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THE IRRIGATION AGE



VOL. XIII.

L\ oo



CHICAGO, OCTOBER, 1898.



NO. 1.




PROGRESS OF WESTERN flMERlCfi.



The National There is nothing that has
Irrigation done more to further the
Congress. cause of irrigation than the
National Irrigation Congress: no more
potent factor can be found for bringing
the benefits of the system before the pub-
lic and arousing congress to the need of
legislative measures in its behalf than the
annual meetings of this body. A few
short years ago irrigation was a word sel-
dom heard outside of a few states- and the
m was considered to belong as exclu-
sively to the state of Utah as did Mormon-
ism. But surely, though slowly, (thanks
to the Congress) the knowledge of the
benefits of the system is now being spread
throughout the country. Recognizing the
benefits of the Congx-ess it is with sincere
pleasure that the AGE, as an exponent
and upholder of the irrigation movement,
chronicles the meeting of the seventh an-
nual session of the National Irrigation
Congress.

Cheyenne succeeded in cap-
turing the Congress this year,
and on September 1. 2, and 3
those interested in the reclamation and
settlement of the arid lands, the preserva-
tion of our forests, and the many kindred
topics which hinge upon the great princi-
ple of irrigation, met a hearty welcome
from Cheyenne citizens. The meeting was a
success. A very encouraging sign was
that every officer of the association was
present and that thirty states were repre-
sented by delegates, also fraternal dele-
gates were present from the governments
of Canada and Mexico. A serious wash-



Cheyenne
the City.



out on the railroad prevented many from
reaching Cheyenne until Saturday the
last day of the convention, too late to par-
ticipate in any of the discussions.
The Objects The objects of the Irrigation
of the Congress to formulate plans

Congress. for reclaiming and settling
the arid lands of the West, to arouse the
interest of the public in the irrigation
movment and to present to Congress the
need of government aid in carrying out
the plans proposed is furthered by these
annual meetings. The most skillful engi-
neers, the men interested in the economic
problems of the country, the farmers, leg-
islators, writers, are all brought together
to discuss questions of vital interest to the
public. The papers read are an education
to those so fortunate as to hear them, and
we hope at some future time to present
some of them at least to our readers.

An important feature of the
Col. Maxon's recen t session was the report
Report. o j j g B Maxon, mem-

ber of the committee appointed by the
Lincoln congress to go to Washington.
This report, which was given the second
day of the convention, read that the com-
mittee had succeeded in framing a bill
which secured the support of the House
Committee on Arid Lands. This bill pro-
vides that states taking advantage of the
Carey law shall have ten years from the
date " of final segregation to reclaim.
The state may file through a local land
office for temporary segregation for a.
period of four months. Failure to file
maps and plans within this period works a



THE IRRIGATION AGE.



A Firm
Friend.



forfeiture of the effort. Upon final segre-
gation, the desert character of the land
will be held to be finally settled. Both
Congressman Shaforth and Jenkins waived
the right to push their individual bills in
support of the committee bill, but since
the war with Spain the whole matter has
lain in abeyance.

The report received the enthusiastic ap-
plause of the Congress arid the committe
received hearty thanks for the manner in
which its duties had been performed.

The Congress has one firm
friend in the "high places" in
Secretary Bliss of the Inter-
ior Department. Recognizing the fact
that preservation of our forests is depend-
ant in a great measure upon irrigation, he
is a staunch upholder of the latter cause
and President Carey, as well as the mem-
bers of Congress realize how much they
are indebted to him for the good work he
has done in their behalf.

The resolutions proposed by
Resolutions Geo H Maxwe ll, o f Califor-
Adopted. . , . , , , .

nia, which were embraced in
his article "Annex Arid America," ap-
pearing in the September number of the
AGE, were adopted by the Congress.
These comprise the resolutions of the
Phoenix Irrigation Congress "Arid Land .
Reclamation" and "Conditional State -
Cession;" resolution of the Lincoln Con-
gress, "United Ownership of Land and
Water;" the endorsement of the Chitten-
den report on Federal storage reservoirs
and the endorsement of recommendation
of Elwood Mead as to the leasing of the
grazing lands.

The Congress showed its ap-
preciation of President Car-
ey's work in the past by re-
electing him president of the body for the
coming year. The other officers elected
were: Dr. S. B. Young, first vice-presi-
dent; S. A. Cochran, South Dakota, sec-
ond vice-president; S. M. Knox, Illinois,
third vice-president; O. E. Cutcheon,
Michigan, national lecturer; G. H. Max-
well, California, assistant national lec-
turer; Frank Bond, Wyoming, press clerk.

The Next R> M ' Tansill > of Edd y> Ne w
Annual Mexico, made a strong and
Session. witty plea for Eddy, as the
place for the next session of the Irrigation



Officers
Elected.



( 'ongress, claiming that an irrigation con
vention should meet where its members
might see irrigation in practical operation,
and that Eddy, in the Pecos Valley, New
Mexico, would afford such an opportunity.
As New Mexico had entertained the con-
vention but a few years ago, Mr. Tansill's
plea was disregarded and Montana selected'
as the state in which to hold the eighth
annual session, the city to be decided upon
by the executive committee. This com-
mittee will consist of the following men
for the ensuing year: H. L. Kellogg, Col-
orado; S. M. Knox, Illinois: J. H. Church-
hill, Kansas: R. W. Silvester, Maryland:
Thomas Knight, Missouri: J. D. O'Don-
nell, Montana; M. M. McCutcheon, Mich-
igan; T. G. Frost, Minnesota; M. Dough-
erty. Nebraska: H. B. Maxson, Nevada:
S. N. Smith, South Dakota; H. McClin-
tock, Arizona; Judge Shurtliff, Utah.
Who has The war with Spain is over,
Broad Shoul- but there is still quite a little
ders? "fight" going on between the

commanders and the department heads,
and an effort is being made to place the
blame for the gross mismanagement of
the recent campaign where it justly be-
longs. That there was mismanagement
and mistakes that amount to almost crim-
inal carelessness, is generally conceded,
but it is not definitely known whether one
man or many will have to shoulder the bur-
den of public disfavor. That there were
too many "tin soldiers" put in as officers
on account of political pulls and that in-
competency, which cost many a poor pri-
vate his life, was the result, none can dis-
pute, and the essayist who tied his article
on the "Late War" with red tape instead
of blue ribbon, knew what was appropri-
ate to the occasion.

There are thousands of people who sym-
pathize most heartily with the sentiments
of Rev. N. Couden, of Michigan, the blind
chaplain of the House of Representatives,
"In my judgment," said he, "this whole
trouble in our camps and army has arisen
out of the 'incompetency of many of the
officers: not that they did not want to help
their men, but because they did not know
how to do it. One great trouble I think
has come from taking too many officers
out of the various militia organizations
and putting them on the same footing as



THE IRRIGATION AGE.



regulars. They are theoretical officers
and when they come to put their theories
into practice they failed abominably."

Farther on he makes the statement to
which every loyal American will respond
"Amen": "It is simply criminal for an
officer to allow his men to go hungry when
he is within reach of rations. Red tape or
no red tape, the American soldier should
not go without food. If I were a com-
manding officer I would break open cars
if necessary to obtain the provisions with
which to feed my men.''

Secretary Alger has been severely cen-
sured by the press, whether altogether de-
servedly or not we leave for the investiga-
ting committee to determine, but his
friends in Ohio are loyal and will not hear
him blamed. An amusing incident oc-
curred during the G. A. R. convention at
Cincinnati, which recalls the old story of
Patrick Henry, who in speaking of tyrants
mentioned the name of George III, when
a voice interrupted with the cry of ''Trea-
son;" "And Geo. Ill may profit by their
example. If that be treason make the most
of it!" concluded the witty Irishman.
Gov., Pingree, of Michigan, in a speech at
the G. A. R. camp fire. Sept 7, was quite
vehement in his criticism of the manage-
ment of the Spanish- American war. and
after citing several instances of bad man-
agement said: "If Secretary Alger "

he could go no further. The friends of
Alger. thinking some disparaging allusion
was about v to be made concerning him.
hissed and hooted Gov. Pingree until he
was compelled to withdraw. After quiet
had been restored the chairman finished
the sentence, which the audience would
not suffer the Governor to finish, reading
as follows: "If Secretary Alger had been
given full power, such things would never
have happened." And with the audience
who hissed it was a case of being "sorry
that they spoke."

., In the November issue the

Departure. IRRIGATION AGE will give the
first instalment of a series of
articles on the banking methods of our
own and foreign countries. , This does not
come strictly within the sphere of this
journal, but it is a matter of such vital
importance to every person no matter in
what section of the countrv he resides or



what his occupation may be that we feel
justified in devoting space to the subject)
upon which too many are grossly ignor-
ant. Besides being instructive, these arti-
cles will be very interesting, tracing
the banking system from its inception,
years before the Christian era, to the pres-
ent time, with the attendant evils.

The author, Mr. Geo. J. E. Mayer, has
given a great deal of time and study to
this subject and as a result of his labor is
prepared to give the names of the 400 na-
tional banks that have failed within the
past few years, together with the reasons of
their failures and the amount of money
depositors lost thereby. The figures may
all be relied upon as Mr. Mayer has taken
them from reliable statistics.

The author's aim in writing on this sub-
ject, is to bring before the public the nec-
essity of legislation to remedy the evils of
the banking system. This has already
been considerably agitated, but not as re-
gards the security to depositors, and on
Feb. 16th, 1898, the House passed a bill
regulating the manner in which loans
should be made, or in other words, a bill
"to better control and to promote the
safety of national banks," but mentions
naught about securing depositors against
loss in case a bank does fail. The re-
port of the comptroller showed that 90 per
cent of the national bank failures were
due to the appropriation of the bank's
funds by its officers. With such a large
percentage to the credit of depositors
compared to the stock capital in a bank,
there is no wonder that legislators began
to realize that something must be done to
secure them against loss when banks fail.
The bill above mentioned proTides that
"no national bank shall make a loan to the
president or any other officer or employe
of the bank until such officer or employe
has submitted the proposition for the
loan in writing to the directors and it has
been approved by a majority of them, and
in no case shall the loan exceed the
amount permitted by law." A bill, simi-
lar to this, has twice passed the House
and once passed the Senate with an
amendment, but was there "pigeon-holed
to die."

Judge Walter Q. Gresham. Gen'l. Jno.
C. Black and ex-Congressman Coffeen, of



THE IRRIGATION AGE.



Wyoming, et al, have expressed themselves
as in favor of protecting depositors in case
of bank failures, and have so declared
themselves to Mr. Mayer.

We are confident that all oui readers
will appreciate and approve this new de-
parture and we give this notice so that all
may secure the first article of the series.

On the tenth of this month
Rio Grande ,
Irrigation. tne case * tne United States

Government against the Rio
Grande Dam and Irrigation Co. will come
up for trial before the Federal Supreme
Court. It is about two years since the
first injunction was filed against this com-
pany, and in June, 1887. the case was tried
before Judge Bantz, of the Territorial
District Court, who dismissed with costs
the injunction against the Company.
The Government appealed the case to the
Territorial Supreme Court and the ruling
was again in favor of the company. The
third trial will now come up before the
Federal Supreme Court.

This case has attracted so much atten-
tion on both -sides of the Atlantic (for
English capital is the basis of the Rio
Grande Company) and the decision will be
of such vital importance to dwellers in
the Rio Grande district, that a paper on the
subject is pertinent and we therefore call
the attention of our readers to the article
in this issue entitled "Rio Grande Irriga-
tion," by Nathan E. Boyd, M. D.. which
gives a concise history of the Company
from its formation to the present time.

The headline in a Honolulu
One of Us paper which reads "Santiago

Must Be Ours," has furnished
material for many newspaper witticisms.
The eagerness Hawaii showed to "put his
feet under the table and become one of us"
as evinced by the pronoun "ours" causes
one exchange to remark jocularly:
"That's right, sonny; wipe your feet and
come right in and take a seat at the table.
Uncle Sam is not fond of diffident chil-
dren." But in spite of the jokes there is
probably not one who does not like that
assumption of joint authority, that readi-
ness to regard himself as one of Uncle
Sam's family which is displayed in the
headline, and it argues well for the fu-
ture of the newly adopted child. Santi-
ago is ours, Hawaii, not yours or mine



but ours, and may the interest and enthus-
iasm manifested by you at this early date
in your adopted country never grow less
We have recently heard a
The Dreyfus great deal about Spanish

"honor" and now the Dreyfus
case is sheddidg light upon French
"honor.'' The ideas of the two countries
are somewhat similar on this subject.
Col. Henry confessed that he committed
the forgery that convicted Dreyfus, but
claimed that he did it because the proof
against Dreyfus was absolutely necessary
to maintain the honor and glory of the
French army. These views of "honor"
are a bit startling to us Americans; as we
do not consider forgery and suicide neces-
sary to preserve our honor. The Dreyfus
case would do credit to the injustice of
the middle ages, and that such a proceed-
ing could occur in this day and age is
shocking.

Newspaper report has it that France is
on the brink of a revolution, due to these
recent disclosures. Well, as the Syracuse
Standard aptly remarks "Tragedy and
Justice go hand in hand in France."
The St. Louis Republican is of the opinion
that "It would never do for France to dis-
band her armies so long as the Dreyfus
case is unsettled and Zola uncaptured."
Facts Little islands that we hardly

About Porto knew were on the map, have
R' co - acquired great interest for

us since the war. Possession often en-
hances the value of an article and so in
thi? case the fact that Porto Rico is ours,
causes us to have a respectful interest for
the little blotch of yellow on the map, that
represents now a part of Uncle Sam's do-
main. In view of this suddenly acquired
interest in the little island, we read with
attention the report of A. P. Austin, Chief
of the Bureau of Statistics, Treasury De-
partment, in regard to Porto Rico. "As
a delightful winter resort, a valuable
tropical garden and an important strategic
point, Porto Rico is a valuable acquisition
to the people and government of the
United States," is the view expressed by
Mr. Austin after a brief visit to the island.
"It must not be expected," he continues,
"that so small an island can become a
large factor in supplying the $250,000,000
worth of tropical productions which th



THE IRRIGATION AGE.



people of the United States annually con-
sume, or that it can absorb a very large
percentage of the $1,200,000,000 worth of
our annual productions smaller in area
than the state of Connecticut and with a
population less than that of the city of
Brooklyn, it may not be able to meet the
somewhat extravagant expectations which
enthusiastic people have formed with ref-
erence to it." The island is mountain-
ous from center to circumference and as
the 1,000,000 people who occupy its 3.760
square miles of territory have most of
the available soil under cultivation, it
will not offer many inducements to the
homeseeker. Coffee, sugar, and tobacco
are the principal exports, and agriculture
is carried on in a very primitive manner.

Of the natives it may truthfully be said
"Man wants but little here below.'' for
they have no idea of luxury. Mr. Austin
says that !> A little rice, a very little flour,
a few beans and plenty of bananas, plan-
tain, breadfruit and vegetables satisfy
their physical necessities, a few yards of
cotton cloth for the adults and nothing
for the chidren meet their principal re-
quirements for clothing, while a few rough
boards and a plentiful supply of plantain
and palm leaves supply the material for
the humble dwellings throughout the in-
terior and in many of the villages.'' Ed-
ucation is. naturally, not of a very high
order. Spanish is the principal language
spoken, though the French settlers retain
their own language and there are a few
English-speaking people in the towns.
As a compliment to the "change of owner-
ship" one of the two daily newspapers
published in Ponce prints one page 'in
English. It is mostly extracts from our
constitution and biographical sketches of
our great men.

Porto Rico will offer attractions to Am-
ericans who are seeking a health resort
or who desire a pleasurable winter resort,
and with Cuba and Hawaii will help fur-
nish a great share of our tropical imports
and enable us to expend our money among
our own possessions.

Another Sept. 2 marked the passing
Pioneer away of another Mormon pio-
Gone. neer Wilford Woodruff, pres-

ident of the Mormon church. He was 91
years of age and had been a Mormon



for sixty-five years, being one of the orig-
inal 147 pioneers who reached Salt Lake
Valley in 1847. He was beloved by all his
people and the many thousands who at-
tended his funeral services proved the es-
teem in which he was held. It is thought
that Lorenzo Snow will succeed him as
president of the church. It is a curious
fact that New England, the home of Puri-
tanism, furnised to Mormonism three of
its four leaders, Joseph Smith and Brig-
ham Young were from Connecticut, while
Woodruff was born in Vermont.

The Czar's peace manifesto

The Czar's ^as occasioned much comment.
Manifesto. ., ., ., , , .

While the press as a whole is
inclined to regard it as something that
should be hailed by all humane persons as
'one of those flashings of light out of
darkness which renew faith in God and
man and the beneficient increasing pur-
pose which runs through the ages,'' there
is here and there a cynical editor who
thinks that the czar's desire for peace is
something after this fashion:

Russia I will build a great battleship.

England I will build two.

Russia I will build four great battle-
ships.

England I will build eight.

Russia. Let us have peace.

The fact that British imports
Our Foreign into the United states have

fallen off greatly in the past
year while American exports to Great
Britain have greatly increased has been
announced from time to time during the
year, but the full year's figures, just pre-
sented by the Treasury Bureau of Statis-
tics, brings to the surface some interesting
details not heretofore published. These
show that while the exports from the
United States to the United Kingdom
have incr eased 1 12 percent, the imports
from the United Kingdom have fallen off
35 per cent. The exports from the United
States to the United Kingdom during the
past year were in round numbers five
times as much as the imports from the
United Kingdom, the figures of the Bureau
of Satistics being: Imports from the
United Kingdom, $109,138,365; Exports
to the United Kingdom $540,860.152.

The most decided decrease of imports
from the United Kingdom to this country



THE IRRIGATION AGE.



has been in woolen tissues, worsted tissues,
tin plates and sheets, jute manufactures,
and linen manufactures, the import of the
first in 1898 being only one-sixth of what
it was in 1896; the second, one-fourth of
what it was. and the imports of tin plates
and sheets one-half of what it was in 1896.
In our exports to the United Kingdom
the most decided gain has been in oats, of
which almost five times as much is exported
now as in 1896; wheat, which has almost
doubled, and unwrought copper which is
almost twice as large. Our export of
horses and wood and timber also show a
decided gain.

There has recently come into
Misdirected ex i s (; ence a c i u b or society
Benevolence. , . . , , . ,, , *

whose aim is to benfit the far-
mers' wives, and a vigorous protest is go-
ing up from these same farmers' wives,
through the various farm papers,
against being benefitted that is ben-
fitted in this way. This society is called
the ''League of Farmhouse Industries and
Domestic Manufactures" and as its circu-
lar states, "was started by a few intelli-
gent and sympathetic women for the ben-
efit of a large and widely scattered com-
munity and has proven to be a signal
success." Its purpose is to foster and
direct domestic industries among the far-
mers families and provide a market for
the handiwork of individuals. Or to put
it plainly, its aim is to encourage women
who live on farms to spend their spare



moments in work such as is done by the
peasant women of Italy, Sweden, and Rus-
sia, homespun and embroidered linens,
lace-making, the knitting of golf-stock-
ings, etc., especial stress being laid on the
golf stockings. The promoters of this
benevolent scheme are society women,
most of whom probably have no conception
of what duties are comprised in the daily
toil of the farmer's wife. The acquaint-
ance we have had with the latter class
leads to the belief that her day is crowded
quite full enough without having any ad-
ditional work placed before her. If she
has a few spare moments after her work is
finished it will be more profitable for her
to lie in a hammock or read a good book
than to amuse herself by knitting golf
stockings or doing crewel embroideries in
imitation of those of colonial times. The
rest will do more for her than will the few
dollars she might earn. What the aver-
age woman needs is not more work but
more rest. You who envy the farmer's
wife her outdoor life should do her work
for a day and find how very little time
there is to spend outdoors aiter doing the
thousand and one things needful to be
done within the house.

The members of this League undoubt-
edly mean well: they desire to help their
fellows, but their efforts seem to savor too
much of patronage to make them palat-
able to the average woman.




IRRIGATION IN COLORADO.

BY JOEL SHOMAKER.

Colorado is among the largest and most important irrigated divis-
ions of Arid America. The state occupies a central position, amidst
the grand Rocky Mountain sentinels, and stands without a peer in the
vast resources of gold, silver and useful metals and minerals.
Agriculture, through the medium of irrigation, has been developed
until about 2.000,000 acres are under cultivation and over 1,200 miles
of irrigating ditches carry water from the perpetual snow fountains to
the fertile fields, orchards and vineyards. The present farm products
reach an aggregate annual valuation of 125,000,000, yet not half of
the tillable area has been reclaimed from its desert condition, by the
modern science of irrigation.

The present state was made a territory Feb. 28, 1861, and admitted
into the Union Aug. 1, 1876, hence bears the very appropriate title,
"The Centennial State." It contains 103,645 square miles, or 66,332,-



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