Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 1 of 203)
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itjj Copious ^bbitions bg ^mtriean (fbitons.








THIS work, although based upon Chambers's Encyclopaedia, whose distinguished
merit is widely known, differs from it in important respects. It could scarcely be
expected that an Encyclopaedia, edited and published for a foreign market,, would give
as much prominence to American topics as American readers might desire. To supply
these and other deficiencies the American Editors have inserted about 15,000 titles,
arranging the whole, including Chambers's Supplement, in a single alphabet. The
total number of titles is now about 40,000. The additions give greater fullness in the
departments of biography, geography, history, natural history, and general and applied
science. Scrupulous care has been taken not to mutilate or modify the original text of
the edition of 1880; no changes have been made except such verbal alterations as are
required by the omission of the wood-cuts. The titles of articles from Chambers's
Encyclopaedia, either from the main work or from the Supplement, are printed in bold-
faced type AMERICA. The titles of the American additions, whether of new topics or
of enlargements of the old, are printed in plain capitals AMERICA. Should it appear
that an article from the English work and its American continuation disagree in any
points, the reader will readily refer the conflicting statements to their proper sources.

The labor of consultation will bo much reduced by the catch-words in bold-faced
type at the top of the page, being the first and last titles of the pages which face each,
other; and by the full titk-words on the back of the volume, being the first and last
titles contained therein.

The word ante refers to Chambers's Encyclopaedia, as represented in this issue.
Whenever the word (ante) follows a title in the American additions, it indicates that
the article is an enlargement of one under the same title in Chainbers's .Encyclopaedia
usually to be found immediately preceding.

COPYRIGHT, 1880, BY >.


301 159


SAFETY-LAMP. It has been Ions known that when marsh-gas or light carbureted hy-
drogen, which is frequently disengaged in large, quantities from coal-mines, is miked
with seven or eiirht times Us volumeof atmospheric air. it becomes highly explosiv ,
takin-r lire at the approach of a light, and burning with a pale blue iiaine. Moreover,
this gas i-i exploding renders ten times its bulk of atmospheric air unlit for respiration,
an 1 the choke-<Lt,mp thus produced is often as fatal to miners as the primary explosion.
With the view of discovering some means of preventing these dangerous results, D.ivy
ius'iiuted those important observations on flame which led him to the invention of tin;
safe y-lamp. II- found that when two vessels rilled with a gaseous explosive mixture are
connected by a narrow tube, and the contents of one tired, the [lame is not eoaimtiai-
cate.l to the ofhar, provided the diameter of the tube, its length, and the conducting
power for heat of its material, bear certain proportions to each other; the flame being
extinguis led bv cooling, and its transmission rendered impossible. In this experiment,
high conducting power and diminished diameter compensate for diminution in length;
and to such an e.xicnt may this shortening of length be carried, thai imitaliic gauz;-,

be ino.-e than \ 7 of an inch square. As the fire-damp
the thi .'kiie-^ of the wire is not of importance; but wire from -c'.th to ,.Mu of an inch in
dia uelcr is the mo-Jt convenient. Iron-wire and brass-wire gauze of the required degree
of line. us-;, are ante for sieves by all wire-workers, but iron-wire gauze is to be pre-
fe:r'd; wiun of the. proper degree of thickness, it can neither melt nor burn ; and the,
coat of black rust which soon forms upon it superficially defends the interior from the
acii i.i d the air. The cage or cylinder should be made of double joinings, the gau//;
bein,' fold /d over so as to leave no apertures. When it is cylindrical it should not be
m>re!hai two inches in diameter; for in larger cylinders the combustion of the fire-
damp ren lers the top inconveniently hot, and a double top is always a proper precaution,
fix -d at the distance of half or three-quarters of a a inch above the first top. The gauze
cylind T sho-.ild be fastened to the lamp by a screw of four or live turns, and fitted to the
screw by a tight ring. All joinings should be made with hard solder; and the security
depends upon the circumstance that no aperture exists in the apparatus larger than ia
the wire gauze." Til.' cylinder is protocte I by three external, strong, upright wires.
wlii -h meet at the top; and to their point of junction a ring is attached, by which the
lamp is suspen led. The oil is supplied to the interior by a pipe projecting from the
cylinder, and the wick is trimmed by a wire bent at the upper et-.d, and passed through
the bottom of the lamp, so that the gan/e need not be removed for this process. When
a lighted lamp of this kind is introduced into an explosive mixture of air and fire-
damp, the Mime is seen gradually to enlarge as the proportion of light carbureted
hydrogen increases, until at length it fills the entire, gauze cylinder. Whenever this p ; do,
enlarged tlamo is .m-en, the miners should depart to a place of safety, for although no
explo-io:i can occur while the gauze is sound, yet at that high temperature the nn-tal
bocomes rapidly oxidized, and might easily break: and a single aperture of sulnoient
size would th'-n occasion a destructive explosion. In a strong current of air. the heated
gas may be blown through the apertures Of thegauze before its tempera lure is sutlioiontly
reduced to prevent an explosion; but such a contingency may be guarded n.iraiust by
placing a screen between the draught and the lamp. It was in the year lNl."i that, sir
Humphry l)a\y presented his first communication to th? royal society respecting his
discovery of the safety-lamp; and at the meeting held <,n Jan. 11, 1810. the lamp was
exhibited. Sir Humphry Davy's claim as an original discoverer was immediately chal-
lenged by various persons, among whom may bo especially noticed the late Dr. Reid
Clanny, of Newcastle, and the great engineer, George Steplienson. Clanny's safety-
lamp (which is described in the, r!'[>:x<.ii>/i,i'i->i! Tr<imii-tit>ns for 1813) was based on the
principle of forcing in air through water by bellows; but the machine was ponderous
and complicated! and required a boy to work it; moreover, he had be<m anticipated by



In its general principle it -was the same as Davy's, the main difference being that the
Slepheuson lamp had a glass cylinder inside the wire-gauze cylinder, and that inside the
top of the glass cylinder was a perforated metallic chimney; the :..r being supplied
through a triple circle of small holes in the bottom. On the subject of this controversy,
the reader is referred to' Siiiiles's Life of 'George Siepltenaan, It has been generally
agreed that there is a decided advantage in having a glass cylinder besides ihe gauze
one, to resist strong currents of air; and that glass without gauze is not safe from frac-
ture. In the French and Belgian collieries, Mueselcr's lamp is in iilmo.-t i.nh e;>al use.
It consists of a glass cylinder immediately around the flame, and of wire gauze above.
An internal metal chimney opening a short distance above the flame creates a strong
upward draught, which causes the feed air to pass briskly down from the wire gauze,
and so keeps the glass cool and insures thorough combustion.'lcr's lamp is also
used in a few English collieries; but modifications of Davy's, Stephenson's, and in a less
degree of Clanuy's later lamp are still in general use in England, the best kinds of each
having their wire gauze covers secured by patent lever locks. In the catalogue of
the collection of scientific apparatus shown at South Kensington in 1876, there is given
an interesting table with remarks, of the different forms of safety-lamps which eiiher
are or have been in use. It was compiled by the north of England institute of mining

Closely connected in its objects with the safety-lamp is a most ingenious invention
patented by Mr. Ansell of her majesty's mint. Its object is to determine, lya simple
application of the law of osmotic force, the presence of light carbureted hydrogen in
coal mines. Mr. Ansell gives two or three forms to his apparatus, of which the follow-
ing is the most simple: A thin india-rubber ball is filled with atmospheric air. and is
placed on a stand under a lever which slightly presses its upper surface. This lever is
connected with a spring, which it liberates when, from any cause, the lever is raised;
and the liberation of the spring sets a bell in vibration. If this trap for the discovery of
fire-damp is set where that gas is present to any material extent, the noxious gas enters
the bail by virtue of osmose, causes it to swell, and when the swelling has attained a cer-
tain point, the warning bell rings.

The time is probably not distant when the electric light (q.v.) will be used in most,
but especially in dangerous, mines. The great difficulty in the way of so applying it is
that it cannot, as yet, be economically divided into many comparatively small lights
from one source of electricity. As it burns in vacua it can be rendered perfectly safe in
an explosive mixture of fire-damp and air. Some 20 yenrs ago Mr. Holmes, the well-
known electrician, invented a miner's electric lamp in which the light equal to that of
an ordinary candle \vas produced by a small portable galvanic battery. Its cost was
estimated at between 3 and 4. More lately MM. Dumas and Benoit have constructed
a lamp the light of which is produced by a current of electricity from a Khumkorff coil
passing through a Geissler's vacuum tube. The tube, however, really contains a highly
rarefied gas such as carbonic acid, and the light has only the character of a rich phos-
phorescent glow. Neither of these, nor any other form of an electric light, has as yet
come into practical use in mining operations.

SAFETY-VALVE is a circular valve placed on an opening in the top of a stoam boiler,
and kept in its place cither by means of weights piled above it, by a lover of the second
kind, with a weight capable or sliding afong the arm, or by a lever and spring. In sta-
tionary engines, one valve is frequently found sufficient, and the pressure on the valve
is produced in the first or second of the methods indicated above. In locomotive engines,
on the contrary, there are always two loaded valves: one called Ihe lock-up rafae, from
its being out of the engineman's reach and control, is placed well forward on the top of
the boiler, and kept down by weights; the other, on the hinder part of the top of the
boiler, is for safety subjected to a less pressure than the lock-up valve, and is acted on
by a lever and spring. The term "safety-valve" is particularly appropriate to this inven-
tion; for whenever the tension of the steam rises above a cert.iin amount ( = the weight
in pounds with which the valve is held down divided by the area in inches of the under
surf a co exposed to the steam), the valve is forced upward by the superior "pressure
beneath, steam escapes, and the pressure ou the boiler being "thus relieved, the valve
sinks to its place. The only precaution necessary is to be sure that the valves are not
too heavily loaded or fastened; and willful indifference, or disregard of this caution, has,
especially in the case of American river-steamers, been productive of serious casualties,,

SAF'FI, AZAFFI, or ASFI, a sea-port of n. Africa, in the kingdom of Morocco, and
107 m. w.n.w. of the city of that name. It is surrounded by waste and desert land; and
its inhabitants, about 12,000 in number, of whom 3,000 arc Jews, are said to be the
wildest, greediest, and most fanatical of the kingdom. It was at one time, the chief seat
of the trade with Europe, and though it has declined with the rise of Mogadore, it still

7 Safety.


exports silk, wool, leather, gum, and goat-skins. The value of the imports in 1873 was
113,718; of the exports, 277,628.

SAFFLOWER, CartJtamua ttnctorivs, a plant of the natural order composite?., allied to
thistles (q.v.), but distinguished by its heads of flowers having only hermaphrodite
florets, and the fruit having four ribs, and no pappus. It is an annual, 2 to 4 ft. high,
branching toward the top; flowers dark orange, or vermilion. It is a native of the East
Indies from which it was probably introduced in a remote into Egypt and the Levant,
where it is now naturalized. It is extensively cultivated in France, and the more south-
ern pans of Europe, and even in some parts of South America, chiefly on account of
the corollas of the florets, which are used in dyeing yellow and red. In France, it is
drilled or sown broadcast in the beginning of May. The plants are thinned to live or six
inches apart; and the flowers are picked by the hand in dry weather, and very carefully
dried on a kiln, under pressure, and are thus formed into small round cakes, in which state
safflower appears in the market. The safflower of Persia is generally esteemed the best;
but India yields the chief part of that imported into Britain. From its resemblance to
saffron, salilower is sometimes called bastard saffron, and it is used to adulterate saf-
fron. The yellow coloring matter of safflower is a kind of extractive. The red color-
ing matter is carthamine (q.v.). The coloring matter of rouge (q.v.) is derived from

The seeds of safflower are bitter and very oily. They are greedily eaten by parrots
and many other birds. They are sometimes used as a purgative. The oil which they
contain is employed in the East Indies in cases of rheumatism and paralysis.

SAFFORD, TRUMAN HENRY, b. Vt, 1836; graduated at Harvard in 1854. He was
remarkable when a boy for his astonishing power of mentally performing with wonder-
ful rapidity mathematical problems, such as extracting cube roots of numbers having 8
or 10 places of figures. When less than 10 years old he made the calculations for an
almanac; and in 1849 ascertained the elliptic elements of the comet of that year. In 1863
he was made assistant observer at the Cambridge observatoty, and in 1865 became direc-
tor of that at Chicago. He has made many astronomical observations and discoveries.

SAFFRON, a coloring material, consisting of the dried stigmas of the common yellow
crocus, so abundant in our gardens in early spring. It was introduced into Europe from
Asia Minor, and is largely cultivated in several countries, but chiefly in Spain. In Eng-
land the crocus was unknown until 1339, when it was introduced from the east by a pil-
grim ; and in 1582 it was extensively cultivated for yielding saffron, especially in Essex, at
the place now called inconsequence Saffron- Walden. Its cultivation in Britain has almost
entirely ceased, and the saifron used is imported. Saffron is not only valuable as a
coloring material, but has from very early ages had a great medicinal reputation. Homer
mentions it, and Solomon associates it .with spikenard and other precious drugs and
spices. A large portion of the supply in ancient times was yielded by Cashmere, where
it is still extensively cultivated. In addition to its other properties, it is often used as a
perfume, and in flavoring as well as coloring confectionery and other article of food.
These latter are now its chief uses in Britain, where its medicinal value has long been
declining. The color yielded by saffron is a bright golden yellow, and is due to a pecul-
iar principle called poiychroite. Its greatwolubility in water prevents its being used as a
dye for fabrics; but its agreeable flavor, and the absence of all injurious qualities, render
it of great service in coloring articles of food.

The . crocus (crocus wi-iivu*; see CIM ccs) differs from most of the species of that
genus in flowering in autumn, not in spring. It has large deep purple or vi..Iet flowers,
with the throat boarded, and the long drooping trifid stigma much protruded from the
tube of the perianth. Tlie stigmas are the only valuable part of the plant.

In its cultivation the corms are planted in the beginning of summer in rows 6 in.
apart, and 3 in. from bulb to bulb; the most suitable soil being a sandy loam, very thor-
oughly tilled. The stigmas are gathered by women and children, and are spread out on
cloth or paner, and dried in the ^sun, or in kilns or drying-houses. The produce of an
acre of saffron is about 5 pounds the first year, and 24 pounds the second and third
vear, after which the plantation must be renewed. But an ounce of saffron sells for at
least 2.

SAFFRON-W ALBEIT, a market t. and municipal borough of England, in the county
of Essex, 24 m. n.n.w. of Chelmsford. The church is an elegant specimen of late per-
pendicular. The free grammar-school has an income of 60 a year. The chief trade is
in barley, malt, and cattle. Pop. '71, 5,718.

SAFVET PASHA', b. Constantinople. 1815; entered the diplomatic service, and was
for a time secretary to the sultan Abdul Medjid. Pie was ambassador to Paris 1865-66,
was member of the council of state, minister of foreign affairs, minister of justice, and
for a short time in 1878 grand vizier.

SAGA, an old Norse word, used to denote a tale which, originally dependent on. and
gradually elaborated by, oral tradition, had at last acquired a definite form in written
literature. Such sagas (Norse- sogur). along with poetical and legislative writings, con-
stitute the chief part of the old Norwegian-Icelandic literature. They have been divided
into historical and legendary. The latter embrace partly stories universally current

Sagaclahoc. C


about heroes of the Teutonic race (e.g., the Voh'inga-Sa^o), and partly stories peculiar
to the Norse or Scandinavian peoples (e.g., the Frithjop-Saga); while the former handle
the events and personages of Norwegian and Icelandic history from the 9th to the
13th c, in numerous biographies and family records. To Danish history belong the
KnyttiHga-Sagu and Jfn>i$rikinya-K<i<ja; to Swedish, the Inffears-Sagaj to Russian, the
Eynmrute-Saga. Tlie Faroe islanders and the Orcadians have also theirown sagas. After
the middle of the 14th c., when the motley literature of the church began to exercise an
influence, tales were translated from foreign languages into Norse, e.g., the story of
Barlaam and Jomiphat (q.v.), which also received the name of sagas. Bishop P. E.
Miiller, in his SagabiftliotAek (Copenh. 1817-20) was the first who subjected the whole
subject of saga-literature to a critical treatment. Since his time collections both of the
historical and legendary sagas, with critical apparatus more or less complete, have
appeared in all the countries of the north. The German sage is the same word, and
expresses fundamentally the same idea as the Norse saga The difference is this, that
the Germans do not restrict its application to the legendary or traditional literature of
their own country but extend it to that of others.

SAGADAHOC, a co. in s. Maine, drained by the Androscoggin and the Kennebec
rivers, traversed by the Kuox and Lincoln, and "the Maine Central railroads; about 2oO
sq.m. ; pop. '80 19,273. The surface is diversified. The soil is fertile. The principal
productions are hay, corn, and dairy products. Much lumber is made, and ship-building
is an important interest. Co. seat, Bath.

SA GAN, a t. of Prussian Silesia, 43 m. n.w. of Liegnitz, on the Bober, and on the
Ilannsdorf and Glogau railway. Pop. '75, 10,541, who manufacture cotton and woolen
cloths, and paper, and trade in yarn, cattle, and corn. In the manufacture of woolen
cloths alone 1600 men are employed.

SAGE, Sdlcia, a genus of plants of the natural order labiate, and containing m-iny
species, herbaceous, and half -shrubby. There are only two perfect stamens, The fila-
ments of which bear at their summit a cross thread the much elongated connective
fastened by a joint, and having one cell of the anther at the upper end, and the other
but impsrfect cell at the other end. The seeds cf many of the species, when steeped in
water, become covered with a mucilaginous slime like quince seeds. COMMON SAGE, or
GABDKX SAGE (S. officiiuilis), grows on sun ay mountain slopes and rocks in the s. of
Europe, and has long been in general cultivation in gardens. It is a half-shrubby plant,
seldom more than two ft. high, with ovate-oblong or lanceolate, finely notched, curiously
wrinkled, whitish-gray leaves, and racemes of purplish-blue, rarely white or red flowers.
The whole plant has a peculiar, strong, penetrating aromatic smell, somewhat resembling
that of camphor, an 1 a bitterish, aromatic, -somewhat astringent taste. It contains much
essential oil (oil of agc), which has been sometimes used in liniments for rheumatism.
&tge,lea/03s are much used in flavoring dishes, and in sauces, etc. The leaves and young
shoots are used for astringent tonic gargles. Sage, tea, nride of the dried leaves and shoots,
is a astringent and tonic. Sage grows best in a dry soil, and is easily propa-
gated by slip* or cuttings. Clary (q.v.) is a species of sage. MEADOW CLA.KT, or
MEADOW S.VGE (S. pratenslx), is a common ornament of meadows and borders of fields
in most parts of the continent of Europe, and in the s. of England. It has bluish-purple
flowers. It is sometimes fraudulently put into beer, to make it more intoxicating.
The APPI.E-BE.VHIXG SAGE (S. pomifera) is a native of the s. of Europe and of the e-ist,
remarkable for its very large reddish or purple bracts, and for the large gall-nuts which
grow on its branches, as on the leaves of the oak, and which are known as sage applet,
have an agreeable aromatic taste, and are brought to market and eaten. Some of the
species of salvia have very beautiful flowers, and are prized ornaments of gardens and

SAGE-BRUSH, a popular name for the artemma tridentata, and other artemisias of
the western table-lauds and plains. One kind, called the white sage is much liked by
cattle and affords good pasturage.

, SAGHALI EN, spelled in all Russian accounts Sakhalin (q.v.).

SAG HARBOR, a village in s.e. New York, on the s. shore of Long Island, in the
township of Southampton; pop. (of the township) '80, 6.352. It is in Suffolk co.. on
Gardiner's bay, 100 m from New York, and 10 m. from Greenport. It is the terminus
of a branch of the Long Island railroad, has an excellent harbor. 6 churches, a number
of fine residences, 2 newspapers, a bank, and a hotel. The principal industries are con-
nected with the fisheries and the coastwise trade. A line of steam boa is connects it with
New York. It has manufactures of cotton, morocco, cigars, and poUerv.

SAGINAW, a co. in the center of the lowei' peninsula of Michigan; drained by the
Saginaw, the Cass, the Flint, the Shiawassee, and the Tittabawassee rivers; on the
Saginaw Valley and St. Louis, the Flint and Pere Marquette, and the Jackson, Lansing,
and S-iginaw railroads; about 850 sq m. ; pop. '80,59,09539.167 of American birth.
The surface is mostly level, and heavily timbered. The soil is a rich loam. The prin-
cipal productions are corn, oats, and dairy products. Paie lumber is the main jxport.
Co. seat, Sagiuaw.

ft Sajj;irt;ihoc.

Saguoiiaj .

SAGIXAW. or SAGINAW CITY, co. seat of Saginaw co., Michigan, on the w. bank
of the Saginaw river or, tlie Flint and PC re Marquette, the Jackson, Lansing, and Sag-
inaw, ami the Sagina\\ Valley aud St. Louis railroads; pop. '$0, 10,525. It is onaphiia
30 ft. above Ilie river, which is spanned by 3 bridges, and is navigable for vest-els (,:aw
ing 10 ft. of water. The city lias a court house, churches, schools, 2 banks, and 2 news-
papers. Lumber and salt are largely exported. There are large manufactories of Hour,
sashes and blinds, etc. It was incorporated iu 1859.

SAGINAW BAY, an arm of lake Huron, extends s.w., and forms an important inden-
tation of the shore of Michigan stale. It is 60 ni. long by 80 wide, with several line

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 1 of 203)