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(§ 180). By the beginning of the nineteenth century the number
of Catholics had increased to such an extent that Quebec
was erected into an archbishopric (1819), and the existing
Vicariates-Apostolic into dioceses, to which yet others were
added. Of these dioceses not a few were afterwards to be
promoted to the metropohtan status (HaUfax, 1852, Toronto,
1870, St. Boniface, 1871, Montreal and Ottawa, 1886, King-
ston, 1889).

Still greater was the Church's growth in the United States. ^
The persecutions to which Catholics were liable in England
induced lord Baltimore to seek a new home beyond the ocean.
and to found the colony of Maryland (1634) ; similar colonies
were founded elsewhere. The Catholics were, however, long
in the minority, and though in Maryland, on their motion, an
Act of Toleration was passed ensuring freedom of worship
to all forms of Christianity, they had many hardships to
experience. Nearly everywhere the Protestants — the only
exception being the Quakers of Pennsylvania — took advantage

' Bancroft, Hist, of the United States of America, 6 vol. last ed. 1885;
J. G. Shea, Hist, of the Catholic Church within the limits of the United States,
1886 ff. ; O'GoRMAN, A History of the Roman Catholic Church in the United
States, 1895; A. f. k. KR., pp. 522-30 (the Brief Testem benevolentiae) ; Kath.
1902, I, 494-512; A. HouTiN, L' Americanisme, 1904; K. Braun, Ameri-
kanismus, Fortschritt, Reform, 1904.

238 A Manual of Church History

of their greater number to issue new penal laws. The War
of Independence (1776-83), in which Protestants and Catholics
fought side by side, finally brought the latter their freedom.
At the time they numbered only some 30,000, and were ad-
ministered by the Vicar-Apostolic of the London district. This
arrangement came to an end with the proclamation of independ-
ence, and the country was placed under the immediate control
of the Holy See ; J. Carroll was created Vicar-Apostolic (1784),
and soon after bishop of Baltimore (1789). The subsequent
progress of Catholicism was as remarkable as that of the
country itself. Twenty years later four new dioceses were
established at Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Bardstown,
Baltimore now becoming an archdiocese (1808). As the
Union was constantly growing by the incorporation of new terri-
tories and states, and as the population was likewise being
constantly augmented by immigrants, new dioceses were soon
called for. In the middle of the nineteenth century there
were six provinces, which by the end of the century had grown
to fourteen with seventy-three sees. The bishop of Baltimore,
the occupant of the oldest see, received the title of Primate
in 1858, Seminaries were also established for the training of a
native clergy, the first being that of Baltimore, the direction
of which was taken by Sulpicians who had been driven
from Paris by the Revolution in 1791. A Catholic university
was also erected at Washington (1889). The number of
Catholics now amounts to about ten millions (by O'Gorman
it is estimated at twelve millions) on a total population of
86,900,000 (1904).

The creating of so huge an organisation demanded both
hard work and united action, especially as the Catholic
missioners had to reckon on themselves alone, the State,
beyond guaranteeing freedom of conscience, doing nothing
for their support. Hence it is no wonder that recourse was
frequently taken to Councils. Carroll, soon after his appoint-
ment, commenced the practice of holding diocesan synods (1791),
and some time after it also became customary to hold Provincial
Councils (1829) and Plenary Councils (1852). The object of
the missioners was ever to adjust matters in such wise as to
bring them into harmony with the peculiar conditions of the
people among whom their lot was cast. That here and there

The Church in America 239

the adjustments ultimately proved to some extent inconform-
able with the Church's teaching, cannot be a matter of surprise
to those who know how one-sided in its developments human
nature is prone to be. Americanism, as the complexus of these
errors came to be known, was condemned by Leo XIII in his
Brief Testem henevolentiae (1899).

The bishops are nominated by Rome. The provinces have,,
however, the right of recommending persons fit for the posts, and
according to the last two Plenary Councils (1S66-84) their com-
mendation takes place in this wise. The councillors and immovable
rectors of the widowed diocese assemble, summoned by and
presided over by the metropolitan — or by the senior bishop of
the province should the vacancy be in the metropolis itself — and
by secret vote draw up a list of three candidates, which is after-
wards examined by the bishops of the province, who under certain
circumstances have the right of adding other names.

II. Following the example set by the North, Central and
South America,^ which hitherto had been under the domination
of Spain and Portugal, severed their connection with their
respective motherlands (1818-24). The consequence was the
creation of a number of new independent states : Mexico ;
in Central America, Guatemala, Honduras, Salvador, Nicaragua,
and Costa Rica ; in South America, Venezuela, Colombia,
Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Brazil, &c. Nearly all these
states, on separating from Europe, adopted a repubhcan
constitution. In Mexico Augustine Iturbide had at first been
proclaimed emperor (1822), but was forced to abdicate within
a year; a subsequent attempt to establish an empire under
the archduke Maximihan of Austria (1864-67) was also a
failure. On the other hand, republicanism was ultimately to
triumph even in Brazil (1890), which had formed itself into
an empire under Dom Pedro on separating from Portugal.
The changes in these two great states show the existence of
deep pohti al animosities. The same uncertainty, however,
prevailed in the other states, which for a number of years
were torn by incessant civil wars, through the struggles of the
different parties for mastery. Only by degrees did they reach
a position of stable equilibrium. Under such circumstances

' J. Fehr, Gesch. des 19 Jahrh. I (Cantu, Weltgesch. XIV), 1262-1305 ; IV
(XVII), 5109-95 ; St. a. ML. igo6, I, 531-47 (Brazil).

240 A Manual of Church History

the condition of the Church could not be one of much security.
Under Pius IX Conventions were made with most of the
states. In Mexico, in 1875, the Church was disestablished,
religion was banished from the schools, and sisters who busied
themselves in teaching and in the care of the sick were expelled
the country. In Brazil, where Catholicism had been so far
the relig on of the State, the proclamation of the Republic
(February 24, 1891) was made the occasion for introducing
freedom of worship and disestablishing the Church.

§ 208

The Papacy and the Vatican Council 1

Enough has aVeady been said concerning the relations
of the papacy with the various states. Here we shall
confine ourselves to supplying such details as have been

I. Pius VII,^ on assuming the tiara, found himself faced by
the task of establishing order anew in his States, which the
political upheaval which had occurred during the latter years
of his predecessor's pontificate, the shameful exactions and
thefts of the French, and the constant wars had reduced to a
condition of chaos. Returning to Rome after five years of
exile in France, he had to commence the same task anew.
Many of the reforms which had been introduced by the French
were retained, particularly such as tended to centrahse and
simplify the administration. The Pope's attention was also
claimed by church matters in other lands. Save for a few
years (1806-14), during which Napoleon had his own way,
the Pope's chief adviser was his secretary of State, cardinal
Ercole Consalvi.

II. He was succeeded by cardinal Annibale della Genga
as Leo XII (1823-29), whose pontificate was taken up with the
reorganisation of the Church.

1 Artaud de Montor, Hist, du pape Pie VII, 3rd ed. 1839 ; de Leon
XII, 1843 ; de Pie VIII, 1844 ; Duerm, Vicissitudes politiques du pouvoir
temporel de's papes, de 1790 ^ nos jours, 2nd ed. 1896 ; Nurnberger, Papsttum
tt. Kirchenstaat, 3 vol. 1897-1900.

- M". by PiSTOLESi, 1S24 f. ; Giuci, 1864 ; Ranke, Kard. Consalvi u. s.
Staatsverwaltung, in WW. vol. 40 ; E. Fischer, Kard. Consalvi, 1899 ; Duer.m,
Correspondance du Card. H. Consalvi avec CI. de Metternich, 1899.

Popes of the Nineteenth Century 241

III. The reign of Pius VIII (1829-30), of the Castiglione
family, was too short, lasting only twenty months, to
allow of his putting any plans he may have had into

IV. The pontificate of Gregory XVI (1831-46),! formerly
a Camaldulese monk, by name Capellari, was disturbed by
repeated rebellions. The backwash of the July Revolution
was felt even in the States of the Church, and the movement,
beginning at Bologna, soon involved the larger portion of the
country. On the arrival of the Austrians, the papal government
was indeed again set up, and, at the demand of the Powers, the
Pope consented to introduce a few reforms. These, however,
proved insufficient, and the opposition continued, resulting
in Bologna and Ancona being occupied by Austrian and
French troops for nearly seven years (1832-38). A rising also
took place at Rimini, but was suppressed by the papal troops
(1845). Disturbances so persistent prove the difficulty there
was in maintaining the old order of things, and the need of
far-reaching alterations.

V. Pius IX (1846-78) ,2 formerly cardinal Mastai Ferretti,
bishop of Imola, determined to adopt a more conciliatory
attitude. He began by publishing a general amnesty to those
who had been condemned for political reasons during the
previous pontificate, allowed the laity to enter several of the
State Departments, and finally (1848) pubhshed a Constitution
in which he appointed the establishment of two Chambers,
the first of members nominated by the Pope, the second of
representatives of the people;, both of which should, however,
be subject to the college of cardinals. These reforms were
hailed with joy. Amidst the revolutionary movements which
involved the whole of Europe in 1848, such reforms were not,
however, sufficient to establish public order. The excited
populace demanded further concessions, and on the Pope's
flight to Gaeta a Republic was proclaimed, at the head of which
was Mazzini with two others (1849). The papal domination
was soon again restored by the intervention of the Catholic
Powers, and in the spring, 1850, Pius returned, bent on healing

' Acta Gregorii XVI, ed. A. M. Bernasconi, 4 vol. 1901-5.
- Mg. by Stepischnegg, 2 vol. 1879; Pougeois, 6 vol. 1877-S6; J. G.


242 A Manual of Church History

the wounds which had been caused to his country by the Revolu-
tion. The old constitution existing prior to 1848 was again
renewed, though the laity were assured a place in the administra-
tion. Under these circumstances a real concihation was out
of the question : the French were compelled to remain at Rome
and the Austrians in the Legations, and how necessary their
presence was was seen when they retired. In 1859 Victor
Emanuel, backed by France, commenced his attack on the
Austrian provinces of northern Italy, and Austria, in obedience
to the Pope's requests, withdrew her troops from the Papal
States. No sooner was this done than risings occurred in the
evacuated Legations, the papal domination was declared at
an end, and the people clamoured for incorporation in the
new kingdom of Italy, which was then in the first stage of its
formation, the duchies of Modena, Parma, and Tuscany having
just then thrown in their lot with the Piedmontese. Ferrara,
Bologna, and Ravenna were lost to the Pope immediately,
the province of Umbria and the mark of Ancona following suit
the next year (i860), the Papal States being thereby reduced
by two-thirds. The remainder of the States was in the occupa-
tion of the French. The attack made on the latter by Garibaldi
and his band was successfully repelled at Mentana (1867).
On the outbreak of the Franco-German war (1870) the French
troops were, however, withdrawn, and the whole country was at
the mercy of the Italians, who accordingly marched on Rome.
To the Pope there now remained only the palace of the Vatican
and the villa Gandolfo. The law of Guarantee (May 15, 1871)
acknowledged the Pope's person as sacred and inviolable, and
granted him an annual pension of 3,250,000 francs. 1 The
offer was, however, declined, lest it should be interpreted as
conveying an indirect approval of an act of injustice, and in
the confidence that the gifts of the Faithful would make good
the losses of revenue incurred by the Pope through being
deprived of his States.

From an ecclesiastical standpoint the pontificate was not
less eventful than from the point of view of poHtics. After
having consulted with the episcopate throughout the world,
Pius, in his Bull Inejfahilis (r854), in virtue of the ludicium
supremum of the Apostolic See (or supremo suo atque infalUhili

' F. Geigel, Das ital. Staatskirchenrecht, 1886 {A. f. k. KR. vols. 54, 55).

Popes of the Nineteenth Century 243

oraculo, to use the words of the new Office, lect. VI) raised the
doctrine of the Immaculate Conception of Mary to the status
of a dogma. He also issued the Syllabus,i a list of eighty
errors which had already previously been condemned by him
in detail. Finally, in the late autumn, 1869, he summoned a
General Council to meet at the Vatican ^ for the definition of
Papal InfalhbiHty. The proposal caused great excitement
everywhere ; it was also opposed with much vehemence by not a
few of the Council which assembled, 747 strong, some holding
that the doctrine was without foundation, others that its
definition was inopportune, i.e. would only engender new
hatred and new difficulties for the Church. The majority was,
however, in its favour, and it was passed by the Council, the
actual definition following at the fourth session in the Constitu-
tion Pastor aeternus (July 18, 1870). As only one decree had
been previously issued by the Council, the Decretum de fide
(Sess. Ill), its labours had scarcely begun, and other debates
and decrees were to have followed, but, in the event, the fourth
session proved to be the last. On the following day, France
declared war against Germany ; two months later Rome
became the capital of the kingdom of Italy, and on October 20
the Council was formally adjourned.

The commotion which had preceded and accompanied the
Council did not cease even when the assembly had dissolved.
The bishops of the minority, indeed, all submitted to the ruhng
of the majority and published the new dogma in their dioceses.
Their action was not, however, well received every^vhere.
Numerous lay folk and not a few of the clergy, particularly
in Germany, refused to accept the doctrine, and, as the clergy,
in spite of the excommunication which they incurred by their
protests, were maintained at their posts by the governments,
new conflicts became the order of the day. In many places
the dogma disturbed the relations between Church and State.
Austria denounced its Concordat in the very year of the
Council, and other states, such as Prussia, took their measures
against the Church. The pontificate of Pius was sufficiently

* F. Meiner, Der Syllabus, 1905.

- Acta et decreia, in Coll. Lacensis, vol. VII, 1890 ; Constitutiones dogmaticae,
ed. Trevir. 1901 ; Mg. by Cf.cconi, 1873-79 ; J. Friedrich, 3 vol. iSjy-Sj ;
Th. Granderath, ed. by Kirch, 3 vol. 1903-6.

K 2

244 ^ Manual of Church History

long to discredit the old saying that no Pope shall see the
(twenty-five) years of Peter.

VI. At his death the Church was in many countries in an
unsatisfactory situation. To cardinal Pecci, bishop of Perugia,
who assumed the name of Leo XIII (1878-1903),! it was reserved
to improve matters. His wisdom and innate sense of justice
found wide appreciation. In the conflict over the Caroline
island of Yap he was chosen to arbitrate between Germany and
Spain (1885). On the occasion of his golden and diamond
jubilees he was the recipient of congratulations and gifts from
nearly all the sovereigns and states of the world (1887-97).
Learning also owes him a debt for having thrown open the
Vatican archives and made their treasures accessible to
historians. In a series of encyclicals he sought to promote
religious life in all its manifestations, and to apply the principles
of Christianity to every department of life.

VII. He was followed by cardinal Giuseppe Sarto, patri-
arch of Venice, as Pius X (1903).^ Whilst maintaining with
regard to the Roman Question the attitude adopted by his
two predecessors, he soon showed that he was disposed to
make some account of the changes which had occurred, and,
without abolishing the Non expedit, he granted permission to
his countrymen, by way of dispensation and under certain
conditions, to take a part in the political and parliamentary
life of United Italy (1905).

The principal clause of the Constitution Pastor aeternus touching
infallibility runs as follows : Romanum pontificem cum ex cathedra
loquitur, id est, cum omnium Christianorum pastoris et doctoris
munere fungens, pro suprema sua apostolica auctoritate doctrinam
de fide vel moribus ah universa ecclesia tenendam definit, per assis-
tentiam divinam, ipsi in beato Petro promissam, ea infallibilitate
pollere, qua divinus redemptor ecclesiam suam in definienda doctrina
de fide vel moribus instructam esse voluit, ideoque eiusmodi Romani
pontificis definitiones ex sese, non autem ex consensu ecclesiae irre-
formabiles esse. For a fuller explanation of the definition see
Lammer, Institutionen des k. KR. 2nd ed. 1892, pp. 155-59.

^ Bg. by Weinand, 1892; Norbert, 1894; T'Serclaes, 1894; Ricard,
1895 ; McCarthy, 1896 ; Domenico, 1896 ; L. K. Gotz, 1899 ; De Cesare
{Dal conclavee di Leone XIII al ultimo Consistoro), 1899 ; O'Reilly, 1903 ;
Die kath. Kirche imserer Zeit, ed. theLeo-Gesellschaft, Vienna, 3 vol. 1S98-1902 ;
Encyclicals, published by Herder; S. von Suol,ka, Erinnerung an Leo X 1 1 1 ,

' A. Marchesan, p. Pius X (German Trans. 1905-6),

The Kulturkampf 245

§ 209

The Kulturkampf in Germany 1

Since 1848 the Church in Prussia had enjoyed the fullest
freedom of action, nor had the State had the slightest cause
for complaint. As late as 1866, king William I spoke with
satisfaction of the admirable order of the Church in his lands.
The victorious war against France and the foundation of the
German Empire (January 18, 1871) was, however, the signal
for a change of policy on the part of the State. The Church
was now to be robbed of the liberties she had been accorded,
and made wholly subject to the State. The war against her,
which was described by one of her enemies as a Kulturkampf
[i.e. as a war of culture against the cramping influence of
Catholic dogma), and has ever since been generally known by
that name, was, without a doubt, the doing of the chancellor,
prince Bismarck, though its immediate conduct was left to the
minister of public worship. The Catholics, indeed, defended
themselves with a will, in Parliament, in the press, and elsewhere,
and were supported by a portion of the Protestants, who saw that
the arbitrary proceedings of the government threatened even the
freedom of their own Church. As, however, the majority of
the nation — partly out of hostility to Christianity, partly out
of hatred of Catholicism, partly, too, because of the uneasiness
caused by the Syllabus and Vatican decrees — willingly followed
the government's lead, the enactment of oppressive laws was
made possible. The aim of the legislators was not attained.
After nearly ten years of warfare, the government was com-
pelled to withdraw one by one the more obnoxious of its new
laws. The same also happened in the grand-duchy of Hesse,
which had at first followed Prussia's example and issued
similar laws (1875), only to follow suit again and withdraw
them in 1887.

The progress of the Prussian Kulturkampf was as follows :
To begin with, the two denominational departments at the ministry

' Mg. by N. Siegfried, 1SS2 ; F. X. Schulte, 1882 ; Wiermann, 1885 ;
P. Majunke, 2nd ed. 1902; J. Falter, 1900; H. Bruck, 2 vol. 1901-5
(Gesch. d. k. K.im 19 Jahrh. IV, 1-2). Also V. Rintelen, 1887 (3rd ed. 1903),
and G. Wendt, 1887 ; J.N. Knopp, Ludwiq Windthorst, 1898,

246 A Manual of Church History

of public worship, of which the object was to advise the ministry
in matters of religion, were abolished (1871). Education was put
exclusively into the hands of the State, and the Jesuits were expelled
the country (1873), the last measure extending not to Prussia only,
but to the whole Empire. A year later a like expulsion was decreed
against Redemptorists, Lazarists, Priests of the Holy Ghost, and
nuns of the Sacred Heart, as being religious associations allied to
the Jesuits. There followed the Ma}^ Laws of 1873 dealing with
the training and nomination of the clergy, the disciplinary powers
of ecclesiastical superiors, establishing a secular court for deciding
church matters, and bestowing on it the right, under certain
circumstances, of dismissing the clergy from their posts, setting a
limit to the Church's power of punishing, and laying down rules for
those who desired to leave the Church. So much were these laws
at variance with the constitution, that the two paragraphs (15, 18)
guaranteeing the independence and self-government of the Church
had first to be amended (1873), and finally, together with another
(16), entirely abrogated (1875). Some of these laws were not
absolutely unacceptable. In some of them Prussia was merely
claiming rights which had already been granted to other states by
the Holy See by means of special conventions. The Prussian
episcopate, fearing, however, to acknowledge the competence of
the State to interfere in Church matters, elected to reject the laws
as a whole. First and foremost, they refused to present to the
government the candidates for nomination. As, however; the
government was determined to execute its laws by all the means
at its command, a violent conflict was not long in breaking out.
The bishops and many of the clergy were fined and imprisoned, some
were even removed from their posts, and the May Laws were made
more severe. By the military law Divinity students were deprived
of the privilege which they had so far enjoyed in the matter of
military service (1874). Salaries due from the State to bishops
and episcopal administrators were to remain unpaid until they
had made their written submission to the laws of the State. All
religious Orders and similar religious associations were dissolved,
save only those who devoted themselves to the care of the sick (1875).
A law was passed for the whole Empire enacting that any of the
clergy who refused to submit when ejected from their office by the
secular court might be expelled either from a determined locality,
or even from the whole territory of the Empire (1874). It was
not long before most of the sees and hundreds of parishes were
deprived of their occupants, with results which may well be imagined,-
as no strange priest was allowed to enter the ' closed * parishes,
not even for the purpose of administering the last sacraments.
Great as were the efforts of the government to execute its laws,
they were in vain. The great majority of both clergy and laity
remained loyal to the episcopate, and their power of resistance

The Kulturkampf 247

grew with the progress of the conflict. The Cathohc fraction, the
so-called Centre, at the next elections was returned both to the
Prussian Diet and to the Imperial Parliament in greatly increased
numbers, in one case the number rising from fifty-two to ninety,
and in the other from sixty-three to ninety-one. Led by Ludwig
Windthorst (f 1891), it became each yeds more powerful, and the
government, however unwilling to acknowledge defeat, was at last
compelled to retreat. The death of Pius IX and the accession of
Leo XIII (1878) helped the cause of peace. A twofold attempt
on the life of the emperor William, which followed soon after,
demonstrated that by oppressing the Church, religion, the basis
of social order, had suffered. Three ' novels ' (1880, 1882, 1883)
were issued dealing with the re-establishment of a more regular
diocesan administration, and with the provisional relief of the
more crying needs of the Catholic parishes. The sees were gradually
provided with pastors, the last to be filled being Cologne (1885)

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