years. Willard Richardson bought into the paper in 1845,
and for a time edited it in cog. He was from about Cape Cod,
Massachusetts. Dave Richardson, from the Isle of Wight, or
Man, England, bought into the office in 1848. From that
time, with slight intermissions, consequent upon rebellion, that
able paper has been published. The changes in proprietor-
ship have been few. During the War "The News," for greater
safety, was moved to Houston and there published. In the
fall of 1865 it reappeared in Galveston, published by W. Rich-
ardson, Richardson & Co. Weekly, at $5 per annum ; tri-
weekly, $12; and daily, $16; published by Belo & Co.
It was difficult during the "late unpleasantness" for paper
to be obtained, and "The Telegraph," "News," "Intelligencer,"
"Gazette," and some other papers came down to a specie basis,
charging for subscriptions and advertising $30 Confederate
money to $i specie. The rate for weeklies was $120 and tri-
weeklies $240 per annum. I have many copies of papers print-
ed on rice-straw, wrapping, and wall papers, which will be
sore reminders to my great-great and everlasting grand chil-
dren of those terrible days in newspaper life.
The first daily paper in Texas was styled "The Morning
Star" and was published by Cruger & Moore of "The Tele-
graph" from about 1840 to '43 or '44. D. H. Fitch was its
editor. Fitch was an old friend and neighbor of Dr. Francis
Moore of "The Telegraph" in Steuben county, New York.
Having thus hurriedly sketched the history of the early
Texas press, we find it necessary from this period to give
more brief and condensed statements in regard to the news-
papers of Texas as they have become numerous and the sub-
ject has grown voluminous upon our hands. Before proceed-
ing, however, with the thread of our discourse we must here
say that the pioneers of the Texas Press were all gentlemen
of education and ability, were almost all soldiers of Liberty
and their respective papers were well edited and printed.
HISTORY OF THE TEXAS PRESS
There was not a sorry man among them all, nor was there a
paper that would not have done credit to any old country.
The early settlers were generally men of culture and of
worth, and the conductors of newspapers were assisted by the
foremost men of the country. Oliver Jones of Massachusetts,
who had served in the congress of Coahuila and Texas, was a
very able man ; as also, Joshua Fletcher of New Hampshire,
first treasurer of Texas, who had been a Santa Fe trader;
Elisha M. Pease from Connecticut, governor of the State ;
James H. Raymond, from New York, since treasurer of the
State; Judge Peter W. Gray, C. L. Cleveland, General Hugh
McLeed, Waddill, and many others whom I might name,
contributed with their pens whatever they deemed would
prove of interest to the paper or beneficial to the people and
There were but few bad men in the country, and at the
earliest day the brightest intellects in the land gentlemen of
prominence, character and education were connected with
the press as editors, publishers or contributors. Hence, a
high standard was attained and kept up from the commence-
ment ; public sentiment was educated to a higher intellectual
standard than is usual in new countries ; and the most liberal
provision was made by the Constitution and the laws of the
Republic and State for education by public free schools, and
by colleges and universities, for all of which there were from
the earliest period the most liberal endowments.
PAPERS PUBLISHED IN EASTERN TEXAS.
Under this head we give a list of papers published in what
was the old regime, the political division of Texas into con-
gressional districts, beginning at Sabine Pass in the first dis-
trict and taking the various counties in their order:
Jefferson County had the following papers, which were of few
days and full of trouble Sabine Pass Beacon, 1860, by McClanahan
& Co.; Sabine Pass Times, 1870, by C. W. Winn; Beaumont Banner;
Beaumont News-Beacon, 1872-3, G. W. O'Brien, W. B. Haldeman
and McClanahan, publishers; Neches Valley, 1874.
Jasper County The East Texan was published in Jasper for
about three years from 1852, sand did much to advance the interests
of the southeastern county. It was kept up by several public
spirited gentlemen, who contributed articles of an educational and
agricultural character. The East Texas Clarion was the next paper
and during 1860 it was well sustained, but after the War commenced
Leonard, the publisher, left and it suspended. A number of gentle-
men after the termination of the War purchased a press and ma-
terial with which the News-Boy took its existence in 1865 and
Edwjard I. Kellie, and Carraway, and Green, have been its principal
publishers. The East Texas Democrat was started by Kellie and
Brown in 1872, and continued for several years. The Baptist Mes-
senger was established in 1874 by W. M. Reese and McDonald.
San Augustine County The Red Lander was published by Can-
field and others from 1841 till 1847. The Texas Union was pub-
lished on the corner of Columbia and Mountezuma Streets at $3 in
advance or $5 at the end of the year. It was started in November,
1847, by S. D. Ball and its principal editor was B. F. Benton, a
nephew of "Old Bullion," who was an able writer and very much
beloved. He was kilfled at Games' Mill, in Virginia. The Red
Land Gazette was published by A. D. McCutchen in 1857-8. The
Red Land Express was published in 1867 by McClanahan and
Plunkett, and subsequently by Thomas and King. The Beacon
appeared in 1867, . published by T. and W. McClanahan. The San
Augustine Texan was published for a time by George W. King.
Shelby County The Shelbyville Echo was published in 1859-60
for about one year.
HISTORY OF THE TEXAS PRESS
Panola County The Carthage Watchman in 1860 issued a few
numbers. The Texas Bulletin was published in 1860 by H. P. C.
Dulaney and Tom Cooley. The Panola Watchman started in July,
1873, by Tom M. Bowers, editor and publisher.
Nacogdoches County The Nacogdoches Chronicle, established
about 1852 by N. J. Moore and J. C. Harrison. Harrison's health
failing in 1854, E. W. Cave, who immigrated from Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania, in 1853, and was engaged as foreman and business
manager, was placed in charge as editor and subsequently pur-
chased and ran the paper till the fall of 1859, when he became
Secretary of State under Governor Houston and continued in that
position until Houston wias deposed in March, 1861. N. J. Moore
resided for years at Sabine Pass. Harrison died in Nacogdoches
in 1854. Cave is at Houston, an officer of the H. & T. C. railroad.
The Chronicle, in the campaign of 1856, had a circulation .of about
5,000 copies. It exerted much influence, and was successful because
of the enthusiasm awakened everywhere for Governor Houston.
It was then the official paper of nearly all southeastern Texas. The
office was sold to H. C. Hancock, who continued it until March,
1862, when he disposed of it to H. C. Cundiff and in about one
year thereafter it went down. After the War, a paper of the same
name was published in 1867-8-9, by Wm. Clark, when it was dis-
continued. Hancock is dead. Clark was a member of the Eighth
Legislature and also of the secession convention of 1861, and was
a good lawyer at Nacogdoches.
FIRST TYPE SET IN TEXAS.
"We are permitted through Mr. Job Male's kindness to
publish an item of some interest concerning the earliest print-
ing done in Texas : Mr. LeFebre set the type for the Consti-
tution of the State of Texas in 1825. At the time he was
working at Nacogdoches in the office of Mr. Milton Slocum,
who edited the first and only paper then published in Texas.
The paper was printed with one side in Spanish and the other
in English. The composing stick in which this work of the
State was done is still in the possession of Mr. LeFdbre, who
resides eight miles from Bryan, and who promised Mr. Hale
to lend him this relic, when it can be seen in this office.
"A. B. Norton, Esqr., Dallas, Texas.
"Dear Sir: Your letter of January 4, 1875, reached me
some three days ago, the enclosed 'clip/ which I now return
to you I have perused, I believe to be a fable. I have no
knowledge of a printing office being established at Nacog-
doches in the year 1825, or of any newspaper being published
there in that year. I have made diligent inquiry and can find
no evidence of its existence. In the year 1825 there was a
printing office at Natchitoches, La., and the newspaper pub-
lished there was printed in Spanish and English. Its name is
unknown to me. If Mr. LeFebre ever set up type in a printing
office in 1825 it probably was at Natchitoches, Louisiana
(frequently confounded with Nacogdoches, Texas, even at
this day). As for his setting up type for the Constitution of
the State of Texas at Nacogdoches in 1825, it is a sheer fabri-
cation. The relic (the composing stick) should be sent back
to Louisiana, -as it does not belong to Texas * * *. A printing
office was established in Nacogdoches, the first in Texas, in the
early part of July, i8iq. I will briefly state the causes that
brought it about by referring to past history.
HISTORY OF THE TEXAS PRESS
"By virtue of the treaty made with France in 1803, the
United States obtained possession of Louisiana and what is
now known as Texas was considered as rightfully belonging
to the United States, and Mr. Jefferson declared the title of
the United States to be good as far as to the Rio Bravo. This
was disputed by Spain ; after much negotiation the United
States unwisely waived its claim and agreed with Spain to
make the Sabine River its western boundary by treaty made
February 22, 1819. This treaty was very unsatisfactory to
the people of the United States, particularly to the Southern
States. A public meeting was held at Natchez early in 1819,
and a company of volunteers raised for the invasion of Texas ;
James Long of Tennessee was elected its commander. He
left Natchez with about 75 men on the I7th of June, 1819, and
pushed on for Natchitoches, Louisiana, thence to the Sabine
and on to Nacogdoches, Texas, where in a short time after
his arrival he was able to muster about three hundred strong.
Nacogdoches had at that time a considerable population in
its vicinity, made up of several tribes of Indians (now
extinct), a great number of Mexicans, also a number of emi-
grant adventurers with their families from the adjoining
States. General Long and the leading men with him in taking
possession of Nacogdoches established a Provisional Govern-
ment and appointed a supreme council of which he was presi-
dent, which issued a declaration proclaiming Texas a free and
independent republic. A printing office, the first establishment
of the kind in Texas, was put in operation under the editorial
conduct of Horace Bigelow, and various laws were enacted for
the organization of the country. David Long was dispatched
with merchandise to the upper crossing of the Trinity to make
friends with and trade with the Indians ; Major Smith with a
company of forty men was stationed at the Cooshattie Village
on the Trinity ; Captain Johnson was sent to establish a Post
at the falls of the Brazos ; Captain Walker was detailed with
twenty-three men to fortify a position on the Brazos at the
HISTORY OF THE TEXAS PRESS
old LaBahia crossing, and Major Cook was ordered to Pecan
Point. The dispersion of his forces led to ultimate disaster.
General Long was desirous of obtaining aid of the notorious
and celebrated pirate, John LaFitte, who had proclaimed him-
self governor of Galveston Island. He dispatched Captain
Gaines to the 'Monarch of Galveston and Viking of the Gulf to
procure of him munitions of war and military assistance ; the
embassy was courteously received, but he declined to render
any aid. LaFitte wrote to General Long conveying his best
wishes for his success and gave a caution to avoid the fate of
his predecessors, Magee, Kemper, Perry and others. Mean-
while the Spanish royalists were rapidly approaching; on the
nth of October they attacked Captain Johnson on the Brazos
and defeated him on the I5th. They attacked Walker's fort
and captured it. The enemy made an attack on the trading
post on the Trinity and destroyed it. Major Smith was defeat-
ed at the Cooshattie Village on the Trinity and those that
escaped fled to Nacogdoches. They were hotly pursued by
the royalists, Nacogdoches was abandoned by its inhabitants
and taken possession of by the Spanish forces commanded by
Colonel Perez. General Long had barely time to escape with
his family to the Sabine, closely pursued by the enemy. Thus
closed this disastrous campaign about the I5th of November,
"I would close my account of General Long by stating that
on reaching New Orleans he succeeded in assembling another
body of men under his command. He proceeded to Galves-
ton and from thence sailed down the coast to the mouth of the
San Antonio and marched (having in his company Colonel
Milam) upon Goliad, where he remained until intelligence was
received of the revolution in favor of Iturbide, and he was invit-
ed by the new government to the City of Mexico, whither he
went and was there assassinated by the connivance of the gov-
ernment. Another account states that Long and a portion of his
followers were taken prisoners and sent to the city of Mexico,
HISTORY OF THE TEXAS PRESS
and that General Long himself was set at liberty and then
assassinated in that city.
"In your letter you ask me for information of the first;
printing press in Nacogdoches. * * * I have but little
knowledge of the several printing presses and newspapers that
have been established in Nacogdoches since the commence-
ment of the Texas Revolution * * *. Yours respectfully,
Tyiler County The Woodville Messenger was published by Jo
A. Kirgan about May, 1856, and continued for a year and then the
establishment Was moved to Polk County under a promise of a
Liberty County The Liberty Gazette was published from 1855
until after secession. Win. Chambers was principal editor. The
Liberty Observer was established in 1870 by T. J. and L. C. Cham-
Polk County The Rising Sun was published at Livingston in
1859-60 by D. M. Crossland & Co., The Argus in 1868 by Jo A.
and E. M. Kirgan.
Trinity County There was at Sumpter, in the fall of 1860, a
small paper styled The Trinity Valley, published by Jo A. Kirgan,
which eked out for a short time a miserable existence, and its in-
dustrious publisher, for the support of his family, turned his atten-
tion to making hide-bottom chairs.
Houston County The Crockett Printer was established by
Osoar Dalton, who came from Louisiana in 1853, and was continued
by Dalton until he was killed at his case in 1860. It was one of the
liveliest, spiciest, and most humorous papers ever published in Texas.
Dalton was a hard-working, industrious printer. The last time we
called, in 1859, we found him working at the press with one of his
boys acting as roller, his wife and some of the children at the cases
setting type. He hailed us with: "Ah, Delhi, you find this family
all at work; we can only make our bread by putting everyone on
duty." The Crockett Argus was established in 1860 by J. M. Hall
and J. C. Hepperla and for a time edited by Preston Hay, one of
the most finished writers ever in the State; truly was Hay a genial,
whole-souled gentleman. After Hall committed a homicide at
Crockett he left the paper. Hepperla was killed during the War.
The Argus was published only in 1860 and 1861. Hay was an un-
compromising Union man and after secession retired to the Pen-
HISTORY OF THE TEXAS PRESS
nington neighborhood and employed his mind in literary pursuits.
He prepared an interesting lecture on General Sam Houston, which
he delivered at several points in 1865-6, and shortly after returned
to Mississippi. The irrepressible Jo Kirgan entered this field in
the fall of 1861 and published the Courier, which he sold to James
R. Burnet, /who during the War ran the Quid Nunc at this place.
The Quid Ntmc was established and published in 1862-3-4 by James
R. Burnet, afterward a District Judge. The Texas Quid Nunc (new
series), was established in July, 1865, with J. H. Potts, as editor
and Botts land Leaverton publishers. The Crockett Sentinel was
published in 1866-7 by A. D. Elam and Leaverton. The Central
Journal was started in 1869 toy R. R. Gilbert, "High Private," and
L. L. Gilbert, who sold out to J. R. Burnet in 1870. The office
was burned in 1871. The East Texas Herald was established by
George W. Leaverton and Frank Bainey in 1873. Led with suc-
ceeded the latter.
Anderson County The Palestine Advocate wias established in
1855 by A. E. McClure, who subsequently associated Matt Dale in
its publication, and it has been continued by McClure and Ewing;
by J. W. Ewing; T. T. Gammage and R. A. Small; H. J. Hunter;
Ewing, Hunter and Nance; J. W. Ewing, and Ewing & Deming.
A. E. McClure was for many years clerk of the court; he died,
leaving an honorable record as a public officer and a gentleman.
Matt Dale was a member of the State Legislature and also of the
secession convention and was killed in Virginia during the War.
The Palestine American was started by A. J. Fowler in 1856 and
was published till 1859. It was a neatly executed journal. Its edi-
tor, Judge Fowler, died in 1885, in Anderson County. He served
as a member of the Congress of the Republic, as district judge, and
creditably filled many positions. The Trinity News, in 1867, was
published by W. F. Hamilton & Co. The Union Republican, in
1869, by W. H. Howard, John H. Morrison, and others. The Cen-
tral Journal, in 1870, by M'orrison and Farr. The Advertiser, by
Jasper Starr, at Starr's Academy, in 1869-70. New Era, 1874, T. J.
Chambers; succeeded by R. H. Small, editor, R. H. and J. T. Small
Rusk County The Henderson Democrat, by M. D. Ector and
James Estill. The Star Spangled Banner was published by J. W.
Flanagan in 1856 as an American journal and was conducted with
much spirit. Mr. Flanagan has been a legislator, lieutenant governor,
and United States Senator. The Henderson Era, by Swan and
S. G. Swan, was a wide-awake American journal in 1857-8-9. The
HISTORY OF THE TEXAS PRESS
Henderson Times was established in 1859 by J. M. Dodson; and
continued to be published by J. M. Dodson & Co., tilll 1872. Since
then it has 'been continued by W. W. Spivey and Frank S. Blanton.
Dodson was an honest, good man, an old Whig and Unionist, and
after the War his paper became more conservative and democratic.
The Texas Farmer was established in 1868 by J. M. Dodson and
W. K. Marshall.
Cherokee County The Rusk Pioneer, 1849, by Rev. J. A. Clark.
The Cherokee Sentinel, about 1848, by A. Jackson and Long, first
started as a joint stock concern by A. J. Hood, Wm. Wiggins, et al.
The Texas Enquirer by W. T. Yeomans in 1855-6-7 and '60-61. The
Rusk Observer was established in 1865, published the greater part
of the time since by Veitch, Barron, Jackson and Templeton
Tom J. Johnson, editor; Jack Davis, H. S. Newland, J. Dillard,
Don A. Veitch, B. Barron, Williams, Sam A. Wilson, and
Jackson. Texas Freemason, in 1859-60, by Andrew Jackson and
W. T. Yeomans. Jacksonville Texas Intelligencer by Rev. J. K.
Street and D. C. Williams, established in 1871; A. R. McCollum
and J. H. Mason & Co. publishers in 1873-4. The Cherokee Ad-
vertiser, .established in 1870, Hogg (J. S.) and Templeton editors
and A. Jackson publisher.
Smith County The Tyler Reporter was established in 1854
by Stanley M. Warner and published afterwards by W. V. Hamilton
& Co., Sid S. Johnson and J. P. Douglass and Callahan and Hamilton
and D. C. Williams. Tyler Sentinel, 1860, by W. H. Smith. The
Confederate Journal. January, 1861, G. W. Chilton, editor, and
Irvin T. Cowsar, publisher. The Tyler Index, established in 1866
and published regularly since by S. D. Wood & Co., and H. C.
Hunt & Co., H. C. Manning and S. D. Wood. Tyler Weekly Jour-
nal, I. T. B. Coiwsar. The Tyler Newsletter, June, 1872, by C. L.
Collins. Martin's Texas Advertiser, published in 1871. The Tri-
Weekly Sun, 1871, by Horace Chilton. The Tyler Democrat, pub-
lished by H. V. Hamilton and L. H. Beaird in 1872. The Tyler
Reporter in 1873 published a daily for a short time, but discon-
tinued it for want of patronage. Troup had a paper, started by
C. L. Collins & Co., in 1874.
Harrison County The Star-State Patriot, published by Wither-
spoon and edited by Howard Burnside, 1848. It was a very hand-
some appearing, well conducted paper. Burnside was a graduate
of Kenyon College, Ohio, possessing considerable talent, and a
graceful writer. Fie died at Marshall. The Southern Pacific, a rail-
road paper, edited mainly by Josiah Marshall, in 1854-5; A. T.
HISTORY OF THE TEXAS PRESS
Smith, business manager. The Harrison Flag, established by Cap-
tain J. W. Biarrett in 1856, and published in 1857-8-9-'60, and until
his death a Whig and American journal conducted with great abil-
ity by as chivalrous a gentleman and as true a friend as ever lived.
After the War, The Harrison Flag was revived by Captain G. W.
Barrett, son of its founder, and continued till 1872. The Texas
Republican, established in 1849 by T. A. and Frank J. Patillo,
father and son, a strict construction Democratic paper. After a
few issues, T. A. Patillo disposed of his half-interest to R. W.
Loughery. Patillo & Loughery continued the paper for two years
when F. J. Patillo sold his interest to R. W. Loughery. In 1868
The Republican was consolidated with The Jefferson Times. The
name was given in hion'or of the Republic of Texas and the Repub-
lican principles of the Jefferson school. It was always ably edited
and neatly executed. The Marshall Weekly, the largest and hand-
somest paper ever in this section, published in 1869 by a company
of Republicans, Wm. Umbdemstock & Co., managers, H. R He Tick
editor. Of too great pretensions, it survived only a year. The East
Texas Bulletin was established April, 1871, by J. S. Lewis and
Hamments publishers; T. P. Hawley afterwards its editor. The
Marshall Reporter, April, 1871, by J. M. Kennedy. The Marshall
News, 1874, J. M. Curtis editor, Charles Martin publisher. The
Texas Iron Age, established in 1873, R. C. Clark editor and pub-
lisher; succeeded by J. W. Burch & Co., and W. Y. Leader. Halls-
ville News, 1874, by Charles Martin editor and publisher.
Marion County The first paper was The Herald, established
by Frank Clark in 1854. He was an impetuous, impulsive writer
and conducted the paper with much ability. He died in 1856. The
Herald was continued by H. L. Grinstead in 1857; and in 1858 by
R. H. Ward, Jr.; in 1860, H. F. O'Neal published it as The Herald
and Reporter. The Jefferson Gazette was published by J. W. Nimmo
in 1857, and with him was associated Mike Farley in 1858. In
1860 The Herald and Gazette was published by Shad E. Eggers.
The Star-State Jeffersonian was published by James A. Warner
and Tom P. Ochiltree and was violent and denunciatory in the
winter of 1860-61. The Jimplecute was established in 1865, pub-
lished as a semi-weekly in 1867, by Taylor and Morgan; 1869 by
Tayilor and Campbell, afterwards by Ward Taylor, and Taylor,
McCutchen & Go. It suspended in 1872, was revived in 1874 by
Taylor, Morgan & Co. Trans-Mississippi Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 1,
July 8, 1864; subscription price $25 per year; $15 for six months;
Allen Kirbie editor. The Commercial Bulletin, 1866-7, by Walker
HISTORY OF THE TEXAS PRESS
and Kirbie. Norton's Union Intelligencer, 1867-8, by A. B. Nor-
1"0". and forred bv mo'b violence to suspend in 'the days of blciod
and crime. The Weekly Clarion started about July 1st, 1867, by
E. E. Collins and A. A. Spence publishers, Charles Lewis editor,
24x36, $3 per annum, published about six months. Motto: "Ex-
tremely right, or extremely wrong no middle ground for truth."
The Jefferson Times, May, 1867-8, R. W. Loughery and A. D. Mc-
Cutchen; weekly and daily, October, 1867; in 1868, consolidated with
The Marshall Republican, and continued as The Times and Re-
publican by R. H. Loughery until in 1872, when the office was
destroyed by fire. The Evening Reflector, a weekly school and
literary journal, 1868, F. J. Patillo editor and proprietor. The
Ultra Ku-Klux, a 24x36 paper was started about the 14th of April
by R. R. Haynes & Co., editors and proprietors; issued every