Francis Galton.

Vacation tourists and notes of travel in 1860 [1861], [1862-3] (Volume 01) online

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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA



PRESENTED BY

PROF. CHARLES A. KOFOID AND
MRS. PRUDENCE W. KOFOID



VACATION TOURISTS



AND



NOTES OF TEAVEL



i860.



LONDON :

H. CLAY, SON, AND TAYLOR, PRINTERS,
BREAD STREET HIT.!..



VACATION TOURISTS



AND



NOTES OF TRAVEL

IN i860



EDITED BY

PRANCIS GALTON, M.A. F.R.S,

AUTHOR OF " THE ART OF TRAVEL," ETC.



MACMILLAN AND CO

AXD 23, HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN



1861



f ml . ..-.it _^ T 7.



vi PREFACE.

these travels of 1800 will be of no diminished value because
they are concisely written, are bound within one cover, and
are presented in a readable form.

It depends on the favour of the public, whether or no this
volume will be succeeded by others whether, in fact, " Vaca
tion Tourists " shall become an annual publication. There is
abundant space for future writers to occupy : the social and
political life of foreign nations offers a wide field and change
ful surface for examination ; newly discovered objects of
interest, and fresh openings for the yearly tide of Vacation
travellers, are of constant occurrence; scientific tours offer
an endless variety of results ; while narratives of adventure
never fail to interest.

FKANCIS GALTON.



March 7, 1861.

42, RUTLAND GATE, S.W.



CONTENTS.



AGE

I. NAPLES AND GARIBALDI 1

By W. G. CLARK, M.A. F.R.G.S. Tutor of Trinity College, and
Public Orator of the University of Cambridge.

II. A TOUR IN CIVIL AND MILITARY CROATIA, AND

THROUGH PART OF HUNGARY 76

By GEORGE ANDREW SPOTTISWOODE.

III. SLAVONIC RACES 100

By R. D. a Former Resident and Recent Traveller among them.

IV. A GOSSIP ON A SUTHERLAND HILL-SIDE 116

By G. H. K.



V.-A VISIT TO PERU

By C. C. BOWEN.

VI. GRATA N ALPS AND MOUNT ISERAN

By J. J. COWELT,, F.R.G.S.

VII. THE ALLELEIN-HORN 264

By THE REV. LESLIE STEPHEN, M.A. Fellow and Tutor of
Trinity Hall, Cambridge.

VTIL PARTIAL ASCENT OF MONT CERVIN (MATTERHORN) 282
By F. V. HAWKINS, M.A.



viii CONTENTS.

PAGE

IX. FROM LAUTERBRUNNEN TO THE ^EGGISHHORN BY

THE LAUWINEN-THOR IN ONE DAY 305

By JOHN TYNDALL, F.R.S.

X.-JOURNAL OF A YACHT VOYAGE TO THE FAROE ISLANDS

AND ICELAND 318

By J. W. CLARK, M.A. Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.

XL NORWAY 362

By H. F. TOZER, M.A. Fellow and Tutw of Exeter College,
Oxford.

XIL A VISIT TO NORTH SPAIN AT THE TIME OF THE

ECLIPSE 422

By the EDITOR.

XIIL SYRIAN TRAVEL, AND SYRIAN TRIBES 455

By the HON. RODEN NOEL, M.A.



VACATION TOURISTS, Ac. IN 1860,

1. NAPLES AND GARIBALDI.
BY W. G. CLABK, M.A. P.B.G.S.

Through Turin to Naples. I left London on the 18th of
August, for the tour which has become a matter of annual
recurrence. It had been my intention to go to Scotland,
but the almost incessant rain which spoilt our last summer
drove me to seek for sunshine in some southern land, and
the interest attaching to Garibaldi s daring enterprise drew
me irresistibly to Italy. The route from England to Naples,
travelled every year by thousands of our countrymen and not
new to myself, would, in ordinary circumstances, be too
hackneyed a topic ; and a writer who should suppose that
he had anything to say about it which had not been said
before the only justification for writing at all would show
great confidence in his own powers of observation.

But I saw Naples under circumstances the reverse of ordi
nary at that critical period when it was the centre of interest
to all the nations of Europe ; during the occurrence of events
so strange and sudden that they resembled incidents of a
romantic melodrama rather than real history. The achieve
ments of Bollo and Bobert Guiscard were repeated before the
eyes of men who are never tired of saying that they live in a
prosaic age. The interest of these events is scarcely abated,
for they involve momentous consequences yet to come. The
great captain who is now playing the part of Cincinnatus at

B



2 VACATION TOURISTS, AND [ITALY.

Caprera has potentially like another captain who once en
joyed a temporary repose in the neighbouring Elba an army
at his command. He is one of the great powers, who, though
not officially represented, makes his presence felt in all the
councils of Europe.

I reached Naples two days before the departure of the
King. What I saw and heard during the eventful three
weeks which followed, will form the main part of my story.
I prefer to tell this story (at the risk of occasional repetition)
in the words of a journal written on the spot, and at the first
leisure hour after the occurrences. In this journal I have
corrected nothing but slips of the pen. I have inserted no
ex post facto prophecies. I have merely added a note here
and there by way of correction or explanation.

As the political interest of the time is my only justification
for writing at all, I have cut out from my narrative almost all
that had not relation to passing events. The excavations at
Pompeii and the treasures of the Museo Borbonico have, for
the present, lost their interest. Besides, there would be an
incongruity in thus mixing contemporary history with anti-
quarianism and dilettantism ; nor would the space at my
disposal allow me to do so, in any case. I might have
touched in passing many such topics, and given conclusions
without arguments ; but I remember the warning, " Brevis
esse laboro, obscurus fio," and I have reason to think that a
love of brevity is liable to be mistaken for an affectation of
smartness and a tendency to dogmatism.

I crossed from Folkestone to Boulogne in a storm of wind
and rain. The rain accompanied me to Paris, scarcely abated
during the two days of my stay there, chased me in flying
showers to Macon ; then, withdrawing for a while, hung in
masses of threatening cloud in front and flank as we crossed
the plains and wound along the valleys, guarded with bastions
of limestone crag on either hand, the first approaches to the
great fortress of the Alps, to Culoz, now, alas ! a frontier place
no more, thence by the lake of Bourget and Chambery, where
we saw skeletons of triumphal arches destined for the recep-



W. G. CLARK.] NOTES OF TRAFEL IN 1 860. 3

tion of the new master, to St. Jean de Maurienne, where we
exchanged the railway for the diligence. The route of the
Mont Cenis is, to my mind, the least picturesque of all the
Alpine passes. But what it lacks in scenic beauty it makes
up in historical interest, as being the route of Hannibal.*
At Lanslebourg the clouds, which I had been comparing to
hovering bodies of barbarians hanging on the line of the Car
thaginians march, burst upon us in a torrent of rain which
lasted to Susa. When at length we reached Turin, at one A.M.
(about thirty hours after leaving Paris), there was a cloudless
sky overhead, and the soft sweet air of summer Italy to breathe
and move in.

I had been much entertained by one of my companions in
the banquette of the diligence an Englishman going to join
Garibaldi. Evidently a gentleman, he had " roughed it "
through life with the strangest comrades. He had dug lor
gold in Australia, had driven an omnibus for six months in
Melbourne, &c. &c., and now w r as about to seek his fortune in
Italy. " Not," he said, " that he cared a button for one side
or the other ; he wanted if possible to get a commission in the
Sardinian army, and meanwhile, at all events, to have a lark."

* This is conclusively established in a work entitled, " A Treatise on Han
nibal s Passage of the Alps," by Robert Ellis, B.D. Fellow of St. John s
College, Cambridge, 1853. The subsidiary arguments derived from the Peu-
tingerian table, the names of places, &c., however ingenious and probable,
are less convincing than the main arguments, and tend, on a first reading,
rather to invalidate the conclusions. I am disposed to think that Mr. Ellis
lays rather too much stress on the fact that the plains of Italy are visible from
a point near the summit of the pass. Polybius, from his language, seems to
suppose that the plains would be visible, as a matter of course, from the sum
mit of any pass, and he himself probably crossed the Alps only once in the way
of business ; and if he had such weather as has always been my fortune in
crossing the Mont Cenis, he could not verify the fact. The stoiy of Hannibal s
encouraging his men by showing them Italy is, perhaps, after all only a
rhetorical figment. Everybody not familiar with Alpine travel would take it
for granted that Italy was visible from the summit (not having a clear under
standing of the distinction between "peaks" and "passes"), and the situa
tion, ".Hannibal pointing out Italy to his soldiers," is too striking not to be
accepted as true : " ut pueris placeat et declamatio fiat." I doubt, too,
whether we have got at the true signification of \evK6ireTpov. However this
may be, Mr. Ellis seems to me to have proved his point abundantly.

B 2



4 VACATION TOURISTS, AND [ITALY.

I fancy that a good many of the volunteers, if they would
confess it, were actuated by similar feelings.

I stayed nearly a week at Turin, where I found several
old friends and acquaintances, several of them Neapolitan
exiles, who gave me letters to their friends at home. Among
them was Baron Charles Poerio, the gentlest and most inno
cent victim that was ever tortured by tyrant. I observed in
him, as well as in others of his fellow-prisoners whom I saw
at Naples afterwards, a subdued manner that was infinitely
touching. It was as if long imprisonment had crushed their
spirit and robbed life of its vitality. Poerio said that,
during his short tenure of office, the king affected to treat
him as a confidential friend, would offer him a cigar when
he went for an audience, and so forth. On the anniversary
of the day of his accepting office, he had the chains put
on in the court of one of the prisons, the benevolent monarch
looking on from a window.

I went one day to a charming villa on the " Collina," near
Moncalieri, to visit an exile of a different race. I found him
playing with his children, as youthful at heart as any of
them. No prison had bowed his spirit down, and even
eleven years of exile had not sickened his hope of triumphant
return. He had not a shadow of doubt that the sword of
Garibaldi would open through Venice a road to Hungary.
" Shall we meet next year in London ?" I said at parting.
" We shall meet next year, if anywhere, at Pesth," was the
reply.

On the 28th of August I went to Genoa, on the chance
of finding a steamer for Livorno or Naples, there being no
trustworthy information to be had in Turin. When I arrived
there, I found that I had no choice but to wait till the 31st for
the French boat. Three days soon passed among the varied
sights of Genoa, the most beautiful as well as one of the
busiest of the cities of the world. Garibaldi s portrait was
in every window, ballad-singers were chanting his praises,
and as you passed a group standing in the street or seated
at the cafe, you were sure to hear the magic name. I was



W. G. CLARK.] NOTES OF TRAVEL IN 1 860. 5

made all the more eager to get to Naples, fearing that he
might get there before me.

I here insert some leaves of my journal, omitting, as I said,
almost all that related merely to the regular "sights" on
the way.

Aug. 23. Turin is the most regularly built city in the
world. It would have delighted an ancient Greek. Hippo-
damus himself might have planned it. Pausanias would
have been in ecstasies if he had seen it, all its lines straight
and all its angles right-angles. And in his eyes the beauty
of the regular city would have been enhanced by contrast
with the rough shapeless mountains, glimpses of which you
get at the end of the streets that run towards the north
and west. Only the Contrada del Po deviates somewhat from
the due direction, but this is scarcely appreciable by the eye.
The spacious porticoes are thronged with people, notwith
standing that this is the season of the Villegiatura, and there
is " nobody in town."

I went this morning to call upon a friend at the Ministry
of Foreign Affairs, which is modestly lodged in a corner of the
Piazza Castello. I was surprised with the quietness of the
whole establishment. The porter was dozing at the door ; my
friend the employe was not at home, nobody was waiting for
an audience, and M. de Cavour was " disengaged" in the
inner room. " Did I want to see him ? ; asked the porter.
Having no pretext for an interview with the great man, and
having neither invention, nor impudence sufficient to extem
porize one, I was obliged to decline the honour, and I went
away wondering at the stillness which reigned at what may
be called the central point of European diplomacy. It
reminded me of the brain, which, though the source of all
sensation, has no sensation itself.

Aug. 24. This morning I had a call from Signer , a

ministerial deputy, and an able as well as honest man. He
takes a gloomy view of the state of things in Italy. " The



6 VACATION TOURrSTS, AND [ITALY.

Ministry is excessively embarrassed by the exigencies of
France, on the one hand ; by the remonstrances of the great
Powers, on the other ; and by the popular enthusiasm for
Garibaldi, on the third. (We may suppose an Executive to
have three hands, at least : in this case all of them are tied.)
Garibaldi is a brave man, but a fool (sic) ; he is easily led
by the people about him, and he is surrounded by the most
worthless advisers as, for example, Crespi. The Mazzini
party are taking advantage of the discontent excited by the
late measures of the Ministry against the volunteers, and of
Garibaldi s easy temper, and hope to proclaim first the Dic
tatorship of Garibaldi, and then the Eepublic in Southern
Italy. The ultra-liberals are blind to facts and consequences ;
they will not take account of the difficulties in their way ;
they menace Eome in spite of France and Venetia, in spite of
Germany (for it is certain that Prussia has agreed to make
common cause with Austria).

" Things are going from bad to worse, and we may lose all
we have gained. Old animosities la politico, di campanile
are reviving again, and are fanned by the ultra-liberals
for their own purposes. The people were humiliated at the
loss of Savoy and Nice, but all reasonable men felt that the
Government had no choice. The citizens of Turin cared
much more for Savoy than Nice, because the change brought
the French frontier within sight of their walls. Turin is now
a defenceless frontier town, and can never be the capital of
Italy."

Aug. 25. I met another gentleman, neither deputy nor
ministerial. He was enthusiastic for Garibaldi, " the honest
man and great captain." " Cavour," he said, "has lost all his
popularity, not so much from the cession of Savoy and Nice
for there was no resisting the armed brigand who took
them but from the way in which it was done. Cavour did
it jauntily and unconcernedly, "when, in decency, he ought to
have worn an air of dejection. To parody what Jean Jacques
said of a bishop : Quelque veridique qu on soit, il faut bien
mentir quelques fois quand on est diplomate ; but Cavour



W. G. CLARK.] NOTES OF TRAVEL IN 1 860. 7

lied gratuitously. People have lost all confidence in him
since he has sold himself to the devil.

" Garibaldi is true as steel ; he will conquer Naples and
proclaim the Re Galantuomo King of Italy, who will then
find some honester man than Cavour to be his prime minister."

Aug 26. Notes of a Conversation with - . " The fran
chise in Piedmont is given to all who pay forty francs per
annum in direct taxes, which, in a country divided into small
holdings, is almost equivalent to universal suffrage. But all
landholders are conservative, and those of Piedmont Proper
exercise it admirably ; they are the mainstay of the consti
tution.

"The so-called Tuscan autonomy is not an autonomy in
fact ; the word is misapplied. It means in this case that,
for the present, the judicial system of Tuscany is maintained
intact. For instance, if a dispute arises in Tuscany, it cannot
be tried at Turin till they send it for trial

" Ten years ago, I foresaw that the idea of Italian unity was
mounting like a flood, and would sweep all before it. The
existence of this idea is a great fact which people at home
would not see ; I mean, secretaries of state. Naples might
have been saved to the king, if he had joined Piedmont. In
March, 1859, Lord Malmesbury wanted Sir James Hudson
to go to Naples and advise the king to grant a constitution.
He said, It is no use unless you allow me to advise his
sending twenty thousand troops or so, to make a demonstra
tion to the Italian side ; a very small demonstration will suf
fice. Lord Malmesbury refused ; ( he did not wish Naples
to be mixed up in the quarrel between Austria and France.
Now the quarrel between Austria and France was in
the second plan. The battle of Italian unity was upper
most in men s minds. The great Powers urged the Pied-
montese Government to stop the departure of the volunteers
as soon as Garibaldi turned his designs on the mainland.
Legally, there is no distinction between Sicily and Naples,
but morally there is a distinction, because the Sicilians had



8 VACATION TOURISTS, AND [ITALY.

been deluded by the Bourbons. The promise of a consti
tution, made in 1812, was never fulfilled. And, as you
remind me, Lord Palmerston said in parliament, apropos of
non-intervention, that there was no point of international law
which is not liable to exceptions in practice. Farini s cir
cular was the result of this diplomatic pressure. If after
that he had not prevented the departure of the volunteers,
the power of Minister of the Interior would have been at an
end. He could not act otherwise than he did. The papers
cry out, but their influence is almost nil, since Parliament
has begun to perform its functions regularly. Ten years ago,
the press was very powerful. Cavour himself used to write
articles. Now each paper is the organ of some little knot
of politicians. Like a volcano (as you say) where there are at
first a number of little outlets which all cease when a great
crater is formed. If Garibaldi is beaten, the Piedmontese
Government will see that it must bide its time ; it will still
represent the idea of unity, which sooner or later will be realized
in fact. The more moderate papers are beginning to see the
necessity of waiting for an opportunity of getting Venetia.

"If Piedmont receives any further accession of territory,
there is a notion afloat that France will demand the island
of Sardinia as the price of her assent. The plains are
enormously fertile, yielding, they say, forty-fold. A large
outlay would be required for draining, &c. to bring land
now idle under cultivation. The volcanic rocks and the high
mountains which prevent a free current of wind from west
to east, are the cause of the unhealthiness of the place. All
the island is unhealthy part of the year, and part is unhealthy
all the year round. Sardinia is the most retrograde portion of
the kingdom, and disaffected because the high taxation has been
most felt there. There is an English party and a French
party eager for annexation to one or other country, which is
rich, and, as they think, would spend money there, but it
would not strengthen either. The Bay of La Maddalena
was of service to England in the former war, when they were
blockading Toulon ; but now that steam-vessels have taken



W. G. CLARK.] NOTES OF TRA VEL IN 1 860. 9

the place of sailing-vessels and can keep the sea in any wind,
it will no longer be of service even in war. But politicians
at home are governed by traditional views about British
interests. That is why we stick to the Ionian Islands, which
are no use to us. If we could only get rid of the notion that
Trance is our natural enemy, and that we are bound to keep
up posts of possible annoyance to her ! The Ionian Islands
are a perpetual sore between England and Greece. With
Malta it is different. It is an island-fortress prize of war
and I am for keeping it as long as we can. It would be
ridiculous at Malta, or Gibraltar, to submit the question of
ownership to universal suffrage.

" The notion prevalent in Germany that the line of the
Mincio, or at all events that of the Adige, is necessary to
their security in a strategical point of view, is quite unfounded.
It has not even the excuse of tradition. Eead Metternich s
letters, written at the time of the Congress of Vienna, and you
will see that he was unwilling to accept the fatal gift of
Northern Italy. But now that they have got the four for
tresses, and that the Germans conceive their honour as well
as their safety involved in the Austrian retention of Venetia,
they will keep it as long as they can.

"After all, we must submit all questions at last to the
inexorable logic of facts (as the French say). "

GENOA. Aug. 29. Walked for an hour after sunset with a
French gentleman, whose acquaintance I had made at dinner,
up and down the delightful promenade of the Acqua Sola.
It occupies an elevated platform on the eastern side of the
city, flanked externally by the walls of the inner circle of
fortification, and looking over a valley set thick with painted
houses and gardens, the sea to the right, and on the left the
hills crowned with fortresses. It is planted with rows of ilex,
acacia and plane, and in the centre is an oval pond with a
fountain, set round with weeping willows. It is well pro
vided with stone seats. As we sat upon one of these, looking
towards the sea, still lighted with reflected splendour from



10 VACATION TOURISTS, AND [ITALY.

the west " It is a shame," said the Frenchman, " to talk
politics in so lovely a place, and at such a time. We ought
to talk poetry."

" It is your restless Emperor," said I, " who forces every
body to think and to talk politics at all places and times."

" Maybe so," he replied ; " but his view is the true view,
namely, that there will be no secure and lasting peace for
Europe until its political system is based upon the principle
of nationalities. It may cost us years of disturbance to esta
blish this principle, but it will be the best for peace in the
long run. Europe will then be in a position of stable equi
librium (as the mathematicians say). This is the object of
French policy. Surely it is nobler and wiser than the hand-
to-mouth purblind policy of your Government, which huddles
up all quarrels, and has for its object only the adjournment
of war in the interest of merchants and fundholders."

He spoke as volubly and rapidly as an actor in a Greek
comedy delivering the Trviyo?. When at last he paused for
breath, I interposed : " Stop ! what do you mean by the
principle of nationalities ? :

" What do I mean ! Surely it is clear enough. It is a
phrase universally used. Everybody knows it."

" But if it has a definite meaning, it is capable of defi
nition."

" Well, I suppose we may express it thus : Every nation
has a right to belong to itself, and to choose its own form of
government, and its own governors."

" What do you mean by a nation ?"

" Diable ! mon cher Monsieur, comme vous vous posez en
Socrate ! The words of which one knows the meaning best
are precisely those which one feels it most difficult to define.
Of such words no one asks for a definition in good faith, but
only for the sake of puzzling you, and in order to divert a
question of facts into a question of words."

" Don t be angry ! In all good faith, I do not know in
what sense you use the word nation. Its etymology

" Oh, confound etymology je in en soucie guere. I use the



W. G. CLAKK.] NOTES OF TRAVEL IN 1 860. 1 1

word in its modern sense, meaning a people of the same race,
speaking the same language, inhabiting the same country."

" As for instance?"

The French, the English, the Italians"

" Stay a moment. I doubt whether your instances are to
the point. Are the people in Brittany, Lorraine, Alsace, and
Gascony, of the same race as the people in the centre of
France, and do they speak the same language ? Yet they are
integral parts of the French nation. So it is with the Welsh,
the Scotch Highlanders, the people in the Channel Islands
they are not of the same race, nor do they speak the same
language as the bulk of the English nation, yet they belong
to it, inseparably attached. Of Ireland I do not speak

" No, you would find a difficulty there."

"I may find a difficulty in combating the rooted preju
dices existing on the Continent with respect to Ireland, but
you must admit without prejudice to the future rights of
King Macmahon that it forms at present a part of the united



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