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t 1889) ; J. B. Heinrich {Dogm. Th. 6 vol. 1873-87 ; f 1891) ; J.
Schwane {Dogmengesch. 4 vol. 1862-90; ■|'i892).

3. Moralists and Pastoral Theologians : J. M. Sailer, a
very successful professor who died bishop of Ratisbon (| 1832 ;
WW. 40 vol. 1830-41) ; J. B. Hirscher {Moral, 3 vol. 1835 ; f 1865) ;
K. Werner {Ethik, 3 vol. 1850 ; f 1888) ; F. X. Linsenmann {MTh.
1878; tiSgS).

4. Canonists : F. Walter {Kirchenrecht, 1822 ; f 1879) ; G.
Phillips {KR. 7 vol. 1845-69 ; 1 1872) ; F. Vering {KR. 3rd ed. 1893 ;
1 1896) ; F. Kober (f 1897) ; F. Maassen (f 1900).

5. Exegetists : L. Hug {Einleitimg ins N.T. 2 vol. 1808 ; 4th
ed. 1847 [Engl. Trans. 2 vol. 1827] ; f 1846) ; J. G. Herbst (f 1836),
and B. Welte (f 1885 ; Einleitimg ins A. T. 2 vol. 1840-42) ; D. B.
Haneberg, O.S.B., bishop of Spires {Gesch. der biblischen Offenbarung,
1850 ; Die religiosen Altertiimer der Bibel, 1869 ; 1 1S76) ; P. Schegg
{Leben Jesu, 3 vol. 1874-75 ; Evangelienkommentar, 1856 ff. ; f 1885) ;
P. Vetter (f 1906).

Church Historians and Patrologists : F. L. count zu
Stolberg (cp. § 5; f 1819) ; Bg. by J. J.-xnssen, 1882; J. I.
DoUinger {§§ 6-8) ; K. J. Hefele, from 1869 bishop of Rottenburg
{Konziliengesch. 1855 ff- cp. § 3 ; f 1893) ; K. Hofler (§§ 143, 161 ;
j 1897) ; the cardinals A. Mai {Scriptorum vetenim nova collectio,
10 vol. 1825-38 ; Spicilegiiim Romanum, 1839-44 ; Nova patrum
bibliotheca, 7 vol. 1844-54 ; vol. VIII add. Cozza, 1871 ; f 1854) >
J. B. Pitra {Spicilegium Solesmense, 4 vol. 1852-54 ; Analecta sacra,
6 vol. 1876-88 ; Anal, novissima, 2 vol. 1885-88 ; f 1889) ; the
explorer of the catacombs G. B. de Rossi, § 3, I {Roma sotterranea, 3
fol. 1864-77 (Engl. Abridgment by Northcote and Brownlow,
1869); Bulletino di Archeologia cristiana, 1863-94; 11894);
J. Hergenrother {Photius, 3 vol. 1867-69 ; f 1890) ; J. Janssen (§ 159 ;
t 1891) ; H. Briick (cp. §§ 200-9 : t ^903) ; H. Denifle (§§ 133-59 >
f 1905 ; Bg. by M. Grabmann, 1905, H. Grauert, 1906, 2nd ed.).

Among the best means of cultivating and furthering learning
must be reckoned Periodicals and Encyclopaedias. The nine-
teenth century produced a rich crop of learned re\'ie\vs and
magazines, of which we give a list of tlie principal. For German-
speaking countries : The Theologische Qunrtalschrift, published by



258 A Manual of Church History

the Catholic theological faculty at Tubingen since 1819 ; the
Katholik, published at Mainz since 1821 ; the Archiv fur katholisches
Kirchenrecht (1857), the Zeitschrift fiir kath. Theologie, published by
the Jesuits at Innsbruck since 1877 ; the Historisches Jahrbuch,
published since 1880 under the auspices of the Gorres Society (1876)
for the promotion of learning ; the Studien und Mitteilungen aus dem
Benediktiner-und Cisierzienser-Orden (1880) ; other similar reviews
are no longer published.

In other countries : The Maredsous, Revue Benedictine (1884) ;
the Revue d'histoire ecclesiastique (Louvain, 1899) ; the Revue
d'histoire et de litierature religieuses (Paris, 1896-1908) ; the
Bessarione (Rome, 1896) ; the Dublin Review (London, 1836 ff.) ;
the Irish Ecclesiastical Record (Dublin, 1864 ff.) ; the Irish Theological
Quarterly (Dublin, 1906 ff.), and the American Ecclesiastical Review
(Philadelphia, 1889 ff.).

The greatest and only complete Encyclopaedia yet published
is the Kirchen-Lexikon, edited by H. J. Wetzer and B. Welte, aided
by a number of other scholars (12 vol. 1847-56 ; 2nd ed., ed. F.
Kaulen, 1882-1901). The Dictionnaire de theologie catholique,
edited by A. Vacant and E. Mangenot, is still in course of publica-
tion. On Christian archaeology there is the Real-Encyklopddie der
christlichen Altertiimer, edited by Kraus (2 vol. 1882-86), and a
promising Dictionnaire d'archeologie chretienne et de liturgie, edited
by abbot Cabrol, and now in the course of pubhcation, 1903 ff.
[A Catholic Encyclopcedia is now appearing in America (ed.
C. G. Herbermann, &:c., 1907 ff.).]

II. Among the controversies of the time, that connected with
the name of G. Hermes (of Miinster and Bonn) must be given the
first place. Generalising his own experience in life, he took doubt
as the starting-point of his speculation, and the rigorous demon-
stration of Christianity as its end. His theory exaggerated the
force of reason, mistook the nature of mystery and the meaning of
Faith, and caused some scandal even during his lifetime. After
his death (1831) it was strongly controverted, and was finally
censured by Gregory XVI (1835).

The philosophy of Giinther, a Viennese professor (f 1863 ;
bg. by Knoodt, 2 vol. 1881), shared the same failing, its author
maintaining that the mysteries of Faith can be reached by reason
alone. His view also was censured.

On the other hand, the Traditionahsts fell into the opposite
error, denying that human reason is able to attain even to
the knowledge of God, and reducing all knowledge to revelation
transmitted by tradition. The theory, first forged by de Bonald
(t 1840), was supported chiefly by Bautain at Strasburg. On action
being taken by the bishop of that city he recanted (1840). Cp.
Rheinwald, Acta hist, eccles. saec. XIX, Jahrg. 1835, pp. 305-59 ;
'^^Z7> PP- 68-79.



' German Catholics ' and Old Catholics 259

§ 215
* German Catholics ' and Old Catholics

I. In 1844 the Holy Coat of Treves,^ which had long lain
neglected, was again exposed for the veneration of the Faithful,
who came in their thousands to visit the relic. This occasion
was seized by Johann Ronge, a priest at Laurahiitte in Silesia,
who had been suspended since the previous year, for making
a violent demonstration against Arnoldi, bishop of Treves.
His open letter caused great commotion throughout Germany,
and many Catholics who had fallen away from the Church
declared for Ronge. Simultaneously, Johann Czerski, also a
suspended priest, established a ' Christian Catholic Church '
at Schneidemiihl in the province of Posen, his example being
also followed in other places. In the spring, 1845, the ' German
Catholics,' as they called themselves, were already numerous
enough to hold a synod at Leipzig, at which the papal primacy,
auricular confession, celibacy, and the veneration of saints were
rejected, and a German liturgy introduced, minus the Canon.
The following summer they numbered 170 different communities,
some of which were, however, very small. Thanks to the
support which they received from the Protestants, and thanks
also to the disorders which prevailed in 1848, they were able
to make yet further progress. The hopes which had been built
on them were, however, never destined to be fulfilled, and the
movement soon began to fail. The governments were opposed
to them for their conduct in 1848, whilst the rationalism
favoured by Ronge, and manifested in the general terms of the
profession of Faith published at Leipzig, proved a strong
disintegrating element.

Whilst this movement was gradually being deprived of its
vitality, another one had been occasioned by the Vatican
Council.^ For a time the Old Catholics or opponents of the
new dogma were satisfied with a protest, but in the autumn,

1 Mg. by S. Beissel ; C. Willems, 1891.

- E. Friedberg, Aktenstiicke d. altkath. Bewegung betreffend mit einem
Grundriss d. Gesch. ders. 1876; J. F. Schulte, Der Altkatholizismus, Gesch.
s. Entwicklung, inneren Gestaltung, u. rechil. Stellung, 1887 ; Michael, /. v.
Dollinger, 3rd ed. 1894 : J- Friedrich, item, 3 vol. 1899-1901 ; P. Gschwind,
Gesch. der Entstehung der christkath. K.in der Schweiz,!, 1904; J. M. Reinkens,
Jos. Hub. Reinkens, 1906; Internat. theolog. Z, 1906, pp. 205-19 (bishop Weber).



26o A Manual of Church History

1 87 1, at a congress held at Munich, in spite of the warning given
by DolHnger (fiSgo), the leading spirit of the opposition, it
was decided to form a separate Church. Parishes were estab-
lished in many places, and after the episcopal functions had
been performed for a time by Loos, Jansenist archbishop of
Utrecht, a bishop of their own was chosen in the person of
J. H. Reinkens, a Breslau professor (1873). He was recognised
by the governments in Prussia, Baden, and Hesse as a 'Catholic
bishop,' and in Prussia and Baden the Old Catholics were
promised the partial use of the Catholic churches, and support
out of the funds provided for Catholic worship (1874). Rome,
fearing disorder or possible apostasy, having moreover forbidden
the Catholics to make use of the Simultaneum, i.e. to worship
in churches where the Old Catholics had a right of entry (1875),
the result was that wherever the Old Catholics were sufficiently
numerous to claim their right of entry, the churches practi-
cally became their exclusive property. The movement soon
changed its character, reforms similar to those adopted by the
' German Catholics ' being introduced. Obligatory confession
was abolished in 1874, celibacy in 1878, and a vernacular liturgy
was adopted in 1880. These reforms, especially the abolition
of celibacy, were opposed by many partisans of the movement,
particularly by the better elements. Reinkens (f 1896) was
succeeded by Th. Weber (f 1906), and the latter by Demmel.

In Switzerland, too,i the opposition to the Vatican Council
was responsible for the establishment of a separate, so-
called ' Christian Catholic ' Church. Here the movement was
patronised by the Bernese government. An Old Catholic
Faculty of Theology was erected at the University of Bern
(1874), and E. Herzog, one of its members, was elected bishop
(1876).

' G. VERMOT,Le Vieux-catholicisme en Suisse, Revue de Fribourg, Sept. 1902.



CHAPTER II

PROTESTANTISM 1

§216

Alliances, Tendencies, and Sects

I. The Protestant denominations, which thus far had
been anything but amiably disposed to each other, now
began to draw together. In comparison with the profound
differences of opinion excited by the progress of rationalism
between members of one and the same confession, the
old differences prevailing between the two great Protestant
bodies began to appear petty. As a consequence, in Germany
at least, the outlook of reunion began to appear more promising.
In the event, a Union ^ was realised, so far as a large portion
of the country was concerned, first by a General Sj^nod at
Nassau in the summer, 1817, and then, at a summons of
Frederick William III, throughout Prussia and other states.
The old separatist spirit was not, however, yet dead. On the
introduction into Prussia of a new mode of worship conform-
able with the Union, there was, particularly in Silesia, an
outburst of the old Lutheran spirit, and so little disposed
were the natives to compromise, even when subjected to
persecution, that Frederick William IV (1841) was at last
compelled to allow the so-called Old Lutherans to erect them-
selves into a special denomination, with its centre at Breslau.
As certain differences oi opinion continued to prevaileven among

' E. JoRG, Gesch. d. Protest, in seiner nextesten Entwickhmg, 2 vol. 1858 ;
DoLLiNGER, Kirche und Kirchen, 1861 (Engl. Trans. The Church and the
Churches, or the Papacy and the Temporal Power, 1862) ; Chr. Tischhauser,
Gesch. der evangel. K. Deutschlands in der ersten Halfte des 19 Jahrh. 1900;
K. Matthes, Allg. k. Chroviik, 1855 ff.

- J. G. ScHEiBEL, Aktenmdss. Gesch. d. Union, 2 vol. 1834 '> Th. Wance-
MANN. Sieben Biicker preuss. KG. 3 vol. 1859.



262 A Manual of Church History

the friends of the Union, the same sovereign also summoned
a General Synod to meet at Berlin (1846) to decide the matters
at issue. The attempt was, however, a failure. The formula
of ordination which was drafted by the synod, by its generality
made too great concessions to unbelief to be ratified by the
pious king.

Whilst doctrinal differences between the two sects were
on the wane, they were threatened by a new danger. Ever
since the birth of rationalism, the Protestant world, particu-
larly in Germany, was split into two camps, that of belief and
that of unbelief, this being true not only of the laity — for
even in Catholic countries great masses of the laity were
infected with freethought — but also of the clergy. This
division of minds was soon to be outwardly manifest. The
Evangelical Alliance, founded by the Scot, Robert Chalmers,
in London (1846), was to comprise in a kind of federation
all believing Protestants throughout the world. The more
orthodox German Protestants also formed their Evangelical
Kirchenbund, meeting in annual congress (1848). On the
other hand, the freethinking party, led by a lawyer Bluntschli
at Heidelberg, and by the court -preacher Schwarz at Gotha,
established a Protestantenverein (1863), of which the aim was
to reform the Protestant Church in the spirit of Evangelical
freedom and in accordance with modern progress. The
latter association assumed so strong an attitude in denying
the supernatural character of Christianity, that the official
Church was several times compelled to take action against
its members, and to displace and otherwise penalise those
clergymen connected with it.

In spite of the differences prevailing between the Protestants
themselves being far greater than those between Protestantism
and Catholicism, when it became a question of opposing the
Catholics, the Protestants were all of one mind and one heart.
This was proved at the celebrations in honour of Luther in
1817 and 1883. The Gustav-Adolf-Verein, founded in 1832 at
Leipzig, and now widespread in the land, is a federation of
Protestants of every shade of opinion, of which the main
task is to support necessitous communities in Catholic
parts. The Evangelischer Bund, which owed its origin to the
dissatisfaction caused by the upshot of the Kulturkampf,



High, Low and Broad Church 263

and to dread of the growth in both numbers and im-
portance of the CathoHc Church (1887), is even more exphcitly
hostile.

II. England,! after the power of the EstabUshed Church
had been curtailed, and both Dissenters (1828) and Catholics
(1829) had secured the right of admittance to Parhament,
and to hold office, was greatly excited by what is variously
known as Puseyism, Tractarianism, or the Oxford Movement.
In their dissatisfaction with the Church of England, numerous
persons felt drawn to Catholicism. The centre of the move-
ment was at Oxford, the chiefs of the party were Pusey (t 1882)
and Newman,- and their principal instrument the 'Tracts
for the Times ' (beginning in 1833), by which they were able
to reach a far wider circle. To some extent the supporters
of the movement differed. Whereas some considered it their
first duty to lay stress on the primitive faith and obedience,
others, the Ritualists, saw salvation in the restoration of
Catholic ceremonial, in fine churches, richly decorated altars,
and added solemnity of ritual. Nor was opposition to the
movement wanting, especially in the ranks of the Low Church-
men, so strongly represented among the middle classes. The
rigorous Protestant party, far from desiring an increase of
ceremonial, would have preferred the abolition even of those
elements of Catholic worship which had been retained in the
Church of England. Still more vehement did the opposition
become when the Tractarians, in considerable numbers, went
further, and became converts to the Church, particularly
when Newman, one of the most striking English writers of
the century, took the same step (f 1890). Not long after,
the Church of England was disturbed by a totally different
current of opinion. The Broad Church party was the embodi-
ment of a movement which aimed at a greater measure of
freedom of thought, and which received fitting expression
in the Oxford Essays and Reviews (1866). Though this work
called forth thousands of protests, the deep-seated difference
which it revealed was not thereby removed.

' R. W. Church, The Oxford Movement, 1835-45, 1891 ; \V. Ward, W. G.
Ward and the Oxford Movement, 1 889.

- Bg. by R. H. HuTTON, 1891 : L. Faure, 1901 ; Barry, 1904; H.
Brkmond, 1906 ; W. Meynell, 1907.



264 A Manual of Church History

III. Among the sects of the time, nearly all of which hold
millenarian hoi)CS, the most remarkable are :^

{a) The Irvingites, or the Catholic Apostolic Church, as they
style themselves, a modern form of Montanism, their founder,
E. Irving, a Presbyterian minister in London (f 1834), having
preached the renewal of the charismata of the early Church, and the
near return of the Lord to establish the kingdom of a thousand
years. Outside of England they found followers, more particularly
in Germany, where they even secured a convert of some distinction
in the theologian Thiersch at Marburg. Cp. Oliphant, The Life of
E. Irving, 3rd ed. 1865 ; Th. Kolde, Edward Irving, 1901 ; E.
Miller, Hist, and Doctrine of Irvingism, 2 vol. 1878 ; G. Seesemann,
Die Lehre der Irvingianer, 1881.

{h) The Mormons, or Latter-Day Saints, were founded by
Joseph Smith. Their principal sacred book is the Book of Mormon
(pubhshed by Smith in 1830), purporting to have been written on
plates of gold by Mormon — a prophet of the Israelites who had
settled in America after the Confusion of Tongues — and by his son
Moroni (a.d. 424). After having been forced to quit the States
of Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois — Smith himself and his brother
Hyram being shot dead by the populace (1844) — they sj^ent two
years wandering through the mountains (the so-called Wanderings
of the Desert), and finally settled in the West in the valley of the
Great Salt Lake in Utah, where their new chief, the carpenter
Brigham Young (f 1877), estabhshed a kind of theocratic state.
They consider polygamy in the light of a religious duty, and share
with the Irvingites the belief in a renewal of the Apostolic gifts
and in the near Coming of the Lord. As for the rest, their rehgion is
an odd medley of superstitions borrowed from every source. Poly-
gamy was ultimately prohibited in the United States by a decree
of Congress (1884). This the Mormon president Taylor (1877-87)
evaded by retiring to an unknown place. In 1890 the president of
the Mormons publicly pronounced against polygamy. Mg. by
Th. Olshausen, 1856 ; M. Busch, 1869 ; R. von Schlagintweit,
1874 ; W. Linn, 1902.

(c) The German Templars (or Templists), founded by
Christopher Hoffmann (f 1885), were to unite the Faithful in a nation
of God's own. The first settlement was established at Kirschen-
hardthof, near Marbach in \^'urttemberg, and since 1868 several
colonies have settled in Palestine. Cp. Palmer, Die Geniein-
schaften und Sel^ten Wiiritembergs, 1877.

{d) The Salvation Army, a form of Methodism with a military
organisation, founded in London by W. Booth (1865), with the
object of winning over the lower classes. Of late, divisions
of the Army have been sent to effect the conquest of North
America, France, and other countries. Cp. KL. V, 1632-47 ;
J. Fehr, Die Heilsarmee, 1891 ; Th. Kolde, item, 2nd ed.
1899.



Protestant Missions 265

§ 217
Home and Foreign Missions 1

In the previous period the conversion of the heathen world had
been left almost wholly to the goodwill of the Catholics. The only
Protestant efforts deserving mention were the foundation of the
missionary college at Copenhagen by Frederick IV of Denmark
(1714) and the zeal shown by the Herrnhuters, who, not long
after their first establishment, sent missioners into various
lands, particularly to Greenland, to effect the conversion of
the Eskimos, among whom, even previously, the Norwegian
Hans Egede (1721) had worked with the licence and support
of the Danish Missionary Society. -

In the present period, however, the missionary activity
shown by the Protestants has been enormous. No less than
seventy different missionary societies have come into being,
forty-five in Great Britain and North America and twentj-five
on the European continent.

Of these the most important are the English Baptist Society
(1792), the London Missionary Society (1795), the Wesleyan
Methodist Missionary Society (1814), the American Board
of Foreign IMissions (Boston, 1810), and the societies of Basel
(1816), Berlin (1823), and Barmen (1829). The total annual
subscriptions in 1881 amounted to £1,120,000 and have greatly
increased since. The number of neophytes then being cared
for was estimated at about two millions. These missions
are spread over the whole world, but they have met with
especial success in Polynesia, or the islands of the Pacific
Ocean, especially in the Sandwich (Hawai), Society (Tahiti),
and Friendly Islands, and also in South and West Africa, and
in the African islands, especially in Madagascar, where, in
1869, Queen Ranavalona adopted the Evangelical tenets.
Notwithstanding this, it may be questioned whether results

' Kalkar, Gesch. d. chr. M. (from the Danish), 2 vol. 1879-S0 ; Warneck,
Ahriss einer Gesch. d. prot. M. 3rd ed. 1905 ; Eppler, Gesck. der Easier Mission
1815-99, 1900; Th. Schafer, Die ueibl. Diakonie, 3 vol. 1S79-83, KL. Ill,
1678-92.

- To the above may be added the English Society for the Promotion of
Christianity among the Indians (of North America), 1649, and the Society for
the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (1698), now represented by the
S.P.C.K. (Trans.).



266 A Manual of Church History

have been commensurate with the vast expense. However
this may be, and though in this respect the Protestants have
failed to be as successful as the Catholics, the great efforts
which they have displayed deserve a word of praise, particu-
larly as it would be unjust to make the measure of success
a mere matter of finance. It can, however, only be regretted
that the rivalry prevailing between Catholics and Protestants,
and between the different Protestant sects, should have to a
large extent neutralised the efforts made, instead of proving
an incentive to either side to work more earnestly for their
common aim, the conversion of the heathen.

Owing to the rehance placed by Protestantism on the
written word, it has ever sought to effect conversions through
the Bible. For the diffusion of Holy Writ there was estab-
lished in London in 1804 the great British and Foreign Bible
Society, which was soon joined by numerous smaller associa-
tions. Similar societies were founded at Berhn in 1814 and
at New York in 1817. In the course of the nineteenth century
it is said that altogether some 180,000,000 Bibles, in 324
various languages, were distributed. In this case, again, it
can scarcely be claimed that results have corresponded with
the outlay. The very fact that the Bibles thus distributed
are unaccompanied by any explanations, proves the small
use of the practice, seeing that those very classes which the
Bible Societies are anxious to reach, are the least likely to
understand Scripture without additional help.

In spite of this it was the societies' intention b}- distributing^
Bibles, not only to convert the heathen, but to promote the
Faith among those already Christians, i.e. to serve the cause
not only of the foreign, but also of the home missions. It
was this latter object which also inspired the labours of J. H.
Wichern (f 1881), the founder of the Rauhes Haus at Horn near
Hamburg, a house of rescue which became a model of many
similar foundations both in and out of Germany. The Institute
of Deaconesses, founded by Pastor FHedner at Kaiserswerth
near Diisseldorf (1836), has also done much good work, in
nursing the sick and performing other services. This institute,
nevertheless, stands far behind its Catholic model, the Sisters
of Charity, not only as regards its membership, but even in the
self-sacrifice and devotion to duty of its members.



Protestant Theology 267

§ 218

Protestant Theology *

Throughout this period, and particularly in Germany,
great zest was shown in the prosecution of theological studies.
To a great extent this was the result of the altered conditions
of Protestantism. Rationalism had destroyed the faith of
many and had brought to the fore the principle of free-
research, in itself a great stimulus to learning. On the other
hand, the opposition of old and new also proved an incentive
to study. One party took for its task the search for new
truth, the other the defence of the Faith against its modem
opponents. The consequence of this diversity of attitude was
that, whilst some theologians continued to abide by the creeds
and to uphold at least the supernatural character of Christianity
and the Divine Nature of its Founder, others pushed denial
to its furthest limits, whilst yet others strove to find a via
media.

The first man of importance, and in a sense the founder of



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