Flora Louise Shaw Lugard.

A tropical dependency : an outline of the ancient history of the western Sudan with an account of the modern settlement of northern Nigeria online

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peaceful organisation of the country under just laws,
the maintenance of order, and the opening of com-
munication with the outer world. When these objects
have been attained, the administration may be re-
garded as having done its part. It holds the field in
the interests alike of the native and the European. It
is for European trade itself to do the rest.

The wealth of opportunity cannot be doubted, and
private enterprise is already following close upon the
heels of established government. The returns of Euro-
pean trade with the Protectorate are not at present
published in a form which makes accurate figures at-
tainable, but the two European firms who do the prin-
cipal trade have for the last year given incomplete
figures, which reach a total of about ;^300,ooo. This
is exclusive of European trade done for Government
through the Crown Agents, and also of trade of which
the values in European goods done by native traders
are not known. Some ;^6o,ooo worth of British cottons
are estimated to have been imported last year by petty



496 A TROPICAL DEPENDENCY

native traders living at Ilorin. The trade is entirely
exclusive of trade spirits, which are not admitted into
Northern Nigeria, and small as its total is at present, it
equals already about half the trade which was done
forty years ago with all the West Coast settlements
together.

This is not a despicable beginning when it is con-
sidered that there are at present but two English firms
who have established operations in the country, and
that they have not yet taken possession of the field
which has been opened by the extension of British
administration to the northern provinces and to Bornu.
It must be understood that in entering the northern
states we enter regions of civilised industry which bear
no comparison with the peoples of the coast, and which
have already markets susceptible of indefinite expansion.

Over the greater part of the territories the native
population are reported as being eager to buy English
agricultural implements. Some dissatisfaction has been
felt with the bad quality of English cloth which has
been introduced, and a consequent impetus has been
given to native dyeing and weaving industries, but for
good cloth there is a ready sale. Hardware, needles,
thread, writing paper, mirrors, and many other articles
of English manufacture, are keenly appreciated, and
since the superiority of the road from Lagos to Kano
has been demonstrated over the desert route to Tripoli,
it is to be hoped that English goods will before long
take the place in the market of Kano which has
hitherto been held by other European goods imported
through the Mediterranean coast. Tea, of which the
stimulating quality is recognised by the Tuaregs of the
desert, under the name of "Water of Zem-Zem," has
now largely taken the place of coffee with the richer
class of Mohammedans ; and European provisions are
readily bought in the northern states.

Here a wide market evidently waits. Two main
obstacles are opposed to the rapid development of trade.



THE DEVELOPMENT OF TRADE 497

One is a radical difficulty which the development of inter-
course and the promotion of native prosperity can alone
remove. Natives are ready to buy, but they do not
possess in sufficient quantity a marketable equivalent
for European goods. Native manufactures have no
value in European markets. Horses and cattle are too
cumbersome for export. Cowries are only locally useful.
Exchange must therefore be based solely on produce
which has value in European markets, and which is suffi-
ciently portable for export under present conditions.
Even this to be profitable must be in bulk, and retail
trade is impracticable while small payments have to be
made in kind. The same difficulty attaches to the col-
lection of Government taxes, which for the present have
to be paid for the greater part in kind. The solution
evidently is to be found in the encouragement of a
surplus production in native industries of which the pro-
duce can be profitably exported, combined with the in-
troduction of a cash currency as a medium of general
exchange. In this way native existing industries of
the kind most valuable to Europe will, by a natural
process, be expanded, and new ones will be sought which
will gradually extend the basis of an export trade. The
stimulus to this movement will be supplied by the desire
to possess articles procurable only with the required forms
of produce, and though the operation of the movement
may require time, it may on the whole be trusted to cor-
respond with the amount of enterprise displayed on the
part of European firms in introducing new commodities
to the native markets. Already, as has been seen, a
good deal has been done by the administration in the
direction of introducing a cash currency, and silver coins
are coming into general use.

It has been seen, in describing the early history of
the Royal Niger Company, that its founders looked
to the northern states of Haussaland for the ultimate
success of its trading operations. Here they expected
to meet with returns which should repay all the adminis-

2 I



498 A TROPICAL DEPENDENCY

trative expense of opening the northern country to
British influence, and there is no reason to suppose
that they were mistaken. The reaUsation of their ideal
is now attainable. The burden of administrative ex-
pense has been assumed by the British taxpayer. The
country has been opened, not only to one firm, but to
all legitimate British trade, and it is for British trade
to develop the wealth of the markets which at that
time were beyond its reach.

The second obstacle to the development of trade is
easier to remove than the first. It is the obvious diffi-
culty of transport which arises from the very nature of
an extended trade. The existing system of human
carriage, if the most natural to a semi-civilised society,
is absolutely opposed to any large commercial movement.
Were it possible to obtain carriers for the transportation
of goods in bulk, armies of men would be required,
who would destroy, by the mere fact of their passage,
the country over which any large produce trade was
in operation. The time required for such transport
would be prohibitive, and the cost, as calculated in
Northern Nigeria under present circumstances, would be
two shillings per ton per mile, as opposed to the fraction
of a penny for which certain classes of goods would be
carried by rail. Add to this that heavy machinery,
such as may be required for mining, cotton pressing, &c.,
cannot be transported at all by human carriage, and it
is evident that the present system of carrier transport
is hopelessly condemned. Were there no other argument
against it, the mere fact that every man who is employed
as a carrier represents so much labour taken away from
production is itself a sufficient reason for regarding the
system as the most costly and unprofitable that can be
employed. Human carriage is a concomitant of slavery.
With the abolition of slavery it becomes impossible.

One of the first endeavours of the administration
has been so to improve the main trade routes of the
Protectorate as to render them fit for the more general



THE DEVELOPMENT OF IRADE 499

employment of animal transport, and between Ziint;crii
and Kano a fairly good cart road, fit for the employnu-iu
of wheeled vehicles, will soon have been c(inii)U-icci.
The opening of navigable waterways has also already
placed some rich districts within easy reach of European
trade, but the urgent need of the Protectorate from
every point of view, political and commercial, is obviously
for the introduction of railways. These need not in
the first instance be expensive. The country is generallv
open, the gradients of the main routes are easy, and
there are no impassable obstacles which call for costly
engineering works. The development of trade must be
necessarily gradual, and in order to keep pace with it, a
railway so light as to be little more than a tramway,
along which waggons could be drawn by steam, might,
in the first instance, be laid from a navigable port on
the Niger to Zungeru, and thence along the route which
has been cleared for the construction of a cart-road
to Zaria and Kano. This is the caravan route which
traverses some of the richest and most populous districts
of the country. When the markets of this district had
been worked, it would perhaps be time enough to extend
a similar cheap service from Kano to the capital of
Bornu. If the trade which resulted were sufficient to
justify further expense, the construction of more solid
railways would rapidly follow. Transport in a peaceful
country is not in truth a difiiculty. It is little more
than a calculation of profit and loss.

The administration of Northern Nigeria is but five
years old. Its duty has been to bring under control a
congeries of states, of which the internal disorders necessi-
tated, in the first instance, a resort to the plain argument
of military conquest. The administration has not in
the short period of its existence been able to do more
than to affirm the conquest of the country, and to create
a skeleton of the machinery of government which it
will be for time to bring to its full perfection. But a
beginning has been made. The framework of adminis-



500 A TROPICAL DEPENDENCY

tration has been established in all the provinces. A
territory which we found in chaos has been brought
to order. The slave trade has been abolished within
its frontiers. Its subject races have been secured in
the possession of their lives and • property. Its rulers
have been converted with their own consent into officials
of the British Crown, and are working sympathetically
to promote an order of things that shall render a return
to old abuse impossible. There has been no great
shock and no convulsion, only into the veins of a deca-
dent civilisation new blood has been introduced, which
has brought with it the promise of a new era of life.

Thus a territory has been opened, in which the genius
for administration, and the adventurousness in trade, which
have always characterised the British people, have once
more the opportunity of working side by side to the ac-
complishment of great national results. It is a union
which in times past brought the British Empire into exist-
ence. It gave us India, it gave us Canada, and though
these are great names, there is a reasonable ground for
hope that the chapter of Imperial history which has been
opened in the interior of West Africa will not prove
unworthy of the rest.



L'i



^



W'



I A US




INDEX



Abdurrahman I., 32, 44
Abdurrahman II., 50, 51
Abou Bekr. See Askia Abou Bekr
Abou Bekr of Wankore, teacher,

204-206
Abou el Hagen of Morocco, 75, 76,

127, 134
Abou Ishak or Toueidjen, 125, 126
Adouatein. See Spain and Africa,

dual empire
Africa —

Cut off from Europe by Turkish pos-
session of N. Coast, 294
Early civilisation, 10-13
European influence on interior and

coast different, 344, 345
First settlements on coast line only,

320, 321
Inferior races always driven south,

316, 317
North Coast of Africa. See that

title
Slave trade. See that title
Soudan. See that title
Two great trade routes to interior,

223-226
West Coast of Africa. See that title
Aghadez, 195, 201
Ahmed Baba, Soudan historian, 156,

204
Aiwalatin, 90, 93, 96, 97, 130, 165, 175
Al Gazzali, 36

Al-Hazen, Arab optician, 36
Al Maimon, Arab astronomer, 35
Al Mansur, 51, 52
Alarcos, Battle of, 64
Alexander the Great, 94
Algebra, product of Arab civilisation,

35
Ali Folen, 191, 196, 211
All Ghajideni, reign of. See Bornu,

273-276



Almohades sect conquers Morocco

and Spain, 58, 59
Almoravides, The —

Desert Kingdom, 107-112

Dual Empire, Spain and Morocco,
55, 56

Origin, 54

Lose Spain and Morocco, 59
Andalusia. See Spain
Arabic numerals, 35
Arabs —

Andalusian immigration, value of,
67-72

Early dealings with Negroland, 84-89

Great scientists, philosophers, his-
torians, 35-40

Learning and achievements in
medieval times, 32-49, 67-72

North Africa conquered by, 24-29

Ommeyades dynasty, 32-49

Spain conquered, 29-32
Armour used in Haussaland, 251
Artesian water, 1 18
Ash-shakandi epistle quoted, 60, 61
Askia Abou Bekr —

Ascends Songhay throne, 181

Conquests, 190-198

Death, 211-212

Minister to Sonni Ali, 1 71-173

Pilgrimage to Mecca, 182-189

Reforms, 199-202
Audoghast, 90-93 ; sacked, 107
Avempace, Arab physician, 39
Averrhoes, Arab scholar, 36, 64, 65
Avicenna, Arab philosopher, 35, 36
Azlecs, practices similar to those of
African blacks, 137-139



Bajazet, Sultan, 286, 287
Barbar)^, learning and splendour at
Tunis, 71
SOI



502



INDEX



Barbot, quoted, 322, 323, 324, 334, 336,

2,17, 340
Earth, Dr., explorer, quoted, 155, 156,
157, 260, 262, 263, 271, 342, 377,
179, 465
Bautchi submits to British administra-
tion, 434
Bello, Sultan —

Quoted, 270, 275, 276
Reign of, 390-398
Ben Musa, Arab geometer, 35
Benins, The, 179
Berber Tribes —

Almohades rule in Spain, 58-65
Almoravides. See that title
Conquered by Arabs : result, amal-
gamation, 26-32
Characteristics similar to primitive

races of N. Europe, 32, 34
Lemtunah nation, 53
Origin of, 13-15

Revolt and conquer Spain, 52-57
Blyden, Dr., quoted, 376
Borgu, kingdom of, 106, 179; con-
quered by Askia, 193
Bornu States —

Condition at time of Moorish in-
vasion, 286
Disruption in, 399, 400
History of, 106, 236, 251, 252, 254,

264, 268-281
Invaded by Fulani, 388
Mohammed el Kanemi, 388, 389
Occupied by British, 433-436
Slave-raid described, 412-415
Bosman, quoted, 338, 340
Brandenburgh, has settlements on

West Coast, 326
British Empire —

Not a white empire, i
Tropical area, extent and richness,
I, 2
Burials, Royal, in Ghana, 67



Caill^, Ren^, 341
Caliphate, The —
Divides into Eastern and Western

Caliphates, 32, 34
Eastern, overthrown by Tartars, 67
Western breaks up into three
Powers, 67
Cannibalism, 124



Caravan routes, 15-17

Cargill, Dr., quoted, 47

Carnegie, Mr., 422

Chartered Company on West Coast

(seventeenth century), 329-332
Chinese coins found on East Coast

of Africa, 222
Chinese labour. See Coloured labour
Christianity —

Spread in Central Africa by re.
fugees, 234

Stronghold in N. Africa in early
days, 14
Clapperton, Captain, explorer, 342
Coloured labour, 3-6
Columbus, 185-187, 188, 292
Congo Free State founded, 350
Cordova. See under Spain
Cotton growing, N. Nigeria, 487-489
Crusades, The, 59, 251
Cyrene, 13



Dahomey, French Protectorate of, 358
Decoeur, Captain, 359, 360
Delafosse, M., quoted, 379, 380
Denham, Major, quoted, 342, 376,

377, 388, 389, 409
Denmark —

Cruelty of agents on West Coast, 337

Settlements, 326, 329
Djolfs, The, 81
Djouder Pasha, commander Moorish

army, 296-305, 31 1-3 13
Dutch settlement on West Coast,

325-327, 329, 330, 337
Dwarfs, near Gao, 157, 158



Ebn Junis, astronomer, invented

pendulum, 35, 38
Egypt-
Conquered by Cambyses, 95

Early civilisation, 9, 10

Ethiopian dynasty, Persian con-
quest, the Ptolemies, 233, 234

Expeditions westward and south-
ward under Pharaoh, 230-234

Hyksos dy nasty, 3

Mamelukes, invaded by Tamerlane,
286

Nimrod the Powerful, legend, 227-
228



INDEX



503



EI Bekri, historian of Negroland —
Life, 85-89

Quoted, 91, 95, 96, 98, 105, 108, 160
El Idrisi, geographer, quoted, 37, 38,

no, 115
England —

Attitude towards slavery, 462
Exploration in Central Africa, 341-

342
International race for territory in

Africa, 350-355
Policy, to withdraw from native

affairs, 345-349
Settlements on West Coast, 326-331
Slave trade. See that title
Equator, curious theory concerning,

176
Es-sadi, Soudan historian, 155
Es Soyouti, 184
Ethiopians. See Meroe
Europe —

Barbarian invasion from north, 33
Exploring expeditions into Central

Africa, 341-342
International race for territory in

Africa, 350-355
Mohammedan civilisation in. See

Spain
Mohammedans expelled from Wes-
tern Europe, 289-295
Settlements on West Coast of Africa.

See West Coast of Africa
Turkish Empire conquers Mediter-
ranean coasts, 288-289
Exploration in Central Africa by
Europeans, 341-342, 350-355



Ferdinand and Isabella. See Spain
Fez. See under Morocco
France —

Ambitions in Africa, 349, 350-354
Settlements on West Coast, 323-

325, 326
Strained relations on Nigerian

boundary, 358-360
Violation of British border in Bornu,

433, 435
Franco - German War stimulates

Colonial ambition, 349
Fulani race, 21, 22, 81, 87, 194, 252,

253
Degeneration and cruelty, 401-404 |



Fulani race {continued)

Empire founded— a Holy War, 385-

Haussaland conquered, 387
History, legends, itc, 374-380
Moorish rule thrown off, 384, 385
Origin of kings, 381-382
Overthrown in Hornu, 388
Spiritualism and second sight, 393
Sultan Bello's reign, 390-398
System of administration, 405, 406



Gago or Kaougha. See Songhay
Gambia, colony founded, 343, 345
Gando accepts British administration,

447
Geber or Djajar, Arab chemist, 36
Genowah, 7
Germany, competition for African

territory, 354, 360
Ghana, Kingdom of —

Aiwalatin. Sec that title

Black dynasty overthrown, 110-112

Conquered by Susu, then by Melle,
104, 119

Decay of, 116, 117

History of, 93-99

Trade, 100-103
Gibbon quoted, 290
Gibraltar, etymology, 30
Gold and gold mines, 98, 105, m, 112,

147, 148
Gold Coast Colony founded, 343, 345
Goldie, Sir George, 352, 356, 364, 365
Great Britain. See England
Gunpowder, Arab invention, 36



Hakluyt quoted, 327
Haussa States —
Bornu State. See that title
British administration introduced.

Sec Nigeria
Condition at time of Moorish in-
vasion, 284-2S5
Condition when British authority is

introduced, 406, 407
Conquered by Askia, 195
Daura, legends concerning, 260
Degeneration of P'ulani rule, 401-

405
Early religion, 242-246



504



INDEX



Haussa States {continued)
Fulani rule —
Conquest, 387

Reign of Sultan Bello, 390-398
States revolt, are defeated, 391,
393-396
Gober, State of, 265-266
Histor}' and legends, 236-242, 246-

257, 258-267
Kano. See that title
Katsena. See that title
Queen Amina of Zaria, 246, 247, 252
Soldiers' generosity to enemies, 213
States. See their various titles
Travelling traders, 285
Haussa Regiment. See West African

Frontier Police
Heeren, quoted, 222
Herodotus, quoted, 10, 12, 19, 221
Homeman, explorer, 341
Hygienic rules of Katib Moussa, 126
Hyksos dynasty, Egypt, 379

Ibn B.^tuta —

Journeyings, 74, 75

Visits to Melle, 129-141, 144, 149-1 5 1
Ibn Haukal, quoted, 84
Ibn Khaldun, quoted, 73, 74
Ibn Said, Arab historian, quoted, 37,

47, 60, 63, 69, 70
Ibn Zohr, Arab physician, 39
Ifrikiah, Province of —

Hafside dynasty, 65

{See also Barbary States)
Isabella, Queen of Spain. See Spain



Japan and native labour, 5
Jenne —

Ancient Egyptian influence in, 161

Riots under Moorish rule, 306

Submits to Sonni AH, 174

Territory of, 146, 147, 165
"Jigger," The, 124
JolofTrace, 375

Kagho or Kaougha. See Songhay
Kanem. See Bornu
Kano —

Bornu attack upon, 280

British expedition and occupation,
439-446



Kano {continued)

Conquest by Songhay and decline,

254-257, 266, 267
History, 249-254

Legend concerning, 242-244, 248
Prison, 402
Kanta. See Kebbi
Katsena —

Accepts British administration, 446
Province and town of, 261-265
Kebbi Principality —
Founded, 196
Importance of, 275
Katsena. See that title
Partly Fulani, 283, 284
Struggle with Bornu, 276, 277, 284
Kontagora, hostile attitude to British,

421, 422, 426
Kororofa, State of, 238
Kuka or Kaougha. See under Songhay



Labour. See Coloured labour, also

Slave trade
Laing, Major, explorer, 342
Landor, Richard, explorer, 342
Lauture, M. de, quoted, 21, 79, 378
Lem-Lems or cannibals, 98
Leo Africanus quoted, 254, 412
Libyans. See Berber tribes
Lugard, Col. Sir Frederick —

Concludes treaty at Nikki, 359, 360
High Commissioner, N. Nigeria, 364
Organises West African Frontier
Police, 361
Lyon, explorer, 342



Maghreb. See Morocco
Magic and talismans, 228, 229
Makkari family, traders, 100-103
Maloney, Captain, murder of, 436, 437
Mansa Musa, King of Melle
Pilgrimage to Mecca, 120-128
Sends embassy to Merinite king,

75^77
Masina, Fulani stronghold, 104, 381

382, 386
Mecca, Askia Abou Bekr visits, 185
Melle, Empire of —

Conquered by Askia, 192
Decay and conquest by Songhay,
121, 152, 166



INDEX



505



Melle, Empire oi {continue<f)
Early history, 82, 105, 115
Ibn Batuta's visit, 134-141
Mansa Musa, reign of, 120-128
Practices similar to those of Aztecs,

137. 138
Practices similar to those of N.

Europe, 145, 149
Sends presents to King of Morocco,

75, 76, 127
Songhay conquered, 120, 161
System of administration, 142-151
Trade and history of kings, 1 17-120

Meroe —

Civilisation of, 219-222
Trade routes, 222-226

Mineral resources of N. Nigeria, 489

Misraim, burial of, 97

Missionaries on W. Coast, 326

Moguls. See Tamerlane

Mohammed Abou Bekr. See Askia

Mohammed ben Zergoun, 301-312

Mohammed el Kanemi, campaign
against Sultan Bello, 388, 395,
396

Mohammed Koti, 202

Mohammedanism —

Melle and Songhay accept, 118-121
Northern belt of Soudan converted,

no
Taxes recognised by, 468-470

Moors, The —
Expulsion from Spain, 291-295
Songhay conquered under Djouder
Pasha, 296-314

Morland, Colonel, 432, 433, 443

Morocco —
Arabs conquer, 27, 28
City founded by Almoravides, 108
Embassy to kingdom of Melle, 76,

127
Gained by Merinites, 65, 66, 67
Learning and splendour at Fez,

74,75
List of presents to Sultan of Turkey,

75, 76
Mossi, State of^

Attacks Melle, 165, 175

Conquered by Askia, 192

Conquest by Sonni Ali, 178
Mungo Park —

Journeys, 341, 351

Quoted, 373, 375, 2,76



Musa Nosseyr, and conquest of N.

Africa and Spain, 25-30
Muskets in use in Hornu, 278, 280



African Co. formed,
; (later see Royal Nij{cr



Nation.\l

352-355
Co.)

Native labour. See Coloured labour,

also Slave trade
Negro, admixture of Arab blood, 83
Negroland. See also Soudan-
Arab dealings with, 84
Early records, 81, 82
El Bekri's account, 85-87
Frontage upon civilisation reversed

after 1500, 188
Genealogies and dynasties traced

through female line, 119, 131
Inferior races driven south, 20-21,

22, 23
No Spanish Arab conquest prior

to seventeenth century, 79
Physical features and boundaries,

79-80
Sidjilmessa, 87

Tide of progress from West east-
ward, also decadence, 78, 82
Western routes from N. Africa,
87-89
Niger, The —

El Bekri's account, 105
Ibn Batuta's description, 133
Richness of lower reaches, 366
Trade of Niger Co. and Royal Niger

Co. See those titles
Watershed, value of, 352
Niger Company, trade expansion to

North, 367-371
Nigeria —

Boundaries of, 356-358, 362
Divided into North and South

Nigeria, 363, 364
Geographical position, 7, 21
North Nigeria. See that title
Race to secure treaty at Nikki,
358-360
Nigretis Tribe, 20
Nikki, Treaty of, 359, 360
North Africa —

Arab conquest, 24-29
Three natural zones, 7-9
Turkish conquest, 286-288,
2 K



^94



5o6



INDEX



Northern Nigeria, British administra-
tion —
Climate, 482

Communication, means of, 482, 484
Early history, 417-425
Expeditions against Yola and Bornu,

432-437

Future of, potential resources,
485-490

Installation of new Emirs, 449-459

Judicial system, 477-480

Kano occupied, 438-446

Native hatred of Fulani rule, 442, 443

Oath of allegiance, 457

Organisation of British administra-
tion, 480-482

Policy of working through native
chiefs, 426-430

Railways urgently needed, 482, 498,

499
Sokoto, expedition and occupation,

447-455
System of Emirs and Chiefs, 456, 459
Taxation —

Mohammedan States, 468-475

Pagan States, 476, 477
Trade —

Caravans and tolls, 492, 495

With outer world, prospects, 491,

495-499
Nupe, Kingdom of —
Great antiquity, 106
Hostile attitude to British, 421, 422
Pacification, 427-429

Oil Rivers Protectorate, 366
Oudney, Dr., 342

Paganism —

Customs and legends, Haussaland,
242-244

Driven ever farther south, 116

Fetishism, 317-319 ; decay of, 260,
261

West Coast Africa, low type, 334
Park. See Mungo Park
Persian influence in Negroland, 94,95
Pharaohs. See Egypt
Pharusii Tribe, 20
Phoenicians, The —

Civilisation of, 10-13

Organisation of States, 240-242



Portugal —

Embassies to Sonni Ali and to
Mossi, 177, 178

Exploration of W. African Coast,



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