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and Posen (1886). Two of the former bishops, in spite of having
been deposed by the State, were allowed to return to their dioceses.
The law on the ' closure ' of parishes, the so-called ' Bread-
basket Law,' was recalled, though it continued to be applied
in the archdiocese of Posen, where, for nationalist reasons, the
government had throughout acted with greater severity than
elsewhere. Diplomatic intercourse between Berlin and Rome
was resumed. Finally, the State renounced its claim to a voice in
the nomination of assistant priests. So far the May Laws remained
practically intact, but a few years later, when the Holy See had
elected to meet half-way the government's demands regarding the
nomination of the clergy, and probably also on account of the
clouds which were gathering on the political horizon, the laws
were to be strikingly amended. In a fourth ' novel ' (1886) the
secular court for the judgment of church matters was abolished,
together with the so-called * Culture examination ' which Divinity
students had been obliged to undergo under State super-
vision, whilst under certain conditions church students were to be
allowed to perform their studies at the seminaries. Yet another
' novel ' (1887) readmitted some of the religious Orders, per-
mitted all priests, save those belonging to Orders not tolerated
in the Empire, to say Mass and to administer the sacraments.
It also enacted that the State should have a right to intervene
only in cases of nominations to permanent cures of souls,
and that, even then, its intervention should be governed by

Under the emperor William II, Catholic church students again
received exemption from military service in time of peace
(1890), the accumulated funds of the dioceses were restored
to their owners (1891), and the Redemptorists were readmitted

248 A Manual of Church History

§ 210
The Missions 1

After having fallen off in the eighteenth century, missionary
activity again became very great in the present period. The
various religious Orders, the Propaganda at Rome, the College
of Foreign Missions and that of the Holy Ghost at Paris con-
tinued to send forth bands of missionaries, and in the course
of time these establishments were joined by yet others. Such
were the seminaries at Milan (1850) and at Lyons (1856), the
societies of the Black Fathers, or Fathers of the Holy Ghost
(1848), of the congregation of the Immaculate Heart of Mary
in Belgium (1863), of Mill-Hill in England (1866), founded by
cardinal Vaughan (11903), of the White Fathers (1868), founded
by cardinal Lavigerie, archbishop of Algiers (f 1892) , of the Divine
Word at Steyl in Holland (1875), and of St. Ottilien in Bavaria
(1884). To collect the funds many missionary associations
were also formed, such as the Association for the Propagation
of the Faith at Lyons (1822), similar associations being The
Xaveriusverein at Aachen (1832), the Leopoldsverein im
Austria (1839), ^^e Ludwigsverein in Bavaria (1839), ^^e
Association of the Holy Child Jesus at Paris (1843), and the
Bonifatiusverein at Paderborn (1849). Missionary zeal was.
displayed in every quarter of the world, nor were the usual
difficulties absent. Missionaries and converts in great numbers,
were found ready to lay down their lives for the Faith.

In the East Indies, where the Portuguese had been gradually
ousted by the English, the old dioceses had fallen into decay, and a.
reorganisation of the Church had become imperative. For the care
of the English provinces, Vicariates-Apostolic were established by
Rome. In 1838 a certain number of the old sees were abolished, and.
as Portugal refused to recognise the change, whilst also declining tc
perform its obligations with respect to the bishops, a long-drawn:
conflict was the result. The Convention of 1857 again settled',
matters on a better footing. In 1886, when the number of Catholics.
in India amounted to some 1,600,000, the archbishopric of Goa was.

1 O. Werner, Kath. Missionsatlas, 2nd ed. 1885 ; Orbis terr. catholicus,.
1890; LouvET, Les missions cath. au XIX« siecle, 1S98 ; Piolet, Les miss..
cath. frafiQ. au XJX^ siecle, 6 vol. 1901-3 ; P. M. Baumgarten, Die kath..
Kirche, III .• das Wirken der k. K. aiif dem Erdenrund, 1902 ; Kath. Missionen,.
Freiburg, 1874 ff. ; Kleffner-Woker, Der Bonifatiusvereiti, 1899,

The Missions 249

granted the dignity of a patriarchate, its metropolitan rights being
reaffirmed over the suffragan sees of Damaun-Cranganor, Cochin, and
St. Thomas-Meliapur ; the Vicariates-ApostoUc of Agra, Bombay,
Verapoly, Calcutta, Madras, Pondichery, and Colombo (Ceylon)
were erected into archbishoprics, thus establishing a hierarchy inde-
pendent of that of Portuguese India. Cp. Archiv. f. KR. 58 (1887),
3-25. In Further India, i.e. in the kingdom of Annam, which was
established in 1802 by the union of Tonking and Cochinchina,
many persecutions had to be undergone. As late as 1885-86
thousands of Christians fell victims to the pagans' hatred.

In China the Christians had much to suffer under the emperor
Kia-King (1795-1820). This was, however, the last organised per-
secution. The mission at this time was rather unfortunately
situated, owing to the lack of workers. Better days dawned after
the treaty of Tien-tsin (1858) and the peace of Peking (i860), the
missioners thereby securing the right of entry into the Celestial
Empire. Of a total population of about 380 millions, the number
of the Christians soon reached 1,155,000. The Chinese continued,
however, to cherish their old hatred of foreigners and Christianity,
and as late as igoo the lives of many missioners and of thousands of
native Christians were sacrificed by the pagans.

In Corea, the peninsula lying to the north-east of China,
Christianity, after having already previously been preached from
Japan, again entered by way of China towards the end of the last
period. It was forthwith subjected to severe persecution, and in
forty years (1800-39), of a Christian population of only 10,000,
no less than 300 died mart\Ts.

Japan, after having remained closed against Christianity for
more than 200 years, again opened its doors to the missioners, at
about the same time as China. By treaties with England and
France (1858) foreigners, i.e. Christians, were to have admittance
to a few ports. In 1862 a church was erected at Yokohama, in 1884
religious freedom was proclaimed throughout the land, and in 1S91
an archbishopric, with three suffragan sees, was established at
Tokio. Of a population of about 50,000,000, Catholics now number
about 60,000.

A new period opened in North Africa with the conquest of
Algiers by the French (1830). Though the Mohammedans have so
far resisted the appeals of Christianity, nevertheless the country,
owing to immigration, has obtained a considerable Christian popula-
tion. Algiers was erected into a bishopric in 1838, and in 1867
became an archbishopric with two suffragan sees. The proclama-
tion of the French protectorate over Tunis (1881) was soon followed
by the re-establishment of St. C5'prian's venerable see at Carthage.

In the Soudan a Vicariate-Apostolic was established in 1846
at the request of the Polish Jesuit Ryllo. Many missions were also
founded at this time and later, on the west, south, and east coasts of
Africa, and on the neighbouring islands. Here the missioners had

250 A Manual of Church History

to face a double difficulty — an unhealthy climate and a besotten popu-
lation — in spite of which they were not discouraged. These regions
form the especial field of work of the associations mentioned at the
commencement of this section.

Australia was discovered by the French as far back as the
sixteenth century, but only in the nineteenth century did it attain
the dignity of an ecclesiastical government of its own. After having
been, since 1818, governed by the Vicariate of Mauritius, the whole
country was placed under a Vicar-Apostolic of its own in 1835. The
Catholic population soon grew ; in 1842 Sidney became an arch-
bishopric with simple sees at Adelaide and Hobart (in Tasmania).
These two were later on erected into metropolitan churches, to-
gether with Melbourne, Brisbane, and in New Zealand, Wellington.
In 1844 the first Provincial Council was held, Plenary Councils also
being held in 1885 and 1895. Moran, Hist, of the Cath. Church in
Australasia, 1896.

§ 211
Relations with the State — Discipline and Worship 1

I, The Revolution and the subsequent secularisation of
her property were heavy blow's to the Church. In France
she lost all, and in Germany a great part of, her wealth. This
wholesale robbery was, however, to conduce to a new birth.
Many a reform which had previously been impossible, owing
to the Church's possessions and to the greed which wealth
ever entails, was now accomplished with scarcely an effort.

The confiscation of monastic property made an end of
commendams and of the abuse, which, in spite of its con-
demnation by the Council of Trent, had prevailed more particu-
larly in France, of bestowing abbacies and priories on seculars.
In France, too, the cessation of the political privileges of the
clergy involved also the cessation of the ecclesiastical privileges
of the nobility. The episcopate was now thrown open to all
without distinction of birth, whereas hitherto only five French
bishoprics were open to commoners. The same happened
with the canonries, which had previously been largely reserved
for the nobles. Little by little the highest classes withdrew
from the Church's service, a fact which shows that they had
hitherto entered the ranks of the Church's ministry, less through

^ Kopp, Die k. Kirche im 19 Jakrh. 1830 ; B. Schafer, Einkeit in Liiurgie
und Disziplin fiir Deutschland, 1891.

Holidays of Obligation 251

vocation than from worldly motives. A like change occurred
in Germany, and was here even more noticeable than in France,
for whereas the French bishops at most could only dispose in
commendam of some one or two abbacies, in Germany it was
no rare thing for a bishop to possess two or three bishoprics.

The clergy also lost their privileges as a class apart. In
France they consented from the beginning to lose their exemp-
tion from taxes. Little by little tithes were abolished, or
rather redeemed, nearly everywhere. The privilege of possess-
ing its own special courts of justice was also suppressed, the
clergy everywhere being placed under the common law of the
land, a change which was recognised by the Holy See, not
indeed unconditionally, but temporum ratione habita, to use
the expression of the Austrian Concordat (1855) and of the
Conventions with Wiirttemberg and Baden (1857, 1859).

In the trial of ecclesiastical cases, more care now began
to be taken to observe the rules as to appeals, the Roman See
frequently deciding the cases referred to it by means of Indices
in partibus. Thereby justice was done to one of the demands
which had been raised in the memorandum of Ems.

II. With regard to worship, the Concordat of 1801 merely
stated that in France the Catholic religion might be freely
practised, and that Catholic worship should also be free so
far as was not detrimental to public order (Art. I). Beyond
this an understanding was also arrived at regarding the number
of festivals, which it was found advisable to diminish yet more.
Besides the Sundays only four festivals were to be observed as
holidays : Christmas, the Ascension, the Assumption, and All
Saints. Some of the others were to be allowed to drop, whilst
the solemnisation of the remainder was to be transferred to the
following Sunday, this being the case with the Epiphany,
Corpus Christi, SS. Peter and Paul, and the patronal feast
(1802).^ This order was to apply throughout the French
Empire as it then existed, in consequence of which it continued
to form the rule not only in France, but also in several countries
then belonging to it, for instance, in Belgium, Luxemburg, and
Dutch Limburg. In the Palatinate and in Hessen-Darm-
stadt, i.e. in the dioceses of Spires and in part of that of Mainz,

^ Decree of the papal legate cardinal Caprara, April 9, 1802 ; Bullarium
Magn. contin., ed. Rom. XI (1846), 323 ff.

252 A Manual of Church History

where for a time it prevailed, it had an after-effect, in that
only five more festivals were re-established (New Year, Corpus
Christi, Easter Monday, Whit-Monday, and Boxing-day). In
other countries similar reductions were undertaken, but as
account was made in each case of special circumstances, the
result was a considerable variety of usage. The suggestion of
the Plenary Council of Baltimore (1852), that in the United
States of North America only the four French festivals should
be observed, was not accepted by Rome, which insisted on
the observance of New Year's Day and of the Immaculate
Conception (1868). ^

III. The fasting discipline was subjected to great alterations,
principally owing to the intermingling of Catholics and Protes-
tants. The Advent fast, which had been ordered at the time
when the festivals were reduced in the eighteenth century
(§ 183, I), does not seem to have secured general obedience.
In the Church province of the Upper Rhine it was abohshed
in 1900. In Germany abstinence came to be observed only
on all Fridays thoughout the year, on Ash- Wednesday, and
on the last three days of Holy Week. In the dioceses of Fulda
and Hildesheim (as in Spain) even the Friday abstinence has
been abolished. In other places abstinence, or even fasting,
continues to be practised on the Ember-days, on the Wednesdays
and Saturdays of Lent, and on the vigils of certain festivals.

IV, Whereas the above reforms issued in great divergencies
of practice, in the matter of the liturgy far greater uniformity
was secured. Though in the Middle Ages, save in a few
Churches, the Roman Liturgy was everywhere followed (§ 100),
in minor details much diversity prevailed. When, in accordance
with the decree of Trent, the Breviary and Missal were revised
at Rome (1568-70), this diversity was recognised, and though
the new Office was imposed generally, an exception was made
for those Churches which, for at least two centuries, had been
in possession of a rite of their own. The reforms undertaken
by many bishops, especially in France, during the seventeenth
and eighteenth centuries, made the differences still greater.
Since the Revolution, however, a strong tendency to unity of rite
has made itself felt, and the war on local liturgies, preached

* Kellner, Heortology, a Hist, of the Christian Festivals, p. 423 ff.

Christian Life and Christian Art 253

by abbot Giieranger in his Instituiions liturgiques (1840-51),
led to the Roman Liturgy being nearly everywhere rigorously
imposed. In France Lyons was the only locality to preserve
its ancient rite.

§ 212
Christian Life and Christian Art

L For a time Christian life continued to feel the numbing
influence of the shallow so-called enlightenment of the eighteenth
century, but, with the passing of the revolutionary storm, a
deeper religious consciousness and also a deeper attachment
to the Church began to take possession of men's hearts. This
change was made apparent in several ways ; for instance, in the
increase of zeal both among the clergy and laity, in greater
loyalty to the Church's superiors, in the more frequent reception
of the sacraments, in the wider support of the work of the
propagation of the Faith, and in an increase of interest in the
temporal and eternal good of the lower classes. And, as great
results can be obtained only by the united action of many
individuals. Christian associations were everywhere called into
being. Besides the missionary societies already spoken of
(§210), the following deserve to be named: the Society of St.
Vincent of Paul, for the support of the poor, founded by eight
students at Paris in 1833 ; the Society of St. Elizabeth, an
association of women and girls, having the same object ; the
Gesellenverein, founded by Kolping at Cologne (1845) ; the
Borromausverein, for the distribution of good books (1845) ;
the Piusverein, founded by provost Lennig at Mainz (1848)
to secure freedom for the Church, and to promote a Christian
spirit ; this association soon spread far and wide through
Germany, and is now the main prop of the Katholikentag, a
general annual congress of all the German Catholic clubs and
associations. From Germany the custom of holding such
meetings has now spread to other lands.

IL The strong upward movement was felt more particularly
in the Arts.i At the end of the Renaissance, true art had sunk
into a sad state of decay, but in the course of the nineteenth
century a new enthusiasm was awakened for the Christian

' For literature, see §§ 157, i8g.

254 ^^ Manual of Church History

art of the past, and with prodigious results in every department
of the beautiful. Numerous ancient churches (for instance,
the cathedral at Cologne) were restored or completed in accord-
ance with their style. Many of the new churches were also
of great artistic merit. Painting and sculpture were also
practised with great success. Among the greatest modern
masters of the former must be reckoned Fr. Overbeck of
Liibeck (f 1869), and P. Cornelius of Diisseldorf (f 1867). In
the plastic arts the Venetian Canova (f 1822) earned great
fame, but was surpassed by the Dane Thorwaldsen (f 1844).
Music also was much improved. K. Ett at Munich (f 1847)
and K. Proske at Ratisbon (f 1861) did much to turn Catholics
against the soft and worldly works of the eighteenth century
and to recall them to the masterpieces of earlier times. This
reform was introduced throughout Germany by the Society of
St. Caecilia, founded in 1868 by F. Witt (f 1888) . The restoration
of Plain Chant was commenced (1840) and pushed forward
by abbot Gueranger of Solesmes (f 1875).

§ 213

Religious Orders and Congregations ^

No small part in the religious restoration was taken by
the religious Orders, which in their turn profited greatly by
the new awakening of Christian life. The Revolution and the
subsequent secularisation made a clean sweep of the monas-
teries and convents, which were then appropriated for otlier
uses, and in some cases even demolished. As soon as the storm
was over juster counsels and a better appreciation of their
work came to prevail. The Sisters of Charity were readmitted
into France by Napoleon (1807), and thence soon spread
throughout the world. The Society of Jesus was re-established
by Pius VII, first in Russia (1801) and in the kingdom of the
Two Sicilies (1805), and then throughout the Church by
the Bull Sollicitudo omnium ecclesiarum (1814). Many of the
Orders succeeded in again obtaining possession of the houses
which they had been forced to quit. Several reforms were also

1 Heimbucher, Die Orden und Kongregationen, 1896-97 ; O. Brauns-
BERGER, Riickhlick auf das kath. Ordenswesen im 19 Jahrh. 1901.

Literature and Controversies 255

introduced. Numerous new Benedictine congregations were
formed, and the nomination of an abbot primate (1893) ensured
the whole Order a greater unity. Most of the Cistercians
adopted the reform of La Trappe, and the monasteries of the
strict observance were formed into a special Order of Reformed
Cistercians or Trappists (1892). The four groups of Franciscan
Observantines (§178) were reunited into a single society (1897).
Several entirely new religious associations also came into
being, most of them devoted to the mission or to education.

The better known foundations of the period are : —

I. The Congregation of Picpus or of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus
and Mary, founded by P. J. Coudrin at Paris (1801), and confirmed
by Pius VII (1817).

II. The Congregation of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate, by
Eugene Mazenod at Marseilles (1816).

III. The Marists (priests), by abbe Colin at Lyons (1816).

IV. The Dames du Sacr6-cceur, founded in 1800 by Sophie
Barat at Paris ; eighty years later the Congregation possessed loi
houses in the Old and New World.

V. The community of the Good Shepherd, which arose through
the union of the houses of the Sisters of Refuge (§186), effected by
Marie Pelletier at Angers in 1835. In 1887 it counted 158 various
settlements in every part of the world.

VI. The Little Sisters of the Poor, founded by J. Jugan at
St. Servan in Brittany (1840) and now very widespread.

VII. The Assumptionists or Augustinians of the Assumption, a
Congregation following the rule of St. Augustine, founded in 1840
by J. d'Alzon, vicar-general of Nimes. The members devote them-
selves especially to the apostolate of the press. Leo XIII also
entrusted them with several missions in the East and with the
task, of promoting the reunion of the Eastern Churches.

VIII. The Salesians or Oratory of St. Francis of Sales, founded
at Turin by Don Bosco for the moral and religious education of boys
(1868), but also devoted to missionary work. The Salesians have
many houses in both Europe and America.

§ 214

Literature and Controversies 1

L To repair the disasters wrought by philosophism and
the Revolution, it was before all else necessary to enliven the

' K. Werner, Gesch. d. k. Th. in Deiitschland, 1866; 2nd ed. 1881); J.
Bellamy, La theo'.ogie au XIX" Steele, 1904. We refrain from mentioning
the scholars who are still engaged in active work.

256 A Manual of Church History

religious consciousness. Especially was this the case in France,
where indifferentism and unbelief had pervaded the whole of
society, and was, even later on, to be mightily furthered by
Renan (f 1892) with his many works, and particularly his Life
of Jesus (1863). Here quite a series of men, endowed with
both zeal and ability, devoted themselves to the task, similar
work being also done in Germany. In the latter country a
great improvement was also manifested throughout the field
of Theology. The centres of this movement were the theological
faculties of the universities, which were afterwards joined by
certain other educational establishments. The Protestant
opposition and its scholarship proved an incentive to Catholic
work, and though the contact between the two was attended
by some evil consequences, on the whole its results were
much to the advantage of both Faith and learning. The
Romance nations, which in the previous period were far ahead
in learning, had now to yield their primacy to the Germans.
The religious Orders and other institutes, which had formerly
been the mainstay of scholarship, had been mostly sacrificed by
the Revolution. The theological faculties, which have proved
so successful in Germany, are scarcely known there, the clergy
being almost in its entirety educated at seminaries, which,
when deprived of competition, are notoriously unfavourable to
original work and research. Since the establishment of the
Catholic Institutes great progress has, however, been made
in France.

We append a list of the best known writers of the period.

I. Apologists : Vicomte de Chateaubriand {Genie du Christianisme,
1802; [Engl. Trans. 1854, 1858]; 11848); count J. de Maistre [Du
pape, 1817 [Engl. Trans. 1850] ; Les soirees de St. Petersbourg, 1821 ;
f 1821) ; the Dominican Lacordaire (f 1861) and the Jesuit Felix
(conferences at Notre Dame, Paris) ; J. A. Mohler {Symbolism or
Exposition of the Doctrinal Differences between Catholics and Pro-
testants as evidenced by their Symbolical Writings (Engl. Trans, by
Robertson, 5th ed. 1906; I1838); Bg. by Kihn, 1885; Knopfler,
1896; G. GoYAU, 1905; J. S. Drey {Apologetik, 3 vol. 1834-47;
f 1853) ; F. Staudenmaier {Der Geist des Christentums, dargestellt in
den heiligen Zeiten, in den h.^Handlungen u. in der h. Kunst, 1835,
8th ed. 1880; t 1856 ; Bg. by F. Lauchert, 1901) ; F. Hettinger
{Apologie des Christentums, 1863; 9th ed. 3 vol., ed. E. Muller,
1906 [Engl. Trans, by H. S. Bowden, Nat. Rel. 1890; Revealed Rel.

Literature and Controversies 257

1895] ; 1 1890) ; P. Schanz {Apologie d. Chr. 3 voJ. 3rd ed. 1903-6
[Engl. Trans. A Christian Apology, 1891] ; ti905) \ H. Schell {Apol.
d. Chr. 2 vol. 1901-5 ; f 1906).

2. Dogmatic Theologians and Historians of Dogma :
H. Klee [Kath. Dogm. 3 vol. 1834-35 ; Dogmengesch. 2 vol. 1837-38 ;
t 1840) ; A. Berlage {Kath. Dogm. 7 vol. 1839-64 ; j 1881) ; J.
Perrone, S.J. {Praelectiones theolog. 9 vol. 1835-42 ; | 1876) ; J. B.
Franzelin, S.J. [Tradatus de sacram. &c., 6 vol. 1868-70 ; f 1886) ;
J. Kuhn {Kath. Dogmatik, 3 vol. 1846-68; 11887) '> J- Scheeben
{Dogmatik, 3 vol. 1873-87; 'Er\^., Manual of Catholic Theology based
on Scheeben' s Dogmatik, ed. Wilhelm and Scannell, 4th ed. 1909;

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