F. X. von (Franz Xaver) Funk.

A manual of church history (Volume 2) online

. (page 27 of 34)
Online LibraryF. X. von (Franz Xaver) FunkA manual of church history (Volume 2) → online text (page 27 of 34)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


modern Protestant theology, was F. C. D. Schleiermacher at
Berlin (f 1834). Though he had begun by sacrificing all the
doctrines which contemporary rationalism denounced as untenable,
even to doubting God's personality and the immortality of the
soul, and though, even later, he never really succeeded in rising
above the standpoint of Naturalism, yet his influence in an age
of unbelief was very great. With great eloquence and persuasion
he insisted that religion is the immediate sentiment of the infinite
and eternal, and as such praiseworthy ; he also consented to acknow-
ledge in Christ the Redeemer of mankind, seeing that consciousness
of the Divine had reached its highest point in Him, and that,
owing to it. He had contributed to the freeing of the human race.
Schleiermacher's chief works were the Reden ither die Religion an
die Gehildeten unter ihren Verdchtern (1799) and Der christliche Glaube
(1821-22). WW. 30 vol. 1835-65. Mg. by DiLTHEY, 1870 ; W.
Bender, 2 vol. 1876-78.

At about this same time Hegel (fi83i) was at the height of
his popularity. Owing to the esteem in which his philosophy was

' O. Pfleiderer, Die Entwicklung der protest. Tlieologie in Deutschland
seit Kant und in Grossbrit. seit 1825, 1891 (Engl. Trans. Development of Theol.
in Germany since Kant and its progress in Xireat Britain since 1825, iSgo) ;
F. H. R. VON Frank, Gesch. und Kritik der neueren Theologie, 3rd ed. 1898 ;
F. Hettinger, Djc ' Krisis desChristentiims,' ProtestaKtismus und kath. Kirche,
1881,



268 A Manual of Church History

held, not a few theologians embraced it under the impression that
no real opposition existed between it and the Faith. The dogmatic
writings of Marheinecke (j 1846) are wholly impregnated with
Hegelianism.

How unfounded this impression was became evident on the
publication by D. Fr. Strauss of his Life of Jesus (1835-36), in
which the history of Christ was explained as a myth which had
originated among the early Christians. His work, which within
five years passed through four more editions, and was later on to
be again published in a popular edition (1864), threw the whole
theological world into confusion. Many took up the cudgels on
behalf of the Faith, but, on the other hand, new supporters of
Naturalism also took the field, among whom the name of one
is epoch-making in the history of Protestant Theology.

F. Chr. Baur of Tubingen (f i860 ; cp. KL. H, 64-75) indeed
did not scruple to blame Strauss for having attempted to write a
history of Christ without having first devoted himself to the
criticism of the Gospels. In the rejection of supernaturahsm he
was, however, in thorough agi'eement with his predecessor, and
by his criticism of the canon of the New Testament he, more than
anyone else, promoted the spread of unbelief. It is true that
before him Schleiermacher and de Wette (f 1849) had denied or
questioned the authenticity of certain biblical writings. Baur,
Iiowever, went further, and rejected nearly the whole of the New
Testament, granting an apostolic origin only to the four great
Pauline Epistles and to the Apocalypse. The master's disciples
and adherents modified this theory in many details, increasing the
aumber of Apostolic works, or, at least, pushing further back their
date of composition. On the whole, nevertheless, the influence of
the theory was both widespread and lasting. It now forms the
scientific basis of the Free Protestant Theology, to give its new
name to the movement which was formerly known as Rationalism.
Among its adepts were R. Rothe (11867), D. Schenkel (f 1885),
K. Schwarz (t 1885), A. Schweizer (ti888), K. Hase (11890), R. A.
Lipsms (t 1892), K. Weizsacker (f 1899).

Confident as the critics were of having already won the battle
against Faith, the latter was by no means dead. Romanticism and
the soul-stirring political events which had introduced the period
predisposed people to belief, nor was there ever a failure of learned
and determined advocates of Christianity. They were now, however,
no longer unanimous, being divided into Old and New Lutherans,
the latter acknowledging only the word of God as represented in
Holy Writ, the former also cherishing the authority of the Protestant
Creeds. The best-known names are those of A. Neander — the
father of modern enlightened Pietism (f 1850) — and E. W. Heng-
stenberg (f 1869) at Berlin, A. Tholuck at Halle (f 1877), J. Chr. K.
Hofmann at Erlangen (t 1877), and J. T. Beck at Tubingen (f 1878 ;
bg. by RiGGENBACH, 1888).



Belief and Unbelief 269

As for the intermediate school of Theology, it indeed refuses
to acknowledge fully the supernatural character of Christianity,
whilst, however, refraining from dogmatic denial. It seeks to give
Christ as high a place as possihle, agreeing to describe him as a
prophet sent by God and filled with the Divine spirit. Of the Gospel
miracles it also retains at least the cures. The chief representatives
of this movement, between whom, however, great divergencies exist,
were K. J. Nitzsch (f 1868), J. Muller (f 1878), K. Ullmann (f 1865),
J. A. Dorner (f 1884). A. Ritschl (f 1889), too, deserves a place here,
though in his hands the theory assumed a new shape, and also
received a better foundation. His disciples are now very numerous.
His great work was Justification and Reconciliation (Engl. Trans.
1872). Bg. by O. Ritschl, 2 vol. 1892-96 ; A. E. Garvie, The
Ritschlian Theology, 1899.

Other noteworthy and voluminous writers were : H. A. W.
Meyer (f 1873) with his critico-exegetical commentary on the New
Testament (16 vol. 1829 ff.), frequently re-edited by other scholars ;
K. von Tischendorf, the Bible critic (f 1874) ; J. B. Lightfoot
{Epistles of St. Paul : The Apostolic Fathers ; f 1889).

From out of a great number of periodicals the following may
be selected : Theologische Studien und Kritiken (since 1828) ;
Zeitschrift fiir historische Theologie (1832-75) ; Zeitschrift fiir
Kirchengeschichte (1877) ; Theologische Jahrbiicher (1842-56) ;
Zeitschrift fiir wissenschafiliche Theologie (1857) ; Jahrbiicher fiir
deutsche Theologie (1856-78) ; Jahrbiicher fiir protcstantische
Theologie (1875-92) ; Zeitschrift fiir Theologie und Kirche (1891) ;
Theologischer Jahresbericht (1881 ff.) ; the Journal of Theol. Studies
(London, 1899 ff.), the Church Quarterly Review (London, 1875 ff.),
the American Journal of Theol. (Chicago, 1897 ff.), the Princeton Theol.
Review (Philadelphia, 1890 ff.). and the independent Hibbert Journal
(London, 1902 ff.). A Real-Encyklopddie fiir protcstantische Theologie
und Kirche has been edited by J. J. Herzog (21 vol. 1854-68), 3rd
ed. 1896 ff. (cp. Schaff-Herzog, Religious Encyclopcedia, 1882).
W. Smith and G. Wace also issued a Dictionary of Christian
Biography, Literature, Sects, and Doctrines (4 vol. 1877-88), and
J. H. Blunt a Dictionary of Sects, Heresies, &c., 1874.

§219

Belief and Unbelief 1

Whilst during this period faith was again displaying its
power of adaptation, unbelief was also gaining ground, and
whereas in the previous period its inroads had been confined
to the higher classes, it now carried its attack into the ranks

' W. Studemund, Der moderne Unglauhe in den unleren Sldnden, 1901 ;
Hist.-polt Bl. 1901, vol. 127, fasc. 8-9.



270 A Manual of Church History

of the proletariate. In France the Revolution was responsible
for atheism being declared the rehgion of the State, and though
this condition of things did not last, its effects were to be
experienced long after. Ever since, unbelief has reigned
supreme throughout large sections of the French population.
In Germany, too, since the middle of the nineteenth century,
it has been steadily increasing, industrial development and
the war now beginning between labour and capital greatly
contributing to its progress. The labour leaders were all of
them enemies of Christianity. Their views, spread abroad
by word of mouth and by the press, soon reached the masses,
who received it all the more willingly because they had been
told not only that the Christian Faith had been disproved
by science, but that it was a hindrance to the establishment
of that new order of society which Social Democracy stands
pledged to introduce. The extent to which such a view
has pervaded society may be gauged by electoral results,
even making all due allowances for the fact that many who
belong to the party do not share its antipathy to all reUgion.
The number of Social Democrats elected to the imperial Parlia-
ment and to the various diets and local councils has steadily
grown from year to year. It is now the most numerous non-
CathoHc party in Germany, and it is no secret that it has now
obtained the support of a large part of the Catholic population.
Society is everywhere, in greater or lesser degree, split
into two camps, and though that of the believers remains
by far the larger, the other has greatly gained in strength.
The opposition between the two has already led to conflict,
possibly worse awaits us in the future. What the ultimate
upshot will be cannot be foretold, but of one thing we may
be sure, the new social order will be the less hkely to bring
happiness the less room it gives to Him without whom there
is no salvation {Acts iv. 12).

§ 220

Conclusion

Christians in the course of the centuries have separated
into many societies. Some of these societies, after existing for
a time, have perished ; others have survived to the present



Conclusion 271

day. The greatest rent occurred in the eleventh and in
the sixteenth century. In the former case West and East were
split asunder ; in the latter a large portion of the West severed
its connection with the Church of Rome, the schism extending
even to the new world which had just been discovered, and
of which Catholics and Protestants took divided possession.

These schisms cannot but be a subject for grief. The
heart of the true Christian yearns not for schism, but for
union, mindful of the injunction of Scripture, ' Careful to
keep the unity of the spirit, the bond of peace. One body,
one spirit, as you are called in one hope of your calling, one
Lord, one faith, one baptism, one God and Father of all,
who is above all, and through all, and in us all' {Eph.iv. 3-6).
For the West the greater misfortune was the schism of the
sixteenth century, yet, however regrettable, it was not without
wholesome results. It has often been questioned whether,
had it not occurred, a reform of the Church would have been
possible. To return a simple negative to the question would
indeed be to despair of the Church's vitality and of Providence.
On the other hand, there can be no doubt that the reforms
were far too long delayed, and that they were introduced only
when the Church had been shaken to her foundations, and
when a large fraction of the world had already abandoned
her in disgust. History also shows us that the wholesale
apostasy not only preceded, but actually caused the reforms
within the Church ; hence there can be no doubt that the
Church's improvement is closely bound up with the Protestant
Reformation.

Protestantism had also still more far-reaching results.
The Catholic Church, being now faced in the West by another,
determined to gain in strength what she had lost in numbers.
To the new-found solidarity of the whole Catholic Church must
be ascribed the fact that since the Reformation there has
been no schism, whilst the papal elections have been performed
in the greatest good order. Even the mingling with Pro-
testant sects, which has replaced the previous exclusivencss,
has not proved an unmitigated evil, in spite of some bad
results. In those countries in which this is the case. Catholic
life, at least at the present day, throbs more vigorously than
where the old circumstances still prevail. The fact is too



272 A Manual of Church History

patent to require proof, nor is its explanation far to seek;
the existence of an opposition is naturally, to every denomina-
tion, an incentive to good behaviour, and to the display of
additional zeal.

Seen in this Hght, recent developments tend to assume
an appearance somewhat less unsatisfactory. Yet, when
all is said, schism must still be deemed an evil ; this feeling
is widespread, not only among the Catholics but even among
the Protestants. Division amongst Christians is, however, a
reality, and such it is likely to remain for long. Under these
circumstances, we must perforce console ourselves with the
considerations already adduced, never, however, losing con-
fidence in the Church's Founder, who, though He seems to lead
His children by dark ways, continues unceasingly to extend
over the Church His protecting hand, true to His parting
promise to His disciples : ' I am with you all days, even to
the consummation of the world ' {Matt, xxviii, 20).



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLES



I. THE POPES



I.


St. Peter


t67


33-


Silvester I


314-35


2.


St. Linus


67-79 (?)


34-


St. Mark


336


3-


St. Anencletus


79-90 (?)


35-


St. Julius I


337-52


4-


St. Clement I


90-99 (?)


36.


Liberius


352-66


5-


St. Evaristus


99-107 (?)




Felix II


355-65


6.


St. Alexander


107-16 (?)


37-


St. Damasus I


366-84


7-


St. Xystus (Six-






Ursinus


36^-67




tus) I


116-25 (?)


38.


St. Siricius


384-99


8.


St. Telesphorus


125-36 (?)


39-


St. Anastasius I


399-401


9-


St. Hyginus


136-40 (?)


40.


St. Innocent I


401-17


lO.


St. Pius I


i40-54,5(?)


41.


St. Zosimus


417-18


II.


St. Anicetus


154. 5-66


42.


St. Boniface I


418-22


12.


St. Soter


166-174




Eulalius


418-19


13-


St. Eleutherus


174-89


43-


St. Celestine I


422-32


14.


St. Victor


189-98


44.


St. Sixtus III


432-40


15-


St. Zephyrinus


198-217


45-


St. Leo I


440-61


16.


St. Callixtus


217-22


46.


St. Hilary


461-68




Hippolytus


217-35


47-


St. Simplicius


468-83


17-


St. Urban I


222-30


48.


St. Felix II (III)


483-92


18.


St. Pontian


230-35


49.


St. Gelasius I


492-96


19.


St. Anterus


235-36


50.


St. Anastasius II


496-98


20.


St. Fabian


236-50


51-


St. Symmachus


498-514


21.


St. Cornelius


251-53




Lawrence


498-505




Novatian


251-5S (?)


52.


St. Hormisdas


514-23


22.


St. Lucius I


253-54


53-


St. John I


523-26


23-


St. Stephen I


254-57


54-


St. Fehx III (IV)


52(^30


24.


St. Xystus (Six-




55-


St. Boniface II


530-32




tus) II


257-58




Dioscorus


530


25-


St. Dionysius


259-68


56.


John II (Mer-




26.


St. Felix I


269-74




curius)


533-35


27.


St. Eutychian


275-83


57-


St. Agapetus I


535-36


28.


St. Caius


283-96


58.


St. Silverius


536-37


29.


St. Marcellin


296-304


59-


Vigilius


537-55


30-


St. Marcellus I


308-9


60.


Pelagius I


556-61


31-


St. Eusebius


309 or 310


61.


John III


561-74


32.


St. Miltiades




62.


Benedict I


575-79




(Melchiades)


311-14


63.


Pelagius II


579-90



• Cp. KL. 2nd ed. vol. IX, 1424-42, where the exact length of each
pontificate is clearly indicated. Z. V. Lobkowitz, Statistik der Pdpste auf
Grund des Papstverzeichnisses der Gerarchia Cattolica, 1905,

vol. ir. 7



^74



A Manual of Church History



64.


St. Gregory I


590-604


1 10.


Stephen V


885-91


65-


Sabinian


G04-6


III.


Formosus


891-96


66.


Boniface III


607


112.


Boniface VI


896


67.


St. Boniface IV


608-15


113-


Stephen VI


896-97


68.


St. Deusdedit


615-18


114.


Romanus


897


69.


Boniface V


619-25


115-


Theodore II


897


70.


Honorius I


625-38


116.


John IX


898-900


71-


Severinus


640


117.


Benedict IV


900-903


72.


John IV


640-42


118.


Leo V


903


73-


Theodore I


642-49


119.


Christopher


903-4


74-


St. Martin 1


649-53


120.


Sergius III


904-11


75-


St. Eugene I


654-57


121.


Anastasius III


911-13


76.


St. Vitahan


657-72


122.


Lando


913-14


77-


Adeodatus


672-76


123.


John X


914-28


78.


Donus


676-78


124.


Leo VI


928


79-


St. Agatho


678-81


125.


Stephen VII


929-31


80.


St. Leo II


682-83


126.


John XI


931-35


81.


St. Benedict II


684-85


127.


Leo VII


936-39


82.


John V


685-86


128.


Stephen VIII


939-42


83-


Conon


686-87


129.


Marinus II


942-46




Theodore


687


130.


Agapetus II


946-55




Paschal


687-92 (?)


131-


John XII


955-64


84.


St. Sergius


687-701


132.


Leo VIII


963-65


85-


John VI


701-5


133-


Benedict V


964


86.


John VII


705-7


134-


John XIII


965-72


87.


Sisinnius


708


135-


Benedict VI


973-74


88.


Constantine I


708-15




Boniface VII




89.


St. Gregory II


715-31




(Franco)


974


90.


St. Gregory III


731-41


136.


Benedict VII


974-83


91.


St. Zachary


741-52


137-


John XIV


983-84




Stephen


752


138.


Boniface VII


984-85


92.


Stephen II


752-57


139-


John XV


985-96


93-


St. Paul I


757-67


140.


Gregory V


996-99




Constantine II


767-68




John XVI


997-98




Philip


768


141.


Silvester H


999-1003


94-


Stephen III


768-72


142.


John XVII


1003


95-


Adrian I


772-95


143-


John XVIII


1003-9


96.


St. Leo III


795-816


144.


Sergius IV


ioog-i2


97-


Stephen IV


816-17


145-


Benedict VIII


1012-24


98.


St. Paschal I


817-24




Gregory


1012


99.


Eugene II


824-27


146.


John XIX


1024-32


100.


Valentine


827


147.


Benedict IX


1032-44


lOI.


Gregory IV


827-44


148.


Silvester III


1045




John


844


149.


Gregory VI


1045-46


102.


Sergius II


844-47


150.


Clement II


1046-47


103.


St. Leo IV


847-55


151-


Damasus II


1048


104.


Benedict III


855-58


152.


St. Leo IX


1049-54




Anastasius


855


153-


Victor II


1055-57


105.


St. Nicholas I


858-67


154-


Stephen IX


1057-58


106.


Adrian II


867-72


155-


Benedict X


1058-59


107.


John VIII


872-82


156.


Nicholas II


1058-61


108.


Marinus I


882-84


^57-


Alexander II


1061-73


109.


Adrian III


884-85




Honorius II


1061-69



The Popes



275



158.


St. Gregory VII


1073-85


198


Benedict XII


1334-42




Clement III


I 084-1 100


199


Clement VI


1342-52


159-


Victor III


1087


200


Innocent VI


1352-62


160.


Urban II


1088-99


201.


Urban V


1362-70


161.


Paschal II


1099-1118


202.


Gregory XI


1370-78




Theodoric


I 100-2


203.


Urban VI


1378-89




Albert


1 102




Clement VII


1378-94




Silvester IV


1105-11


204.


Boniface IX


1389-1404


162.


Gelasius II


1 1 18-19




Benedict XIII 1394-1424




Gregory VIII


1 1 18-21


205.


Innocent VII


1404-6


163.


Calixtus II


1 1 19-24


206.


Gregory XII


1406—15


164.


Honorius II


1124-30


207.


Alexander V ' •


1409-10




Celestine II


1 124


208.


John XXIII •


1410-15


165.


Innocent II


1130-43


209.


Martin V


1417-31




Anacletus II


1130-38




Clement VIII


1424-29




Victor IV


1138




Benedict XIV


1424 . . . ?


166.


Celestine II


1143-44


210.


Eugene IV


1431-47


167.


Lucius II


1144-45




Felix V


1439-49


168.


Eugene III


1145-53


211.


Nicholas V


1447-55


169.


Anastasius IV


1153-54


212.


Calixtus III


1455-58


170.


Adrian IV


1154-59


213.


Pius II


1458-64


171.


Alexander III


I 159-8 I


214.


Paul II


1464-71




Victor IV


1159-64


215-


Sixtus IV


1471-84




Paschal III


1164-68


216.


Innocent VIII


1484-92




Calixtus III


1168-79


217.


Alexander VI


1492-1503




Innocent III


1179-80


218.


Pius III


1503


172.


Lucius III


1 181-85


219.


Juhus II


1503-13


173-


Urban III


1185-87


220.


Leo X


1513-21


174.


Gregory VIII


1 187


221.


Adrian VI


1522-23


175-


Clement III


1 187-91


222.


Clement VII


1523-34 !> J -


176.


Celestine III


1 191-98


223.


Paul III


1534-49 \yXt^-
1550-55


177.


Innocent III


1198-1216


224.


Juhus III


178.


Honorius III


1216-27


225-


Marcellus II


1555


179.


Gregory IX


1227-41


226.


Paul IV


1555-59


180.


Celestine IV


1241


227.


Pius IV


1559-65


181.


Innocent IV


1243-54


228.


St. Pius V


1566-72


182.


Alexander IV


1254-61


229.


Gregory XIII


1572-85


183.


Urban IV


1261-64


230.


Sixtus V


1585-90


184.


Clement IV


1265-68


231.


Urban VII


1590


185.


St. Gregory X


1271-76


232.


Gregory XIV


1590-91


186.


Innocent V


1276


233-


Innocent IX


I59I


187.


Adrian V


1276


234-


Clement VIII


I592-I605


188.


John XXI


1276-77


235-


Leo XI


1605


189.


Nicholas III


1277-80


236.


Paul V


1605-21


190.


Martin IV


1281-85


237-


Gregory XV


1621-23


191.


Honorius IV


1285-87


238.


Urban VIII


1623-44


192.


Nicholas IV


1288-92


239-


Innocent X


1644-55


193-


St. Celestine V


1294


240.


Alexander VII


1655-67


194.


Boniface VIII


I 294-1 303


241.


Clement IX


1667-69


195-


Benedict XI


1303-4


242.


Clement X


1670-76


596.


Clement V ''"


1305-14


243-


Innocent XI


1676-89


197.


John XXII


1316-34


244.


Alexander VllI


1 689-91




Nicholas V


1328-30


245-


Innocent XII


I69I-I700

T2



L-^



276



A Manual of Church History



246.


Clement XI


1 700-2 1


254-


Pius VII


1800-23


247.


Innocent XIII


1721-24


25.5-


Leo XII


1823-29


248.


Benedict XIII


1724-30


256.


Pius VIII


1829-30


249.


Clement XII


1730-40


257-


Gregory XVI


1831-46


250.


Benedict XIV


1740-58


258.


Pius IX


1846-78


251-


Clement XIII


1758-69


259-


Leo XIII


I878-I9O3


252.


Clement XIV


1769-74


260.


Pius X


1903


253-


Pius VI


1775-99


-


' - "''^ r^-. ■■\^'





-i^ui^-^



i^xt



II. ROMAN AND BYZANTINE EMPERORS



Augustus 30 B.C.-A.D 14

Tiberius 14-37

Caius Caligula 37-41

Claudius I 41-54

Nero 54-68

Galba, Otho, Vitellius 68-69

Vespasian 69-79

Titus 79-8 J[

Domitian 81-96

Nerva 96-98

Trajan 98-117

Adrian 117-38

Antoninus Pius 138-61

Marcus Aurelius 161-80

Commodus 180-92

Pertinax 193

Septimius Severus 193-2 11

Caracalla 211-17

Macrinus 217-18
Elagabalus (Helioga-

balus) 218-22

Alexander Severus 222-35

Maximinus Thrax 235-38
Pupienus and Gordi-

anus 238

Gordianus the Younger 238-44

Philippus Arabs 244-49

Decius 249-51

Gallus and Volusian 251-53

Valerian 253-60

Gallienus 260-68

Claudius II 268-70

Aurelian 270-75

Tacitus 275-76

Probus 276-82

Carus 282-84

Diocletian 284-305

Maximian 286-305

Constantius Chlorus 305-306

Galerius 305-1 1
Constantino I the Great 306-37



Maximin 308-13

Licinius 308-23

Constantius 337-61

Constantine II 337-40

Constans I 337-50

Julian the Apostate 361-63

Jovian 363-64

Valentinian I 364-75

Valens 364-78

Gratian 375-83

Valentinian II 375-92

Theodosius I 379-95

Honorius 395-423

John the Tyrant 423-25

Valentinian III 425-55

Avitus 455-56

Majorian 457-61

Severus 461-65

Ricimer 465-67

Anthemius 467-72

Olybrius ' 472

Glycerins 473

Julius Nepos 474
Romulus Augustulus 475

Arcadius 395-408

Theodosius II 408-50

Marcian 450-57

Leo I 457-74

Leo II and Zeno 474-91

Basiliscus 476-77

Anastasius I 491-518

Justin I 518-27

Justinian I 527-65

Justin II 565-78

Tiberius II 578-82

Mauritius 582-602

Phocas 602-10

Heraclius 610-41
Constantine III and

Heracleonas 641



The Emperors



277



Constans II


641-68


Romanus IV (Diogenes


) 1067-71


Constantine IV (Pogo-




Michael VII (Para-




natus)


668-85


pinakes)


1071-78


Justinian II


685-95


Nicephorus III (Botan


-


Leontius


695-98


iates)


1078-81


Tiberius III


698-705


Alexius I (Comnenus)


1081-1118


Justinian II his.



Online LibraryF. X. von (Franz Xaver) FunkA manual of church history (Volume 2) → online text (page 27 of 34)