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Blood were Bread and Wine, i.e. a food to nourish and strengthen the
soul. Expelled from his native country, he betook himself to South
Germany, where, in spite of persecution, he made some converts.
Mg. by Kadelbach, i860 ; F. Hoffmann, I, 1897.

V. The Antitrinitarians and Socinians. Shortly after the
outbreak of the Reformation the doctrine of the Trinity was denied,
among others, by the Spanish physician Michael Servetus (cp. § 168),
and by Laelius and Faustus Socinus of Siena. The latter (f 1604),
after a short sojourn in Switzerland (whither he had been preceded
by his uncle Laelius, 1547), went on to Transylvania, and thence to
Poland, where he settled at Rakov. Here there were already many
who professed Unitarianism conjointly with Anabaptism, and
Socinus was soon able to gather together a band of followers. The

Protestant Sects 195

Rakov catechism (1605) provided the sect's creed. Later on it was
driven from Poland, but it retained its ground in Transylvania,
where antitrinitarianism had prevailed even before the advent of
Socinus, and in other localities also. Mg. by O. Fock, 2 vol. 1847 ;
Th. Jahrh. 1848, pp. 371-98 ; Leclerc, F. Sicine, 1886 ; Burnet,
L. Socin, 1894.

VI. The Independents or Congregationalists. Robert Brown, who,
for a time, had belonged to the Puritan party, in 1580 departed from
the latter's principles by rejecting not only the episcopate, but even
the presbyterian or synodal method of government. His wish was
to establish the various parishes on the broadest democratic basis,
and to secure to each complete independence. He himself finally
reverted to Anglicanism, but his ideas remained popular, their
supporters being named Congregationalists, on account of the stress
they laid on the will of the congregation, and Independents, because
they rejected the control not only of the State, but even of any
common synod of their own. Fletcher, Hist, of Ind. in England,
4 vol. 1862 ; Waddington, Congreg. Hist. 1874.

VII. The Remonstrants or Arminians. Scarcely had the
Reformation proved victorious in Holland than conflicts broke out
between the Calvinists themselves. The exaggerated doctrine of
predestination excited some opposition, and in the controversy
which ensued, a split occurred among the stricter sort of Calvinists.
The Supralapsarians held that predestination was independent of sin,
whilst this was denied by the Infralapsarians. In so doing, the
latter were departing to some extent from the severity of the
original doctrine ; Arminius, an Amsterdam preacher (f 1608), was,
however, to go much further. He abandoned the Calvimstic doc-
trine, and on being summoned to the University of Leyden (1603)
he made many disciples. His adherents were known after him as
Arminians, and occasionally as Remonstrants, on account of the
document entitled Remonstrantia, which, in 1610, they addressed
to the States of Holland and West-Frieseland. Therein they
declared that God reprobates or predestines, only on the ground of
Plis foreknowledge, that Christ died for all men, and that Grace is
not irresistible ; they, moreover, affirmed that Faith alone is in-
sufficient for Justification, and that, for this, charity operating
through Faith is requisite. Their opponents were known as Contra-
remonstrants, or as Gomarists, after Francis Gomar, a Leyden
theologian. The latter were at first successful, the stadtholder
Maurice of Orange supporting them for political motives. The
synod of Dordrecht (1618-19) removed from their offices some 200
Arminian-minded preachers, and even expelled some of them from
the country, among these being Episcopius the leader of the party.
Under the next stadtholder, however, the Remonstrants not only
secured toleration, but were soon allowed to worship publicly (1630).
Mg. by D. de Bray, 1835 ; C. Flour, 1889 ; J. H. Maronier,
/. Arminius, 1905,

196 A Manual of Church History

§ 193
The Pietists 1

The attitude which the Reformers had assumed towards
the Catholic Church led to their laying great stress on Faith.
This proceeding was, however, not without danger for morality.
The doctrine of Justification by Faith alone was in itself of a
nature to be misunderstood by the mass of the people, and
sayings such as Luther's Fortiter pecca, sed fortius crede, &c,
were more likely to give rise to false impressions than to check
them. The doctrinal controversies, which early broke out
among the Protestants, also contributed to enhance unduly
the value of mere orthodoxy. Hence it is no wonder that the
Reformed Churches soon found themselves sadly in need of a
moral reformation. The task of introducing into them more
practical Christianity was undertaken by the Pietists.

They are first met with in the Reformed Churches of
the Netherlands and Switzerland. In the first half of the
seventeenth century, associations were formed to cultivate
virtue and piety. The leaders of the movement were
Gisbert Voet (f 1676), a professor, and JodocusvanLodensteyn
(t 1677), a preacher of Utrecht, and, at Altona, John de
Labadie (f 1676), the originator of Separatism in the Reformed

Ph. J. Spener was responsible for the introduction of
the movement into Lutheran Germany. As he realised
the impossibility of imposing on the whole of the Church the
perfection which he sought, he determined to attempt it
only on a few, in the hope that the ecclesiola in ecclesia would,
in time, act as a ferment on the whole. The best means to
secure his end appeared to him to be the Collegia pietatis,
select gatherings held for the purpose of mutual edification
and for Bible-reading. He began his work at Frankfort
in 1670, and in 1675 issued his Pia desideria, a treatise
on the evils prevail ng in the Church with proposals
for their betterment, in which he acquainted the public
with his scheme. In the event his example was widely

1 A. RiTscHL, Gesch. d. Piei. 1880-86; E. Sachsse, Ursprung und Wesen
d. P. 1884; P. Grunberg, Spener, 2 vol. 1893-1905.

The Quakers 197

imitated. At Leipzig a similar work was started with the
Collegium philobiblicum (1686), estabHshed by two young
masters, Hermann Francke and Paul Anton. These proceed-
ings did not fail to excite indignation ; the Collegium philo-
bihlicum was dissolved (1690) ; but the movement answered
too well to the needs of the Protestant Church to be so easily
checked. Banished from the Saxon Electorate, Pietism
found a new home at Berlin, where Spener had been appointed
provost (1691), and also at the new University of Halle,
whither both Francke and Anton had been summoned to
teach. The quarrel, however, continued, especially when
it became known that the Pietists professed to be recipients
of visions and predictions, and that they favoured separatist
tendencies. In spite of this the movement persisted, the
headquarters of its propaganda being the great orphanage
established by Francke at Halle, an institution comprising
several schools and educational departments.


The Quakers, Herrnhuters, Methodists, and Swedenborgians 1

I. The Quakers - originated in England in 1649, when
George Fox (1623-91), as a protest against the formahsm
prevailing in the Church, laid the foundation of his ' Society
of Friends,' a band of enthusiasts, strong in Faith, and simple
and sober in life. They soon became numerous in spite of
the persecutions which they incurred for their interference
in public worship, and finally were granted toleration by
William's Toleration Act (1689). Even stronger than in
England were they in North America, where William Penn,
in quittance for a debt due to him, had obtained from the
British government a grant of land on the Delaware (1681).
Here was established the State of Pennsylvania, of which
nearly half the population consisted of Quakers. The
Friends did not, however, long retain either their numerical
strength or their original severity, and soon split into the
parties known as ' damp ' and ' fighting ' or ' free Friends.'

1 H. Weingarten, Die Revolutionskirchen Englands, 1868.
- Cunningham, The Quakers, 1868 ; KL. X, 656-67.

1 98 A Manual of Church History

To the Quakers the source of religious knowledge is the immedi-
ate enlightenment produced by Christ, the light within. Holy
Scripture itself can only be understood by means of this light, which,
as ' the true hght which enlighteneth every man that cometh into
this world ' {John i. 9), has ever assisted man both before and after
the advent of Christ. The worship in use in the sect agrees with its
belief. Prayer and preaching are made to depend on immediate in-
spiration. The sacraments they either rejected or reduced to mere un-
necessary symbols. Military service, oaths, tithes, theatres, dances,
and other frivohties they refused to countenance. In the beginning
the ofhce of preaching devolved on anyone who felt moved by the
Spirit, though, later on, the more capable members in each com-
munity were granted a permanent right of addressing the Friends.
Their place of meeting was a simple house of prayer, devoid of bell,
altar, or pulpit, and the severity of their tenets was similarly evinced
by the peculiar garb the Quakers affected, the men wearing dark coats
minus any buttons, and wide-awake hats, and the women green
aprons and black bonnets. They were also accustomed to use the
familiar ' thou,' and refused to uncover the head to anyone. Owing
to their theory of the light within, the sect had very little by way
of dogma, though it has always held by its principal theologian
Robert Barclay (| 1690), who cast the Quakers' teachings into a sort
of system.

II. The founder of the Herrnhuters was count L. von
Zinzendorf (1700-60).^ He had been educated among the
followers of Spener, and even in his tender youth had en-
deavoured to work for the ecclesiola in ecclesia. At last, in
1722, an opportunity presented itself for carr3dng out the
idea on a larger scale, and he gave permission to a small
colony of Moravian Brethren to establish themselves on
his estate on the Hutberg near Berthelsdorf in Upper Lusatia.
This settlement, which was the cradle of the village of Herrn-
hut, increased very fast, and, in spite of the differences pre-
vailing between its members, Zinzendorf, by dint of work
and self-sacrifice, and thanks to his power of organisation,
succeeded in keeping the community together and in trans-
forming it into a Brotherhood (1727). Its members, to
prevent friction, were divided, according to the sect to which
they had previously belonged, into three categories, those
of the Lutherans, of the Calvinists, and of the Moravians.

^ Mg. by A. G. Spangenberg (the sect's most influential leader after
Zinzendorf), 1772-75; G. Burkhardt, 1S66; B. Becker, 1886, and ed. 1901 ;
G. Reichel, a. G. Spangenberg, 1906,

Methodism 199

Generally speaking, they considered Christianity to con-
sist essentially in the belief in the Redemption by Christ's
death on the Cross and in a childlike surrender of the Christian
to the Saviour, with whom, in 1741, a kind of alliance was
entered, and whose will was invariably sought by means
of lots in cases of elections, marriages, &c. New communities
were soon formed on the same model both in the Old and in
the New World. The direction of the whole is in the hands
of a conference of elders, elected by the general synod, and
which has its residence at Berthelsdorf . Each community has
a like constitution, being divided into choirs according to
sex, age, and conjugal state. Worship consists in sermons,
prayers, hymns, and in a communion service which follows
an Agape once every four weeks. Private devotions consist
in the daily drawing of lots (for a passage from the Old
Testament) and in certain readings from the New Testament.

III. Methodism ^ grew out of a society of students
formed at Oxford in 1729 for the promotion of virtue and
piety, and known at the University as the pious club, or the
* Methodists,' owing to the severe method of life followed
by its members. The society's founder was Charles Wesley,
but its head and soul was his elder brother, John Wesley
(1703-91), a fellow of Lincoln College. Another well-known
member, who joined in 1732, was George Whitefield. The
aim of these young men, who for a time worked in conjunction
with the Herrnhuters, was to infuse a higher life into the
Church of England. In spite of their own intentions,
Wesley's followers, gradually and agai-nst their will, soon
found themselves drifting away from the established
Church. On being forbidden to hold their meetings in the
churches, Wesley and Whitefield proceeded to preach in
the open air (1739), and when this too was prohibited,
they erected chapels of their own. As the clergy thereupon
declined to have any more to do with the movement, laj^men
were appointed to preach, and as, finally, the English bishops
refused to confer ordination on the lay preachers, Wesley
himself undertook to confer it. The society was to grow

' Bg. of We?le3' by Southey, 3rd ed. 1846 ; Tyerman, 3 vol. 1S70-71 ; R.
Green, 1905 ; Winchester, 1906; A. Stevens, Hist, of Method. 3 vol. i868 ;
Atkinson, The Beginnings of the Weslevan Movement in America, 1896;
J. JuNGST, Der Meth. in Dentschland, 3rd ed. 1906.

2 JO A Manual of Church History

vastly, and counts at the present day over 20,000,000 members.
The parishes are divided into classes under lay stewards,
whose importance is all the greater owing to the custom
prevailing of changing the preacher every two years. The
supreme direction is in the hands of a conference, meeting
annually (in America every four years).

The Wesleyans severed their connection with the Herrnhuters
(1740) owing to a disagreement regarding re-birth. According to
Wesley this consists in a violent break with sin and self-seeking,
the moment of conversion being consequently perfectly well known
to the person who has experienced it. On the other hand, Zinzendorf
conceived of the action of the Spirit as something milder. This
schism was soon followed by one between Wesley and Whitefield
(1741), the pretext in this case being a difference regarding Grace,
on which Wesley was inclined to follow Arminius, and Whitefield
Calvin. The two friends were soon reconciled, though the quarrel
again broke out on the death of Whitefield (1770). At a later date
other divergencies resulted in the formation of many new Denomina-
tions, especially in North America, where the sect is most strongly

IV. The New Jerusalem Church, or the sect of the Sweden-
borgians, owes its origin to Emanuel Swedenborg, assessor at the
College of Mines at Stockholm. Believing himself to have been
called by God to expound the inner spiritual sense of the Scriptures
(1743), he maintained a perpetual intercourse with the spirit-world,
and wrote many books, of which the principal is the Vera Christiana
religio (1770). On the day following the completion of this work,
the New Jerusalem, or the New Church, was to be made manifest.
Outside of Sweden he found followers, more especially in England,
where he spent the last days of his life, in North America, and in
Wiirttemberg. He believed that God is one in person, but is mani-
fested in three revelations as Creator, Redeemer, and Regenerator
of the world. Tafel, Swed. und s. Gegner, 1841 ; Documents con-
cerning the Life and Character of E.S. 2 vol. 1875-77.

§ 195

Learning and Art among the Protestants ^

I. The Protestants, relying as they did on Holy Scripture,
were led to devote great attention to Bibhcal studies. Nor
were they forgetful of the claims of the other branches of

1 J. A. DoRNER, Gesch. d. prot. Theologie, besonders in Deutscliland, 1867 ;
G. Fr.\nk, Gesch. d. prot. Theologie, 4 vol. 1862-1905.

Learning and Art among the Protestants 201

Theology, and though their Hterature for a time was
sadly shackled by a strong spirit of denominationalism
and creedal orthodoxy, at a later date much greater free-
dom obtained. The change was in large part due to the
advent of Deism and Rationalism, though Protestant
scholars, in discarding their too narrow creeds, not un-
frequently went the length of altogether rejecting the Divine
character of Christianity.

Apart from the Reformers themselves and a few men whose
names have already been mentioned in speaking of the controversies
of the day, the principal exponents of Protestant learning were the
following : —

Exegetists and Biblical Philologists. The two orientalists
(father and son) Buxtorf of Basel {Concordantiae Bihliorum Hebrai-
cae, 1632 ; Lexicon Chaldaiciim, Talmudicum et Rabhinicum, 1639) ;
Walton, editor of the London Potyglot (6 fol. 1657) '> J- Lightfoot of
Cambridge {Horae Hebraicae et Talmudicae in quaittor Evangelistas,
1658-79) ; J. A. Bengel {Gnomon N. T. 1742).

Historical Theologians (see §5). D. Blondel (cp. §99) ; J. d'Aille
(Dallaeus : De pseudepigraphis apostolicis, 1653 ; De scriptis
Dionysii Areopagitae, &€., 1666) ; J. Usher {Poly carpi et Ignaiii
epistolae, 1644) ; J. Pearson {Vindiciae Ignatianae, 1672) ; H. Dodwcll
{Dissertationes Cyprianicae, 1684, in Irenaeum, &c.) ; W. Cave
{Scripiorum eccles. hist, liieraria, 1693) ; C. Oudin {Commentarius
de scriptoribus ecclesiasticis, 2 fol. 1722) ; J. Bingham {Origines
ecclesiae, or the Antiquities of the Christian Church, 8 vol. 1708-22 ;
Lat. ed. by Grischovius, 10 vol. 1724-38) ; Ch. W. F. Walch {Historic
der Ketzereien, ii vol. 1762-85) ; J. Planck {Gesch. der Entstehung,
Verdnderungen und Bildung unseres protest. Lehrbegriffs, 6 vol. 1781-
1800 ; Gesch. d. christl. Gesellschaftsverfassiing, 5 vol. 1803-9.

Apologists and Dogmatic Theologians. Hugo Grotius {De
veritate religionis christianae, 1627) ; N. Lardner (cp. § 196) ; M.
Chemnitz {Examen decretorum concilii Tridentini, 1565-73 ; Loci
theologici, 1591) ; J. Gerhard {Loci theologici, 9 vol. 1610-22) ;
J. A. Quenstedt {Theologia didactico-polemica seu systema theologicmn,
4 fol. 1696) ; J. Cocceius or Koch {Summa doctrinae de foedere et
testamento Dei, 1648) ; S. J. Baumgarten {Glaubenslehre, 3 vol.


II. Painting during this period flourished in the northern as well

as in the southern Netherlands. It was in the former that Rem-
brandt (f 1669) produced his finest works. The art was, however,
exclusively concerned with nature, religious painting not being
encouraged by the Protestants. Poetry and Music, on the other
hand, were zealously fostered, especially by the Lutherans. A large
number of men occupied themselves with the composition of hymns.

202 A Manual of Church History

The first place, after Luther himself, must be assigned to the Berlin
preacher Paul Gerhardt (t 1676) and the Breslau physician Johann
Schefifler, or Angelus Silesius, who afterwards became a convert to
CathoHcism (f 1677) . Among the great composers were J . Sebastian
Bach, head of St. Thomas' School at Leipzig (f 1723), who composed
many pieces for the organ, and Passions, and G. F. Handel of Halle,
who spent the latter years of his life in England (f 1759). and is
renowned for his oratorios.



§ 196

England and France

In spite of occasional outbursts of unbelief, the Middle
Ages, on the whole, may be said to have been ruled by Faith,
the same being true of the first half of the period now under
discussion. In the seventeenth century, ho\\ev^r, a change
is noticeable, many of the better classes then abandoning
their beliefs and either falling into materialism or embracing
a mere religion of reason. Though at first blush this may
seem extraordinary, it may to some extent be explained
as a natural development of events which had preceded. The
division of Western Christendom into a number of warring
denominations, and the still further lack of unanimity prevailing
within the Protestant body, served not a little to excite
religious doubts, and to lead some to discard the supernatural.
Though the change, in so far as it involved the loss and
destruction of positive beliefs, is to be deplored, we must
not close our eyes to the fact that it was also productive of
much good. Growing enlightenment was largely responsible
for the cessation of the belief in witchcraft, besides destro3dng
many other superstitious notions and practices, and thereby
was eminently serviceable in purifying religion. It also
prepared the way for religious tolerance and freedom of
conscience, which, whatever we may think of it in itself,

^ J. A. von Stark, Triumph d. PJiilos. int 18 Jahrh. 2 vol. 1803; re-edited
by BucHFELNER, 1834) '> ^'V- BINDER, Gesch. des philos. u. revol. Jahrhiinderts
mtt Riicks. auf d. kirchl. Zusldnde, 2 vol. 1844-45 ; F. A. Lange, Gesch. d.
Materialisnius, 4th ed. 1882 (Engl. Trans. Hist, of Materialism, 1877 ft.);
Lecky, Hist, of the Rise and Influence of the Spirit of Rationalism in Europe,
2 vol. 3rd ed. 1866.

204 ^ Manual of Church History

owing to the divisions prevailing among Christians, had
become a necessity.

England was the first to experience the change.^ Lord
Herbert of Cherbury (f 1648) suggested the establishment of
a purely natural religion, consisting of the following elements :
(i) Belief in God ; (2) worship of the deity by means (3) of
virtue and piety ; (4) sorrow for sin and improvement of
conduct ; (5) belief in a reward in this life and hereafter.
His suggestion was favourably received by many, though,
as they were at variance as to details, the matter gave rise
to several controversies. In one thing, however, they all
agreed, and that was in depriving Christianity of its super-
natural character, and in bringing it down to the level of
a mere religion of reason. Their proposals and their writings
were not allowed to remain unchallenged, and the conflict con-
tinued until the middle of the eighteenth century. Nor were
their opponents' efforts spent in vain, for belief in a revelation
gradually regained the ground it seemed to have lost. Its
main supporter in this controversy was Nathaniel Lardner,
whose work, The Credibility of the Gospel History (12 vol.
1727-55), was translated into many languages.

Among the other seventeenth-century representatives of Deism,
or Free-Thought as the movement was sometimes called, were
Thomas Hobbes (f 1679), who subordinated the Church to the State
to such an extent that he was willing even to permit blasphemy
on the latter's responsibility, Th. Brown, and Ch. Blount. In
the eighteenth century they were followed by the earl of Shaftes-
bury (f 1713), Toland, Collins, Woolston, Tindal {Christianity as old
as the Creation, 1720), Morgan, Chubb, and lord Bolingbroke (f 1751).
The philosophers John Locke (f 1704) and David Hume (f 1776)
also have a right to be mentioned here, the former because the
sensist theory which he founded was in itself hostile to Christianity,
even though the author personally was not inclined to be unfriendly,
the latter because he maintains that doubt is the only result
to be attained by investigating religion.

A rallying point for all the freethinkers was provided by the
Freemasons. After the completion of St. Paul's, the remaining
members of the masonic guilds, which had taken a prominent
part in the work of reconstruction subsequent to the Fire of London,
united at the capital (1717) and formed themselves into a grand
Lodge. The institution soon spread, and its attitude is sufiicie itly

1 Lechler, Gesch. d. engl. Detsmus, 1841 ; Guttler, Eduard Lord H rbert
von Cherbury, 1897.

Philosophism in France 205

evident from the thoroughly deistic constitution drawn up for it
by the Enghsh clergyman Anderson. Cp. Fin del, Gesch. d. Fr.
7th ed. 1900 (Engl. Trans. Hist, of Freemasonry, 2nd ed. 1869).

In France a way was opened for rationalism by the
sceptic Pierre Bayle (f 1706). The corruption, which pre-
vailed at the court and throughout the higher classes, greatly
aided its progress, and it was soon represented by a whole
band of men. Owing to the esteem in which the writings
of some of these were held, unbelief soon found its way into
every class of society, at a time, too, when in England a
movement in the contrary direction had already set in.
Its main instrument was the Encyclopaedia, ^ edited by
Diderot and d'Alembert. In its beginning the new enlighten-
ment had showed a certain amount of consideration for the
old beliefs, for instance in the Lettres persanes (1721) of
Montesquieu, a satire on the state of the Church penned by
the famous author of the Esprit des lois. Later on, however,
it did not hesitate to give open expression to its hatred of
both Church and Christianity. The motto of Voltaire (f 1777),^

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