the other Lutherans
as an antinomist. Cp. Kawerau, /. Agricola, 1881 ; Bcitrdge zur
Re formations gesch. zu Kostlins 70 Geburtstag, 1896 ; N, k. Z.

IV. The Adiaphorist controversy (1548-55) arose through the
Leipzig Interim, Matthias Flacius, and other fanatics finding fault

' Cp. Libri symb. eccl. evang. sive Concordia rec. C. A. Hase, ed. 3*, 1846,

192 A Manual of Church History

with Melanchthon and the more moderate Lutherans for having
sanctioned during the interval as adiaphora (i.e. indifferent) the old
rites and usages of the Church. Cp. W. Preger, M. Flacius III. u. s.
Zeit, 1859.

V. The Osiandrist controversy (1549-56) began when Andrew
Osiander, first at Nuremberg and then at Konigsberg (1548-52),
ventured to express the opinion that God does not merely cover sin,
as Luther taught, but that He also sanctifies the sinner, in other
words that Justification depends on the indwelling of God in man,
and not merely in the fact that God is pleased to account sin as
nothing out of regard for Christ's merits.

VL The Majorist controversy (1551-62) was excited by the
theory put forward by George Major, a Wittenberg professor, that
works are necessary for Salvation ; he was opposed by Nicholas
Amsdorf, who maintained the thesis that good works are hurtful to

VII. The Synergist controversy (1555-67) arose through John
Pfeffinger, a Leipzig professor, teaching that man is obliged to co-
operate (a-vvepyfiv) with Grace in the work of Justification.

VIII. The Syncretist controversy. Duke Julius of Brunswick,
having soon after his accession rejected the Formula of Concord,
orthodox Lutheranism was unable to take firm footing at the
University of Helmstadt, which he had founded. The result was
that the teaching there was of a more independent character than
elsewhere, especially after the staff had been joined by the scholar and
traveller George Calixt (1614). Calixt, whose attention was riveted
on the underlying common principles of Christianity, to the exclusion
of the points of difference, yearned for the union of Christendom.
To the Lutheran zealots of Wittenberg and Leipzig his intentions
seemed, however, to involve a syncretism or confusion of religions,
and thev accordingly led on him an attack (1640) which threw nearly
the whole of Germany into a commotion, which was prolonged even
after his death (1656). Mg. on Calixt by Gass, 1846 ; Henke, 2 vol.


Protestant Sects to the Middle of the Seventeenth Century ^

I. The Anabaptists and Mennonites. At the very
inception of the Reformation, certain fanatics had proposed
the abolition of infant baptism, and expressed their belief in
Millenarianism and other similar fancies. After the battle of
Frankenhausen and the death of Miinzer (1525), this form of

1 Erbkam, Gesch. d. prot. Sekten im Zeitalter der Reformation, 1848.

Protestant Sects 193

fanaticism spread far and wide. For a time it was absolutely
supreme at Miinster in Westphalia.^ B. Rothmann, a priest of
the town, who had at first withstood the Anabaptists, soon
changed his mind and joined their party, and on the arrival
at Miinster of the two chiefs of the sect in the Netherlands —
Jan Mathys, a baker of Haarlem, and Jan Bockelson, a tailor
of Leyden — the ' reign of God upon earth ' was formally pro-
claimed. Property was to be held in common, even polygamy
being tolerated, and whoever refused to be rebaptised was
banished. After the reconquest of the city by the bishop
(1535) the guilty parties were indeed executed ; nor were the
Anabaptists treated more kindly elsewhere, though they
contrived to survive the persecution. Menno Simonis, parish
priest of Wittmarsum in Frieseland, who joined them in 1536,
was successful in mitigating the practices of these sectarians,
who in consequence are now sometimes called, after him,
Mennonites. Besides infant baptism, they rejected also the
taking of oaths, military and civil service, the use of courts of
justice, and divorce, save only in the case of adultery. The
membership of the sect was numerous, especially in Holland,
Germany, and North America.

n. The Baptists^ were nearly related to the previous.
Beginning as a small and obscure EngUsh sect, they now reckon
in America, where they are first found in 1633, some 4,000,000
communicants, and about 12,000,000 adherents, spht up into
thirteen denominations. They are also found both in Germany
and elsewhere.

in. The Puritans. 3 By the Act of Uniformity (1559)
the form of worship to be used in all English Churches was
settled by Parliament. This form did not, however, prove to
the liking of everyone. Not a few found that it contained far
too many Catholic elements, this being especially the case with
those who were acquainted with the much simpler ritual in use in
Switzerland and Scotland. Their opposition was at first directed

* H. A. Kerssenbroch, Anabaptistici furoris Monasterium evertentis hist,
narratto, ed. H. Detmer, i 899-1 900 (Die Geschichtsquellen des Bistums Miinster,
vol. V-VI) ; C. A. Cornelius, Gesch. des Miinst. Anfruhrs, 2 vol. 1855-60 ;
L. Keller, Gesch. d. Wiedertdufer und ihres Reiches zu M. 1880 ; Hist. Z.
1882, pp. 429-56.

- M. G. Brumbaugh, Hist, of the Germ. Baptist Brethren in Europe and
America, 1900 ; J. C. Carlile, Story of the English Baptists, 1905.

3 Mg. by Hopkins, 3 vol. i860 ; Campbell, 2 vol. 1892 ; Byington, 1896.

VOL. II. o

194 "4 Manual of Church History

against the practice of singing, or playing the organ, against
the sign of the cross, against godparents, priestly vestments
(other than the gown), church festivals, and a host of other
points of discipline. Their ideal was a thoroughly pure and
scriptural Christianity, whence their name of Puritans, their
opposition to the Act of Uniformity earning them also the
name of Nonconformists or Dissenters. As their demands were
rejected, and they themselves subjected to persecution, they
began, in 1567, to form themselves into a separate body on a
wholly Presbyterian basis. This, however, did not tend to
ameliorate their position ; on the contrary, the persecution
became each year more severe, driving many of the Puritans
to seek greater independence beyond the seas. On the out-
break of the politico-ecclesiastical quarrels under Charles I,
the Episcopal Church was indeed abolished (1643) and a form
of Presbyterianism introduced (1646), but the old order of
things was again established by Charles II soon after his
return (1660), and the Puritans were again in trouble. Two
thousand clergymen chose to lose their preferences rather than
submit to the Act of Uniformity. Toleration was ultimately
granted to all Protestant Dissenters by the edict of toleration
issued by William of Orange (1689).

IV. The Schwenkfeldians. Soon after making common cause
with Luther, Caspar von Schwenkfeld of Ossig in Silesia (f 1561) pro-
ceeded to lay such stress on the inner union between God and man
that the necessity for external worship almost disappeared. Among
other things he also denied the presence of Christ in the Eucharist,
urging that our Lord did not wish to imply that the Bread and the
Wine were His Body and His Blood, but that His Body and His

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