This Volume is for
REFERENCE USE ONLY
From the collection of the
San Francisco, California
With Which Is Merged
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS National NOVEMBER, 1915
Land <***> Irrigation .
TITLE REGISTERED U.S. PATENT OFFICE
THE AUSTIN LAND DREDGE
( Digging Open Ditches for Drainage or Irrigation
< Cutting Trenches for Large Tile Drains
( Loading Cars or Wagons
Entire outfit mounted on trucks, or can be mounted on a scow or pon-
toon as a floater when desired. Power furnished by kerosene or gaso-
line engine. Will dig ditches of various widths, the machine being
equipped with extension
axles. Will handle buckets of
M-ycl-> M~yd. or 1-yd. capacity.
Write for description of this new
outfit. Ask for Circular S-D.
F. C. Austin Drainage
Railway Exchange Chicago
(Agents wanted in open
Morris Machine Works
BALDWINSVILLE, N. Y.
The cut illustrating this advertisement
represents a pair of 48" Double Suction
Pumps directly connected to Horizontal
Compound Engine. This plant is doing
irrigating work in Texas. We have
others. Let us figure with you for a Pump
to do your work. Get our Catalog.
New York Office, 39-41 Cortlandt Street
H. A. PAINE, Houston, Texas
HENION & HUBBELL
217 North Jefferson St., Chicago
INSURES STRAWBERRY CROP BY IRRIGATION
The biggest strawberry farm in the world is in Michigan the very heart of the rain belt. Nevertheless it is an irrigated farm
The owners put in an overhead system, first, to insure the crop, and second, to bring that crop to the most perfect develon-
ment possible. Read F. W. Parks' story in this issue of THE IRRIGATION AGE
;,. C , .
FOR THE FARMER,
RANCH MEN.DAIRY MEN,
HAVE you ever felt the need of better water facilities ? Perhaps you have become tired of
pumping and carrying water, or possibly your requirements have out-grown the old hand pump.
In either case it will pay you to investigate Myers Power Pumps, Working Heads, and Pump-
ing Jacks as a means of securing a greater and more dependable water supply.
Myers Power Pumps and the gasoline engine have brought modern water facilities to the door
of every farmer, ranchman, stockman, fruitman and gardener in fact anyone who uses large quantities
of water can now have a self-contained, small, medium, or large capacity Power Water Plant that can
be installed by an ordinary mechanic, operated by a gasoline engine and maintained at such a low
cost, and furnish such an abundant and satisfactory supply of fresh water that the equipment will soon
pay for itself, over and over again, in time and labor saved and conveniences afforded.
Myers Power Pumps come in numerous styles and sizes. Their simplicity, adaptability and different pumping
capacities give them a wide range of pumping activities. They are not only used extensively on the farm and ranch
where water is needed for house-hold consumption, for dairy, for watering stock, for sprinkling lawns, for fighting fires
and innumerable other purposes, but are equally successful when installed for service in creameries, greenhouses,
laundries hotels, factories or for irrigation or drainage work.
Now is the logical time to put your thoughts into action with a request for our catalog, which shows besides
Myers Power Pumps, Well and Cistern Pumps, Hydro-Pneumatic Pumps (air and water), Tank Pumps, Spray Pumps
and Fittings; also Hay Unloading Tools and Stayon and Tubular Door Hangers. Write.
F. E. MYERS & BRO., ASHLAND, OHIO
ASHLAND PUMP AND HAY TOOL WORKS
THE IRRIGATION AGE.
When the PUMP cannot be direct connected to
the turbine shaft, the power is usually trans-
mitted by gears, shafting, etc. On account of
the HIGH SPEED of the SAMSON, for a given
power, lighter and consequently CHEAPER
transmission machinery can be used.
JAMES LEFFEL & CO.
Springfield, Ohio, U. S. A.
316 Lagonda Street
Dredging Equipment Dealers
and Manufacturers, Contractors
for Dredging Projects, Etc.
We can place you in touch with new
irrigation, drainage and dredging
projects of all kinds long before report-
ed in any trade publication or known
to the trade world. We have special
facilities for getting this information
in advance. The price of our service is
We furnish trade information in any line and
many years experience in this business enables
us to give our patrons superior service.
Write for quotation to-day. Also send us
your inquiries relative . to any other line you
wish to cover.
United States Press Bureau
Rand McNally Bldg. V Chicago
Cross-bars are not an essential part of
the joint of
The Armco Iron Flume
In the smaller sizes they are omitted altogether,
and in the larger they need not be more than
one-half or two-thirds as numerous as in other
types. It is not necessary for the rods to pass
through the cross-bars. This saves considerable
time in erecting, and enables the placing of the
cross-bars after the flume is assembled.
Armco (American Ingot) Iron is the acknowledged
standard for durability in exposed metal work.
Write the Nearest Manufacturer for Full Information on
Armco (American Ingot) Iron Flumes, Culverts, Tanks,
Roofing and Formed Products.
California. Los Angeies
California Corrugated Cul-
California, West Berkeley
California Corrugated Cul-
The R. Hardest; Mfg. Co.
Coast Culvert & Flume Co.,
Nebraska Culvert & Mfg. Co.
American Rolling Mill Co.
Coast Culvert & Flume Co
South Dakota, Sioux Falls
Sioux Falls Metal Culvert
Texas, El Paso
Western Metal Mfg. Co.
Lone Star Culvert Co.
Utah, Woods Cross
Utah Corrngated Culvert
& Flume Co.
Coast Culvert & Flume
Co., Portland, Oregon
When writing to advertisers please mention The Irrigation Age.
THE IRRIGATION AGE.
A No. 3 Goulds Centrifugal Pump, Driven by a Gasoline Engine.
Used for Irrigation on the farm of Harvey
Gardner, near Boise, Idaho
Types for pumping from deep wells, shallow wells, rivers, lakes.
If you have a pumping proposition, our engineers will be glad to
help you solve it.
Write our nearest office
THE GOULDS MANUFACTURING CO.
Main Office and Works
SENECA FALLS, NEW YORK
Branch Houses: Boston, New York, Chicago, Houston
[ Modern Power Producers |
= Development in stationary engines has kept pace with E
= other engineering progress the automobile and aero- E
~ plane but it has lacked their spectacular features. Its ;
E progress has been certain, sure, until it today reaches its E
zenith in the
Bessemer Oil Engine
(Awarded Gold Medal Panama-Pacific Exposition)
5 a reliable, dependable installation that burns crude and E
~ fuel oils and gives you power economy that no other E
E means of power production will approach. Bessemer Oil
5J Engines have reduced power costs 66% where steam had E
~ been used, 80% where current had been furnished from central
station 1 earn of oil engine progress by asking for catalog.
Our Complete line: Fuel Oil Engines, IS to ZOO H. P.
Gas Engines, 5 to 350 H. P.
^ Kerosene Engines, 2 to 10 H. P.
The Bessemer Gas Engine Co.
E 12 York Street Grove City, Pa. E
FIFTEEN THOUSAND POWER PLANTS
A STUDY IN CONTRAST
Such a Difference and Only the Fence Between
Did you ever ride along a country road with your eyes open when
crops were maturing? If you have, you will remember a field of grain
that was way below standard and right away you prophesied that Mr.
Jones or Mr. Smith or Mr. Brown or whoever the farmer might be
that owned that particular field, was going to have some empty bins a
little later on that should have been heaped high.
While you were still prophesying to yourself, you came to the next
field just across the fence, and immediately there was a remarkable
change. Prospects were great for an enormous yield and you wished
wonaer wni me amcrcucc, anu you rememuereu mai USCK. yonuer
the last barnyard you passed was filled with manure all kinds of it no
good to anybody or anything.
While you were still meditating, thinking how much benefit might
have resulted from proper distribution of that manure how much
more the first field might have been worth you passed the next
barnyard and what a change. The ground scraped clean of all manure
and a Litchfield Spreader in the corner told where it had gone to.
Automatically, your mind reverted back to an article you read in the
farm paper the day before. It went something like this: "Enough
manure goes to waste on SOME of the farms of the United States,
through imperfect distribution by hand or because of no distribution
at all, to pay the taxes on ALL of the farms of this same United
States." Moral: Put manure where it belongs in the field let
the Litchfield Spreader pay the taxes. Write for new catalogue,
just off the press.
The Litchfield Mfg. Co.
When writing to advertisers please mention The Irrigation Age.
THE IRRIGATION AGE
CHICAGO, NOVEMBER, 1915.
THE IRRIGATION AGE
With which is Merged
The National Land and Irrigation Journal
MODERN IRRIGATION THE DRAINAGE JOURNAL
THH IRRIGATION ERA MID-WEST
ARID AMERICA THE FARM HERALD
THE WATER USERS' BULLETIN THE IRRIGATOR
D. H. ANDERSON
Published Monthly at 30 No. Dearborn Street,
Entered as second-class matter October S, 1897. at the Postoffice
at Chicago, III., under Act of March I, 1879.
D. H. ANDERSON, Editor
The "Primer of Hydraulics" is now ready; Price $2.00.
If ordered in connection with subscription $2.50.
To United States Subscribers, Postage Paid, . . . $1-00
To Canada and Mexico. 1.50
All Other Foreign Countries 1-60
In forwarding remittances please do not send checks on local
banks. Send either postoffice or express money order or Chicago or
New York draft.
Official organ Federation of Tree Growing Clubs of
America. D. H. Anderson, Secretary.
The Executive Committee of the National Federation
of Water Users' Associations has taken action whereby
THE IRRIGATION AGE is created the official organ of this
vast organization, representing 1,000,000 persons on the
government irrigation projects.
Interesting to Advertisers
It may interest advertisers to know that The Irrigation Age
is the only publication in the world having an actual paid in
advance circulation among individual irrigators and large
irrigation corporations. It is read regularly by all inter-
ested in this subject and has readers in all parts of the
world. The Irrigation Age is 30 years old and is the
pioneer publication of its class in the world.
Bird and game reserves have been
Does U. S. created in and around the sites of
Intend to Sell nearly all reservoirs and other head
Project Game works of the Federal irrigation
And yet Secretary Lane is col-
lecting hard-earned money from the settlers for
the cost of these works.
Why should they pay for anything to which
they cannot get title? To begin with, the law pro-
vides that the government shall keep the main
works until congress directs otherwise. And does it
stand to reason that the government is going to
sell these bird and game reserves? No!
Charge off the costs of these works and then
the settlers will only have to pay about the amounts
provided in their contracts with the government
for their water rights. Then they will have a chance
to succeed in building up homes in the desert
The silo makes it possible to raise more feed
and to keep more cows on the same acreage and
substitutes certainty for uncertainty in the manage-
ment of the herd to an extent impossible in any
Is education worth while for the
Proves That farmer? A great many indefinite
Education answers have been given by people
Helps the who have only their own opinions
Farmer and limited observation. A more
definite answer has just been given
by Professor O. R. Johnson, of the Missouri Uni-
versity College of Agriculture.
Professor Johnson has carefully studied data,
secured by visits to 656 farmers, 554 of whom had
only rural school education, while the remainder
had secured more or less additional training. While
he recognizes the fact that this additional training
is not solely responsible for the better showing made
by the better educated man, there is every reason to
believe that their additional education has been a
very valuable investment, from the standpoint of
the pocket-book as well as that of social service,
which is not so easily measured.
The better trained men secured average labor
incomes of $655 a year, or within $110 of twice as
much, as those who had only district school educa-
tions. This labor income is the net return left after
allowing 5 per cent interest on the value of the
farm and equipment used and reasonable charges
for other items. The educated farmer handled more
THE IRRIGATION AGE.
land of a higher average value per acre and rented
from others only one-fifth of the farm he operated,
while the less educated man rented nearly two-
fifths. The same general difference appears, though
not always to so great an extent, in the number of
acres handled per man employed, the number of
acres handled per horse, and the yield secured per
Give your boy all the schooling you can afford.
Then encourage him to work to acquire still more.
Settlers on the Klamath (Ore.) Fed-
Abel Ady eral irrigation project have lost a
Is Dead; staunch and competent leader. Abel
Klamath Loses Ady is dead.
Real Leader As president of the Klamath
Water Users' Association, Mr. Ady
was untiring in trying to better the conditions of
his people. He accomplished much for them.
He was a man of big ideas. He was a close
student of co-operation and he had made extensive
plans to bring the Klamath organization to a point
where it would exercise all the tremendous powers
with which Water Users' associations are endowed,
for the good of the settlers.
The Klamath water users should erect a monu-
ment to Abel Ady by putting into effect his ideas
for self-help on the project a water users' bank,
that will not demand loan shark interest to help a
farmer, co-operative marketing and association con-
trol of the project.
Members of the Kansas Association
Bankers of Bankers, in their search for a sat-
Seek Best isfactory rural credit system to han-
Rural Credit die Kansas farm mortgages, have
System obtained information that should be
of value to every western state and
Some time ago a committee was appointed by
the Kansas association to investigate the various
rural credit plans of various countries. It has just
completed its report. After reviewing the systems
used in European countries and digesting the vari-
ous bills pending in congress, the committee believes
that the different states can work out a system for
their respective localities better than the Federal
government can. In other words, they believe that
it will be difficult for congress to work out a uni-
form law for all the states that would be acceptable.
Of all the systems investigated the committee
reports that the one used by a banker in Illinois,
under existing laws, seems the most practicable. In
1913 this banker began issuing 5 per cent bonds
under the amortization plan employed by his bank.
The bonds run for thirty years and are based on the
collective security of Illinois 5 per cent amortizable
first farm mortgages. During the year 1913, when
2 per cent United States bonds were selling below
par on our markets and other securities had greatly
depreciated, he sold between $300,000 and $400,000
of these bonds.
This, or some well-guarded plan for rural cred-
its, based on first real estate mortgages payable un-
der the amortization plan, together with the issu-
ance of bonds based upon the mortgages so taken
and provisions made for the sale of such bonds, the
committee believes, would be the most practical
way to provide this credit capital for the farmer and
help develop the agricultural resources of the state.
"The law now upon our statutes bearing upon
this subject," says the committee in its report, "does
not provide that a bank, as a bank, can issue certi-
ficates and make loans. It would therefore be neces-
sary to organize an association as a side line to the
bank to cover this line of business. The amortiza-
tion plan appeals more strongly to the committee
than any of the proposed plans now pending in
Does co-operation succeed? Here is
A U. S. an answer from the United States
Answer consular reports :
to Foes of "The Leeds (England) Indus-
Co-operation trial Co-operative Society reports
$5,166,909 total sales for the half
year ended June 30, 1915, or an increase of $1,225,-
696 over the like period of 1914 and a record for
the society. The share capital stood at $4,703,277,
an increase of $226,462, and members increased by
1,818 to 49,785. After allowing $80,973 for interest
on capital and $53,453 for depreciation, the amount
available for distribution was $662,353, which was
disposed of as follows : Dividend on members' pur-
purchases aggregating $4,763,866, at 2s. 9d. in the
pound (about 13J4 cents on each dollar's worth pur-
chased), $655,030; for educational purposes, $4,858;
balance to next half year, $2,465."
It is a well recognized fact, though
"Air one too often overlooked in selecting
Drainage;" sites for orchards, that cold air settles
Do Not to the lower levels. For this reason
Overlook It it is often colder at the lower eleva-
tions than it is at higher points in the
same locality. This is what is meant by "atmospheric
drainage." The occurrence of -frost in low places when
there is none on elevated areas is thus explained. For
the same reason peach buds are often winterkilled or
the blossoms are injured by frost in the spring in low
places when near-by orchards on higher elevations
are injured much less, or even escape entirely.
THE IRRIGATION AGE.
INSURES STRAWBERRY CROP BY IRRIGATION
Overhead System Installed on Largest Strawberry Farm in World
By F. W. PARK
Always certain of rain The overhead irrigation system on the
FEW people realize that the strawberry business
of the United States ranks only second in horti-
culture to the apple crop, and that each year there
is a rapid increase in this industry.
The largest grower of strawberry plants in the
world is the R. M. Kellogg Company, Three Rivers,
Michigan. Beginning with
a few acres of straw-
berries, over thirty years
ago, the farm of this com-
pany has increased in size
until it now comprises an
immense plantation with
over 225 acres planted to
strawberries, and the
strawberry plants grown
on this farm are shipped
to every agricultural
county in the United
States, throughout the
provinces of Canada, to
Australia, China and Japan
and to many of the countries of Europe and South
To maintain its reputation for furnishing only
the most vigorous plants of pure breed, this com-
pany has constantly striven to improve its cultural
methods. One of the difficulties to overcome was
the uncertainty of the rainfall, and it was decided
that an overhead irrigation system offered the
logical solution of this problem, since the fine sprays
of this system afforded the best possible means of
watering delicate plants. The lands of this com-
pany are very level, and therefore well adapted for
an irrigation system, and the Portage River flows
along one side of the farm and furnishes an in-
exhaustible supply of water for pumping. Early in
the present year the primary irrigation system,
covering 65 acres, was installed, and to this the
Kellogg Company expects to add year by year until
the entire farm is under irrigation.
After a thorough investigation of the overhead
irrigation systems operating throughout the coun-
try, it was decided to install the Skinner system,
made by the Skinner Irrigation Company, Troy,
Another view of the irrigation system.
Ohio, and the results of the first season of service
have proved very satisfactory. The accompanying
illustrations show interior and exterior views of the
pump house and a part of the overhead pipe system.
The quantity of pipe required for this initial
installation was in excess of 300 tons, and if the
overhead piping were strung out in a single line it
would extend a distance of approximately 25 miles.
The pumping plant is located on the bank of the
river, about the center of the side of the farm.
Water is elevated to the top of a bluff, about 50
feet high, from where it is forced through an under-
ground main discharge line, which extends across
the center of the farm, and from which 6-inch and
4-inch lateral lines lead to risers connecting with the
overhead system. All of the underground pipe is of
cast iron. The lengths of piping have bell and
spiggot ends and are leaded together. Each of the
feeder lines of pipe is equipped with a valve, by
means of which the water ma}' be turned on or off,
so that any desired part of the system may be placed
All of the overhead
piping is of galvanized
iron, and ranges in size
from 2 inches down to Y$
inch pipe, the greater the
distance from the source
of water supply, the
smaller the pipe. The
decrease in the size of
pipe in the ratio of dis-
tance is for the purpose
of maintaining a uniform
flow through the entire
The overhead pipes
which carry the water over the fields rest upon
risers about seven feet above ground, and at inter-
vals of about three feet along these lines nozzles are
placed through which the water flows. As the
The pump house
THE IRRIGATION AGE.
water is forced through
these small nozzles it
breaks into a mist of ex-
ceeding fineness, so that
the impact of the water
on the plants beneath is
very light, while every
particle of the surface of
the earth and the plants
are saturated. The com-
pany reports that this
form of irrigation is far
more beneficial to the soil
and plants than the nat-
The supply lines of
pipe are placed 52 feet
apart, and the water,
when thrown horizon-
tally, overlaps in the cen-
ter of the intervening
space. In other words, the water of each pipe line
is thrown horizontally a distance in excess of 28
feet. When it is desired to throw water upon the
plants nearer the pipes, this is accomplished by a
special pipe turning device, by means of which
the nozzles may be turned to any desired angle.
When the nozzles are turned directly upward the
water, of course, falls on the plants directly under-
The power plant consists of a building 12x15
feet, inside measurements, built of concrete blocks,
and has a cement floor. The water is taken directly
from the river through a fine meshed screen. The
pump was manufactured by The American Well
Works, Aurora, 111., and is an 8-inch, Type DTMD,
horizontal, single-stage, double suction, split shell,
turbine centrifugal, designed to deliver normally
1,050 gallons of water per minute against a 176 ft.
total head. The pump is driven by a 75-horse-
Intertor of pump house.
power, 3 phase, 60 cycle,
J20 volt, slip ring Gen-
eral Electric motor, oper-
ating at 1,740 revolutions
per minute. A feature of
this pump is that while it
maintains a mechanical
efficiency of 73.5 per cent
at its most economical
delivery, it is so designed
that it has an efficiency in
excess of 70 per cent
through a range of deliv-
ery of from 750 to 1.300
gallons per minute. The
broad efficiency curve ob-
tained on this pump espe-
cially adapts it to this
class of service, on ac-
count of the variation of
capacity demand on the
quantity of water pumped, due to the varying num-
ber of nozzles in service.
The operation of this system is divided into
three shifts, of approximately equal acreage, and
when operating one-third of the system, the pres-
sure gauge indicates 75 pounds pressure at the
pump. When in operation, 60 gallons of water per
minute are required for each acre, and it requires