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handsome, has an animated and expressive coun-
tenance, and her figure is fine and commanding. She
looked at that moment every inch the Empress, and
when I reflected upon her fallen state — a mother
deprived of the child whom she adores — I felt for her
the deepest sympathy.

Our dinner-party of six persons, including ourselves,
comprised two gentlemen— General Niepperg and her
Secretary — and her Lady-in-Waiting. The Empress
did not allow the conversation to flag for a moment,
and 1 soon felt quite at ease with her.

After dinner we went into the salon, and I had an
opportunity of speaking to Marie Louise about her
son. When I told her how interesting he was, and how
fond everybody in Vienna was of him, her eyes filled
with tears. She said: "Qui, ma seule consolation
c'est, que je crois qu'on l'aime beaucoup. II y a dix
mois que je ne l'ai pas vu. II s'est beaucoup amuse a
danser." They had told her, in a letter, the story of
the Lion !

Marie Louise spoke of making a journey to
England, which she said would give her great



384 GENERAL NIEPPERG [ch. xvni

pleasure. She told me that she was learning English.
She also spoke with enthusiasm of her Swiss tour,
to which she attributes her complete restoration to
health, which had severely suffered after her husband's
fall.

I cannot help thinking that General Niepperg, who
accompanied her on that romantic tour, had more
to do with it than the climate. She seems to be
deeply attached to him, and Shelley thinks . . .

At nine o'clock, the Empress said that as we
proposed to leave Parma very early in the morning,
she would detain us no longer. She graciously
expressed a hope that we would return to Parma,
and make a longer stay.

Next morning at five o'clock we left this old town,
and drove for an hour in the dark. Although 1 had
heard strange stories .about brigands in these parts,
I felt no fear, and slept all the time.

On that same day one courier was stopped near
Cremona and robbed of twelve thousand francs ! As
they did not take the letters, they had probably
received information that he was carrying money.
After Piacenza we crossed the Po, over a bridge
composed of fifty-two barges. This bridge was made
by the French two years ago. Formerly there was
a ferry. We passed through Lodi, crossed the cele-
brated bridge, 1 and reached Milan before dark. The
entrance to this town is beautiful, and its whole
appearance cheerful and clean. The women are
particularly pretty. They wear their hair dressed
in plaits, which are held up behind by silver pins.
It is dreadfully cold here, and I am astonished at
the women's summer dresses.

1 Bonaparte's glorious passage, on May io, 1796, of the narrow wooden
bridge of Lodi, against a terrible storm of grape-shot, contributed greatly
to exalt the character and raise the courage of the Republican troops, by
inspiring them with the belief that nothing could resist them. According
to Alison, the bridge of Lodi exactly resembles the wooden bridge over the
Clyde at Glasgow, in form, in materials, and in length.



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IN






iSi7] MILAN 385

We sent out our letters, and received an invitation
from Monsieur de Saran, the Austrian Governor, to
dine with him next day ; also an offer of his box at
the Opera to-night. We went, and saw " Mahomet,"
by Winter. The music is beautiful, and the singers
good. The Scala is built upon the same plan as
the San Carlo at Naples, but it pleases me better.
We waited to see it lit up for the masked ball.
During the performances the auditorium is totally
dark ; this takes off much of the illusion, and gives
the actors the appearance of puppets, while the
stage itself looks like a large picture. During the
ballet the effect was good, but there are no especially
good dancers.

Madame Amedi, a lively German, Mr. Fitzgerald,
an Italianised, mad, but honest and hearty Irishman,
and several other people, came into our box.

My first visit next morning was to the fine Gothic
Cathedral, clothed in pure white marble. It was
nearly completed by the French ; the unfinished
part is now at a standstill. It was in front of
the Imperial Palace, on the south side of the Duomo,
that the Viceroy, Eugene Beauharnais, reviewed his
troops before their fatal march to Moscow. Alas !
of that gallant band only one hundred and thirty
returned to tell the saddest tale in history. What
a theme for poetry!

I went to see the famous "Last Supper" by
Leonardo da Vinci. The original is mouldering on
the wall, and is nearly destroyed. It is now being
copied in mosaic by a Roman artist for the Govern-
ment. His work is on an immense scale, and as it
is being done in separate pieces, I fear that they
will not join without the lines being seen.

On my way to the Triumphal Arch, I passed the

Forum Bonaparte, which was cleared by Napoleon

close to the ruins of the Castle of the Viscontis and

Sforzas. It is now a large green park planted with

1— 2 5



386 THE CARNIVAL [ch. xviii

trees. On another part of the ground Napoleon has
built a Circus, on the Roman plan, where he enter-
tained the people with games. The Austrians still
go on with this, and in summer there are chariot,
foot, and horse-races, and a Naumachia with boat-
races.

Whenever the Triumphal Arch is finished, it will
be a very noble edifice, as, though larger, it is nearly
on the plan of the Arch of Titus. A good part of
this Arch being finished, it would not require more
than six months 'to complete it ; but the Austrians,
instead of going on with it, talk of removing it to
another spot. In my opinion it ought to be left
where it is, at the termination of the Simplon road,
which was one of Napoleon's most useful works.

Surely, one may allow him a Triumphal Arch,
especially as it is not aggressive. The entrance to
Milan is not usually from that quarter of the town.
The reason that Suwarow gives for removing it,
namely, that it is not seen by those who enter,
appears to me to be in its favour. It would form
an historical ornament, without daily or hourly
recalling to the memory of the people the deeds of
their fallen but belover ruler.

From a house on the Corso we saw the Carnival
in all its dull gaiety. What possible amusement
can the Milanese find in driving for hours up and
down the streets, throwing with incomprehensible
gravity sugar-plums at the multitude ? Those who
are not masked, go to display their equipages. They
dress very much as we do in Hyde Park, but the} 1-
run the risk of losing an eye, owing to the force
with which the " masks " unmercifully pelt the
occupants of the carriages. The prettiest part of
the scene was the number of pretty women who
lined the balconies all the way along the street.

During this visit to Milan, I met Madame Cafarelli,
whose history interests me. She is the daughter of



i8i7] MONZA 387

an emigrant Royalist, and, after a youth of peril and
misfortune, married Bonaparte's famous General,
Cafarelli, who was Governor of Milan, and received
from the Emperor large tracts of land in Lombard}'.
On the fall of Bonaparte, the Cafarellis lost all their
possessions. She is now tr}-ing to recover enough to
live upon, from the Austrian Government. As
Madame Cafarelli was humble in the days of her
prosperity, she is much beloved at Milan, and as she
now bears her misfortunes with noble fortitude, she
commands universal respect. I fear, however, that
she is deluded by false hopes, and that the Austrians
will not do anything for her.

We had a long, cold, and dusty drive to Monza,
which is ten miles from Milan. We visited the
Cathedral, where they keep the celebrated Iron
Crown, which was last worn by Napoleon. Bonaparte
instituted from this historic relic the Italian Order of
the Iron Crown. Among the treasures in the church
are some ivory tablets, on which the Romans wrote.
There is also a cup, made from a single sapphire, now
restored, or rather lost, to the world, by being buried
in this dark sacristy.

We left Milan, taking an escort for the first stage, and
had no alarms. We travelled very fast to Turin, sixteen
posts, and arrived there in eleven hours. Shelley went
to see the English Minister, Mr. Hill, who asked us to
stay and dine with him. We set off at six o'clock next
morning, hoping to be able to cross Mont Cenis. For
the first two posts we went on prosperously ; but, as
we began to ascend the mountain, we were warned to
expect some wind. We walked a great deal, enjoyed
the hot sun, and said farewell to the plains of Italy,
which I am glad to have seen, but which I feel no wish
to re-visit. While we were changing horses, the wind
began to increase in force, and we were much
interested by the formation of clouds caused by the
driven snow. The breeze developed into a whirlwind,



388 THE PASSAGE OF MONT' CENIS [ch. xviii

and causing the snow to rise like smoke, it spread in
the air and formed great white clouds over a blue sky.
We enjoyed this phenomenon, little thinking how
dangerous it would be, and laughed at the fears with
which they tried to inspire us at Susa. But as we
advanced, the wind and snow increased, and our
horses could scarcely face it. When we reached the
house of one of the cantonniers the road became
totally impassable. Twenty men set to work to clear
it, but as fast as they opened a passage, the snow
drifted back again. Our harness broke several times,
and our carriage had to be held up by the men. On
one side was a precipice of several thousand feet ;
there was no rail to guard us, and the snow was so
soft that my heart beat loudly as we advanced. On
the other side, the snow had mounted higher than the
carriage. Several times we stuck fast, and we almost
gave up hope. The wind was too strong for us to
walk. I never remember a more awful moment,
especially as the men began to bellow, and showed a
total want of presence of mind. As they could get no
footing on the soft snow, they did more harm than
good by clinging to the carriage. However, at last
we got through it, and descended on to the Plain of
San Nicolas, where a temporary road is formed, the
old one being completely blocked by avalanches.
After passing two more bad places, we at last arrived
at the Hospice. As we were driving to the door we
were very nearly upset. I screamed lustily, and
jumped out of the carriage. As Shelley would not do
so, I had all the misery of seeing him very nearly
overturned. I never felt so nervous in my life. We
entered the Hospice, and left the carriage in a deep
hole, from which they eventually released it.

The old friars received us with every mark of hos-
pitality. The rooms, though comfortably furnished,
are uncomfortably warm. The Hospice was built by
Napoleon when he made the road in 1804, and he



1817] THE HOSPICE 389

endowed it with lands. The present King has taken
the lands away, and makes the monks an annual
allowance of twenty thousand francs, which is ample
for four fat friars, who live on the fat of the land.
They gave us an excellent supper, but the dishes were
full of garlic. We met two of Napoleon's Generals,
who had taken shelter here on the preceding day. I
felt very unwell during supper, and the next morning
became seriously ill. However, as everybody pre-
dicted bad weather, and as I was determined not to be
shut up in the Hospice, we set off in a hard snow-
storm. Our conveyance was an open traineau with
an improvised hood. If I had felt well, I should have
enjoyed all this excessively, as the quick motion is
delightful. It was like being suddenly transported
into Russia, in all the horrors of a Siberian winter !
As we proceeded, we met several traineaitx, whose
drivers were wrapped up in skins. There were
twelve feet of snow on the road. The cantonniers
were all hard at work. Our carriage passed an hour
later, but it did not arrive until four hours after our
arrival at Sans-le-Bourg. After a short rest, we
departed for San Martin. While we were proceeding,
the post-boy, who had not seen a hole under the snow,
drove the caleche through it, and of course we were
overturned. Nobody was hurt, but the maids were
terribly frightened. Angelique, who had been
seriously ill, stood up to her knees in snow, but
luckily was none the worse. We reached Chambery
on February 26. The whole of the country to
Lyons is well cultivated by a happy, smiling, well-
dressed peasantry; the children, as usual, begging.
The entrance to Lyons is very fine. We crossed the
Rhone over the bridge used by Napoleon when he
arrived from Grenoble. We lodged at a very bad inn,
near the principal Place.

February 28, 181 7. —From here, during the horrors
of the Revolution, were removed the Hue statues



39° LYONS [ch. xvm

representing the Rhone and the Saone in bronze,
which supported a statue of Louis XIV. These
statues were removed to the Hotel de Ville, thereby
fulfilling an ancient prophecy, to the effect that if the
Rhone and the Saone should meet at the Hotel de
Ville, the city of Lyons would be burnt. This
actually happened during the siege, which, once in a
way, justified the prophet. The figure which repre-
sents the Rhone is very fine.

We went to see the real junction of the rivers.
It is a pretty spot, on which formerly stood a fine
temple, and an equestrian statue of Julius Caesar.
The Goths threw everything out of the Temple into
the river. Some things have been recovered, and are
now preserved in the Museum here. We saw an
ancient inscription, which states that the Emperor
Claudius granted to the people of Lyons all the
privileges of Roman citizens.

Our banker here tells us that the people of Lyons
are not ill disposed to the present Government, and
that when Napoleon arrived here it was only the
populace who welcomed him. He said it was unfor-
tunate that, from a false economy, the telegraphs
happened to be out of repair. This prevented the
early communication, which they think might have
prevented Bonaparte's success. I do not myself think
that it would have made much difference.

There are no great manufactories here. Every
article, even the finest white satin, is fabricated at the
workman's own house, in an atmosphere of dirt and
misery. The commerce of Lyons has suffered since
the Peace, as it formerly received a factitious impetus
from the Continental system, which, by closing the
seaports, forced the commerce to pass through Lyons
and the interior. It does not appear that Napoleon
did more than this to benefit the town of Lyons. He
certainly caused some morasses, which had previously
made some part of the town unhealthy, to be filled up.



1S17] LYONS 391

The two rivers are magnificent, but there appears to
be little traffic upon them.

It is said that there is the same difference in colour
between these rivers as there is between the Arve and
the Rhone, but this is only noticeable in summer. At
the present time the old gentleman is as dirty as his
wife, the Saone, who runs in great haste to meet him.



Thus ends the first part of Lady Shelley's Diaries.
Various distractions may have interrupted a detailed
record of experiences previous to her arrival in
England on March 25, 1S17.



INDEX



Aar, the, 254, 256

Abbeville, 93

Abbot, Charles, Speaker of the
House of Commons, his speech
on the Duke of Wellington, 64,
72. See Colchester

Acqualagna, 346

" Adelaide du Guesclin," charac-
ter of the play, 201, 207

Adige, the, 337

Agerenga, Duchesse d', at the
chateau of Kitsie, 289

Aigle, 251

Aisne, the, 162

Aix, vineyards of, 160

Alava, General, 126, 147

Albany, Countess of, 380

Albiac, General D', 52

Albiac, Mrs. D', 51 ; her adven-
tures during the campaign in
Spain, 52

Albrizzi, Countess, 332, 333

Alpacher See, 259

Alps, the, 256

Altdorp, 262, 265

Altenburg, 288

Althorp, 48, 51, 73

Altieri, Prince, 356

Alvanley, Lord, 28

Amedi, Mme., 385

Amour, Val d', 326

Ancaster, Duke of, 41

Andermatt, 265

Angelique, 238, 243, 245,
261, 292, 389 ; her illness, 379

Anglesey, Lord, 44

Angoulfime, Duchesse d\ 54
unpopularity, 108 ; appear-
ance, 197

Annesley, Lady Frances, 127

Ansbach, 278

Antwerp, .

Apennines, the, 344



Apponyi, Count, 353

Apponyi, Mme., 353, 356, 373
Order of Malta conferred, 361

Apsley, Lord, 68

Argentiere, 245

Arth, 272

Artois, Comte d', 16, 142

Arve, the, 231, 232, 237, 238, 240

Arveiron, source of the, 242

Asgill, Lady, 49

Asgill, Sir Charles, 54

Aspern, Battle of, 325

Audilly, 145

Auger, Chateau, 155

Austria, Caroline Augusta, Em-
press of, her entry into Vienna,
303 ; marriage, 303 ; appear-
ance, 303

Austria, Francis I., Emperor of,
at the review of troops in Paris,
114, 116; his appearance, 114;
at the manoeuvres of Russian
troops, 152-154; his marriage,
302

Auxerre, 213

Auxonne, 215

Avallon, 214

Averno, Lago d', 374



Bacciochi, Felix, 360 note

Badajos, Battle of, 67 note

Baia, 373, 376

Balmat, Jacques, the guide, as-
cends Mont Blanc, 241 no

Balmat, Pierre, the guide, 241,
243, 250

r.ilm ", Col d<\ 247

Barnard, Sir A., 144

Barrington, Major, 9; bis mar-
riage, 10

Barrington, Mr . b< c bu band's
cruel tnent, 10 ; d< ath, 1 1



393



394



INDEX



Bartely, M., 380

Bastille, celebration of the taking,
22

Bath, 5

Bathurst, Seymour, 112, 134, 147

Bautzen, Battle of, 75

Bavaria, Prince of, 115

Bayreuth, 280

Beachy Head, 188

Beaufoy, Colonel, ascends Mont
Blanc, 241 note

Beauharnais, Eugene de, 280, 385

Beauharnais, Josephine, 43

Beaupre, 90 ; the beggars of, 90

Beauvais, 94

Beddoes, Dr. Thomas, 6

Belgians, King of the, 176 ; his
coronation, 177-179

Belgians, Queen of the, 176

Benevento, Princesse de, 10 1, 130

Bentinck, Lord William Charles,
his marriage, 45

Benzoni, Countess Marina, 334 ;
her mode of entertaining, 334

Berne, 253, 258

Berneck, 281

Berri, Due de, 114, 202, 207

Berri, Duchesse de, her appear-
ance, 197 ; fondness for danc-
ing, 201 ; spirit, 207

Bery au Bac, 162

Besancon, 215, 216

Bessborough, Lady, letter to,
182-185

Bessieres, Marquis de, 216

Bex, 250

Bienne, Lac de, 222

Biggotini, the dancer, 109, 196,204

Bingham, Lady, 204

Bivouacking, system of, 155

Blacas, Count de, 356, 379

Black Forest, 274

Blackpool, 3

Bliicher, General, in London, 59,
66 ; at the Battle of Waterloo,
97, 108, 172

Bohemia, 301

Bologna, 341

Bombelles, Comte de, 2S6

Bonaparte, Lucien, Prince of
Canino, 355 ; in Rome, 355

Bonaparte, Napoleon, his admira-
tion for England, 57 ; at Elba,

73 ; his opinion of Metternich,

74 ; escapes from Elba, 86,
134 note ; his villa near Bou-
logne, 90 ; threatened invasion
of England, 91 ; capture, 105 ;
characteristics, 122 ; at the



Battle of Waterloo, 169, 173 ;
behaviour of his old soldiers,
218 ; statue, 355, 360 ; passage
across the bridge of Lodi, 384
note ; builds the Triumphal
Arch at Milan, 386 ; his iron
crown, 387 ; at Lyons, 390

Bonneville, 237

Bootle, Mrs. Wilbraham, 26

Borghese, Princess Pauline, 123 ;
her statue, 355

Borgia, Lucrezia, at Spoleto
Castle, 347 note

Borgo, Charles Andre Pozzo di,
115, 153, 199; his career, 115.
note

Borrington, Lady, 33

Boscawen, Mrs., 18

Bossons, Glacier des, 241

Bourbon, Princesse Louise de, 2

Bradford, Lord, 288

Brenta, the, 335

Brentford, 71

Breton, Cape, 10

Bridel, M., his " Etrennes Helve-
tiques," 267

Briel, valley of, 298

Briere, M. and Mme., 231

Brighton, 188

British troops, review of, 141

Brougham, Lord, at Lausanne,
226; his dislike of travelling, 228

Brummell, George Bryan, 45 ; his
album, 45 ; career, 45 note

Brunnen, 261, 266

Brussels, 166

Bulle, 251

Buochs, 261

Burghersh, Lady, 68

Burghersh, Lord, 59, 68

Biirglen, 263

Burgos, retreat from, 52

Byron, Lady, 81

Byron, Lord, his poem " The
Corsair," 52 ; marriage, 81 ;
character, 81 ; " Prisoner of
Chillon," 226 note ; at the
Villa Diodati, 231 ; appear-
ance, 236 ; " Childe Harold,"
lines from, 348 note



Cadogan, Colonel, 46 ; mortally

wounded, 70, 102
Caparelli, Mme., 386
Cage, M. de, 203
Cagli, 346

Calabria, mountains of, 367
Calais, 87, 180



INDEX



395



Calder, the, i

Caligula, Bridge of, 374

Caltenberg, 300

Cambridge, Duke of, 70

Campbell, Colonel, 125

Camporese, Mme., 113, 204

Canea, Chevalier la, 20

Cangiana, 346

Canova, 349 ; his group of Mars
and Venus, 350, 360 ; charac-
teristics, 350 ; appearance,
350 ; his studio, 354, 360, 379 ;
statue of Napoleon, 355, 360 ;
" Hercules and Lion," 361

Canterbury, S7

Capellan, Baron, 178

Capra, Villa, 336

Capri, Island of, 366

Capua, 364 ; plain of, 367

Caracciolo, Admiral Prince, 370

Caraman, Victor de, 307 ; his
character, 315, 318 ; introduc-
tion to Frederick the Great,
315-317; at the Court of
Catherine of Russia, 317 ; ar-
rested, 318 ; appointed Am-
bassador at Vienna, 318

Carinthia, 326

Carlos, Due de San, 312

Carlos, Duchesse de San, 199, 304

Carnot, the Revolutionist, 176

Castellamare, 372

Castellane, Mme. de, her mar-
riage, 130

Castelreale, 199

Castlereagh, Ladv, 125, 134, 136,

139. 148
Castlereagh, Lord, 61, 129, 134
Cathcart, Lord, 116, 119, 123,

I3L 155

Catolica, St., 344

Census Act, the first, 72 note

Chambery, 234, 389

Chamonix, 236 ; valley of, 241

Champagne, plain of, 151

Champagne, use of, 160

Charlotte, Queen, her birthday, 17

Chatel St. Denis, 251

Chede, 239 ; Lake of, 239

Chernicheff, General, 119, 300,
302 ; at the manoeuvres of
Kussian troops, 151 ; his char-
acter, 318, 320 ; appearance,
318 ; merit as a soldier, 319 ;
diplomatic talents, 319; de-
es Bonaparte, 320; devo-
; to Lady Shelley, 320 ;
relations with Princess K.i-I-
rivfl, 321-323; marriage, 323



Cherome, Mme., 133
Chichester, Lord, 21
Chillon, Castle of, 251
Cholmondeley, Harriet, 44
Cholmondeley, Lady, her charac-
ter before and after marriage,

41
Cholmondeley, Lord, 43
Cholmondeley, Tom, 29. See

Delamere
Chotek, Comte, 379
Cigognera, Marquis of, 329, 332
Cisterna, 362
Ciudad Rodrigo, 46 ; battle of,

67 note
Civita Castellana, 349
Clairmont, Claire, 231 note
Claye, 149
Clery, Prince, his chateau at

Teplitz, 286
Clichy, plains of, 132, 139
Clifton, 6
Clinton, General Sir William

Henry, 124
Clitumnus, the, 347
Clive, Lord, 1 16
Cloud, St., 147; bridge, no;

palace, 1 10
Cluses, 237
Coigny, Mine, de, 129
Coke, Mr., 38
Colbrun, Mme., 369
Colchester, Baron, 72 note
Cole, General the Hon. Sir Lowry,

100, 144
Colquett, General, at the battle

of Waterloo, 170
Coltman, Mr. Justice, 98 note
Combermere, Lord, 155
Constant, Benjamin, 129
Corbeny, 162

Corignan, Princesse de, 286
Cornjad, Henri, lines on his tomb-
stone, 233
Courlande, Duchesse de, 129
Couttet, Marie, the guide, 241

note, 243, 250
Cowper, Lady, 32
Cowper, William, his poems, 8
Crauford, Mine., 100, 105, 127,

134. 197
Creevey, Mr., 83
Croxteth.
Cyr, Laurent Gouvion St., his

1 itate, 74 ; career, 74 note



Dalrymple, Hew, i, 43 noh
Danube, the, 2j



396



INDEX



Delamere, Lord, 29
Delessart, M., 120
Denis, St., 94

Denon, M., his curiosities, 128
Derby, 12th Earl of, 12
Derby, Lady, her children, 13
Despard, General John, 10
Devil's Bridge, 264
Devonshire, Duchess of, 354
Devonshire, Georgiana, Duchess

of, her verses on Fox, 50
Dieppe, 189
Dijon, 215
Dole, 217
Dolo, 335

Doubs, valley of the, 217
Douglas, Frederick, at Elba, jt,
Dover, 87, 181
Dresden, 282 ; pictures at, 283 ;

result of war, 284 ; custom on

the bridges, 284 ; the clocks,

284
Drury Lane Theatre, rebuilding,

84 note, 85
Ducloux, M., 231
Dupot, Colonel, 191
Duras, Due de, 207
Duras, Duchesse de, 1 1 1, 113
Dutton, Miss, 5



Edgcumbe, Earl of Mount,
" Musical Reminiscences," 58
note, 369

Edgcumbe, Lady Emma, 134,

136
Edgeworth, Maria, 6 note
Eisenstadt, 290, 301
Elbe, the, 285, 286
Eliot, Grace Dalrymple, 42 ; her

romantic career, 43 ; portrait,

44

Eliot, Dr. John, 43 note

Ellesmere, Lord, 97 note

Ellis, Charles Rose, 234. See
Seaford

Elliston, Mrs., 6

Elliston, Robert, 6 note

Enghien, 179

Epernay, 160

Eresby, Lady Willoughby de, 41

Erlach, 222

Eschenbach, 279

Esterhazy, Prince, 290 ; his early
marriage, 290 ; mode of hunt-
ing, 292 ; chateau, 293 ; temple,
294 ; characteristics, 294 ; his
Court, 294 ; jewels, 304 ; cost



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