Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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Pierre Leroux, Jean Keynaud, Emile 1'ereire, Felicien David, ISaiiit Cheron. Guu'oult,
Charton, Ca/,caux, Duuochet, arid Stephaue Mouy is one whom posterity \\i.l not w.ll-
ingly forget.

SAINT SOPHIA, CHURCH AND MOSQUE OF, a celebrated structure at Constar.tir.rple,
long an olijert of great interest to all visitors of that city. It was originally l.ui.t b\ I lie
emperor Constantine in 325-326, on occasion of the translation of the se;,t ol din in to
By/.antiuni; and is so called as being dedicated, not, as commonly supposed. \;> ;. s. int
of that name, but to the Hag in Sophia (holy wisdom), that is to the denial wisdom of
God or the Logos, the second person of the Trinity. The building of Coik-ta: t:nc \\ as
subsequently rebuilt and enlarged by his son Constant ius; and this second chinch of
Coustantius having been destroyed in 404, was rebuilt by Theodosius the youi ger in
415; and it lasted unaltered till ijie celebrated ISika sedition, or battle of the IV. c I ions of
the circus, under Justinian, in 532, in \\hich it was tolally destroyed. '1 he present
building is substantially that which was erected by Justinian in expiation of (his sacri-
lege. It occupied less than seven years in its erection, and the history ol' the work and
of the details of its material and its construction are full of marvels. Ten thousand
workmen are said to have been employed upon it. The materials were supplied from
every part of the empire, and comprised remains of almost every celebrated temple of
the ancient paganism. The sedil.a of the priests and those of the patriarch were of
silver gilt. The dome of the tabernacle was of pure gold, and was surmounted by a gold
cross weighing 75 Ibs., and incrusU'd wilh precious stones. Ail the sacred ve;scls ;>.nd
other apparatus were of gold. The altar-cloths were embroidered with gold and pearls;
and the altar itself was composed ol a mass of molten gold, into which were thrown
pearls, sapphires, diamonds, onyxes, and every other object which could raise its costli-
ness to the highest imaginable degree. The total cost of the structure is stated by the
nncient authorities at 320.000 pound*. Some regard this as pounds-weight of silver,
oilier* as of gold. One of the latest writers on the subject. Mr. Ncalc (E<ixfern. C/tmch,
vol. i. p. 237), adopts the latter estimate, and thus computes the cost at the enormous
sum of 13.000,000.

The building may be described as a square of 241 ft., forming interiorly a Greek
cross, and surrounded in the interior by a woman's choir or gallery, supported by mag-
nificent pillars, for the most part borrowed from ancient buildings. In the r >es
a dome, which is supported by two great semi-domes, which in their turn rest upon
smaller semi-domes, the whole presenting a series of unexampled beauty. The height
of the dome is 175 feet. The building is approached by a double porch, which is ; .bout
100 ft. in depth. The whole of the interior was richly decorated with sculptured marble
and mosaics Even in the reign of Justinian, a further n construction of the building
became necessary, the dome having fallen in. on an earthquake; but this may be said
to have been the last important change in the structure within the Christian period of

On the occupation of that city by the Turks in 1453, St. Sophia was appropriated as
a mo<que. All its purely Christian fittings and internal structures were swept away.
The Christian emblems were either mutilated or covered up from view by a toat^.g of
plaster. The latter course was adopted throughout the building in the case ^'\ mosaic
pictures containing representations of the human figure, which the Koran proscribes as
vnlawful, and thus the original mosaics of the Justinian era have in gr< \tl part escaped
destruction. Some years since, the late sultan, Abdul Medjid, having ordere'd a com-
plete restoration of the building, these mosaics were accidently brought to light, and,
with the consent of .the sultan, artists were sent out from Berlin. w),o, with I he assist-
ance of the architect employed by the Turkish government, made accurate copies of all
thc>e interesting relics of antiquity, which have been published y'i the expense of the
Prussian government by M. Salzenberg, the artist thus employed by the king The
interior of the building at present is very judiciously restored for Mohammedan wor-
ship, the Christian decorations being again carefully covered v.p, coated with planter iu
imitation mosaic-work. Like all mosques, St. Sophia is closed against Christian vh-ilors
except upon special finnan, which, however, is easily obtained, and the privilege may
be had at small expense by the traveler through the interposition of the masters of t lie
principal hotels. See Von Hammers Constantinopolw 'imd dcr Hox-poni* (2 vols. Nvo,
Pesth, 1822); Salzenberg's A/t-Chrixth'che Bmtiloikmnle Kdnstantinepeh (Berlin. 1854);
llaghes, Aya Sofia Constantinople (London, 1854); also Edinb. Review, April, 1865, p. 456,
and foil

SAINT STEPHEN, a t. in Charlotte co., s. New Brunswick, on the St. Croix river
where Deny's river joins it, and n few m. from Passa.maqr.oddy bay. which receives
them both; pop. '71, 3,000. It is 86 m. from St. John by road. 116^ m. by railroad, the
B.W. terminus of the St. Stephen's branch of the New Brunswick and Canada railway.
The river separates it from Calais, Me., which is on the opposite bank, connected with it
by a bridge, and furnishing the gas by which it is lighted. It has 6 churches. 2 news-
papers, many fine residences, 2 banks, and schools. The principal industry is tho
manufacture of lumber, which is an important business.

Saint Tammany.

SAINT TAMMANY, a parish in s.e. Louisiana, bounded on the e. by the Pear!
river, on the s.w. by lake Pontcliartrain, watered by the Chefonte and Bogue Chitto
rivers; on the New Orleans, Mobile, and Texas railroads; about 900 sq.m.; pop. '80,
6,8872,632 colored. The surface is level and heavily timbered. The soil is poor.
The principal productions are rice, corn, wool, and molasses. Much lumber is exported.
Co. seat, Covington.

SAINT THO'MAS, one of the most westerly of the group of Virgin islands, is situated
in bit. 18 20' u., long. 65 w. ; area (Almanack de Gotlia, 1879), 83 sq.m.; pop. about
14,000. It belongs to Denmark.

The interior of the island is mountainous, and not very fertile. Since the eman-
cipation of slaves in 1847, the cultivation of sugar has been entirely abandoned.
Cotton is planted, but only in small quantity. The climate is hot, dry, and unhealthy;
yellow fever is endemic, and preys much upom Europeans, the natives being seldom
affected by it.

The principal town, Charlotte Amalie, is situated on the side of the mountain, and
descends nearly to the niarghi of the harbor. The houses, which appear from the harbor
tier above tier, and have a beautiful and picturesque effect, are built of a bright cream-
colored limestone, surrounded with balconies, verandas, and jalousies, fancifully painted,
and the roof covered with galvanized iron or shingles (tiie latter gayly colored v\ hen
brightened up witli the rays of a tropical sun), and presenting at night, when lighted
up with lamps, a very striking effect. The town itself is laid out with rather narrow
streets, but there are some good stores and hotels in the place. The governor's house,
to the e. of the town, is a large and imposing building; and an ancient ruin, "Blue
Beard's castle," crowns an elevation. The harbor is land-locked on three sides; the
entrance to it, fortified on both sides, is rather narrow. The harbor is spacious, and
has deep water, is much occupied with shipping of many nations, and has been much
improved since 1864 by dredging. The Royal Mail Steam-packet company have made
it a central station for their large steamers, from whence the intercolonial steamers
diverge on their different routes through the adjoining seas. About 750 British vessels
of all kinds, exclusive of ships of war and mail-packets, enter the harbor annually.
The average annual .value of the imports, exclusive of cord, is about 1,000,000.

In Oct., 1867, a fearful hurricane took place. In Jan., 1868, Denmark agreed to a
treaty for the sale of St. Thomas and St. John to the United States; but as the United
States legislature declined to ratify it, the treaty never took effect.

SAINT THOMAS, an island off the w. coast of Africa in the gulf of Guinea, belonging
to Portugal, 200 m. s.w. of Fernando Po. Area about 120 sq. miles. Of its inhab-
itants, 1000 are white and mulattoes, and 15,000 are blacks. Sugar was formerly grown,
extensively; coffee is now the chief article of export. In 1876 slavery in St. Thomas
was abolished by the Portuguese government. The chief town is St. Thomas or Chaves,
a bishop's see, with about 4,000 inhabitants, who live in miserable wooden huts, and few
of whom can write or even read.

SAINT THOMAS. CHRISTIANS OF, a remarkable religious community settled from a
very early date on the Malabar coast of the Indian peninsula. They take their name
from the apostle St. Thomas, who, according to a very ancient tradition, for which,
however, no very positive evidence or satisfactory authority can be alleged, preached in
India, and is regarded as the apostle of that country. As early as the 6tl>c. the well-
known voyager, Cosmas Indicopleustes, reports of numerous Christian communities
settled in India, under the pastoral care of bishops sent from Persia. To this circum-
stance it may be attributed that the Indian Christians, like those of what may be called
the mother church of the Persian kingdom, lapsed into the Nestorian heresy, which,
after the decrees of Ephesus and Chalcedon, having been suppressed by the civil laws of
the Roman empire, was driven beyond the limits of Roman authority, and found its
most favored seat among the hostile Persians. Once established among the people,
these opinions continued to be professed by the Christians who survived in those
regions the vicissitudes of the revolutions of which India in mediaeval times was the
scene. Their seat was almost entirely along the Malabar coast, and extended from the
s. cape, Comoriil, as far as Calicut; and they are found scattered throughout this length
over the whole space from the western declivity of the Ghauts to the sea. From the
time of their lapsing into Nestorianism, their bishops were ordained by the Nestorian
patriarch of Babylon, and they possessed certain civil rights under the successive
dynasties which ruled in the s. of India. On the whole, however, they were much
oppressed; and on the arrival of the Portuguese in 1598, the Christians of St. Thomas,
although Nestorians, regarded them as their deliverers. Nevertheless, the diversity of
creed was at once recognized by the western missionaries, and attempts were made by
the successive bodies of missionaries, Franciscans, Dominicans, and finally Jesuits, to
reconcile them to the Roman church. A union, more or less real, was effected by a
synod held at Diamper in 1599; and one of the Jesuit fathers, padre Roz, was named
bishop in 1601. This union, however, was not lasting; they fell away once again from
the Roman communion, and the expulsion of the Portuguese from Cochin by the Dutch
completed the disruption. A considerable number of them, however, were again united
to Rome through the missionaries of the Carmelite order; aud toward the close of the 17th.

Saint Tammany.

c., the emperor Leopold I. obtained the leave of the Dutch to send a bishop and 12
priests of that order to the Malabar coast. One of the most serious impediments to the
influence of those missionaries, as well with the schismatics as with the heathen, was
found in the intrigues and jealousies of the Portuguese. In later times, the Christians
of St. Thomas, have for the most part been absorbed in the native Christian population.
Their tenets were in the main those of the Nestorians of Chaldea and Mesopotamia,
about the precise details of which much controversy has prevailed, and many conflict-
ing statements have been made, according to the religious views of the various travelers
or missionaries who have reported regarding them. Much of this conflict of testimony
arises from a confusion of names rather than of things. See NESTOIUANS.

SAINT VINCENT, a British island of the West Indies, belongs to the Windward
group, and lies about 28 m. s. of St. Lucia, and 100 m. w. of Barbadoes. Lat. 18 10' n.,
long. 61 5' west. It is 18 m. long, 11 in. broad, has an area of 131 sq.m., and contained
(Dec. 1875) 39,000 inhabitants, of whom a few were white, about a fifth part were
colored, and all the rest black. A chain of mountains traverses the island from n. to s.,
and throws out lateral branches, between which are ravines, which widen into valleys
as they approach the sea-shore. Evidences of volcanic action are everywhere visible on
the island strata are upheaved and disturbed, and huge masses of rock have been dis-
placed. In the interior is a volcanic mountain, 3,000 ft. high, the crater of which is half
a mile, in diameter. The climate is hot, the temperature ranging from 75 to 87. The
annual rainfall is about 76 inches. No valuable minerals have as yet been discovered.
The chief products are sugar, arrowroot, rum, cotton, and molasses; the value of the
exports in 1875 was 200,444 that of the imports, chiefly linen, cotton, and woolen
manufactures, manures, flour and wheat, fish, dried or salted, pork, salted or cured,
hardware and cutlery, leather and leather manufactures, timber, butter, and mules, was
152,081. Nearly 700 vessels enter and clear the ports annually. Religion and morality
are at a low ebb more than half the children r.rc reported as illegitimate. There are
above 30 schools, attended by over 2,000 children. The revenue, derived chiefly from
export duties, was in 1875, 27,852; the expenditure, 29,693, of which a considerable
sum was employed in the completion of public works, etc. The government consists of
a lieutenant-governor, a legislative council, and 12 elective members of assembly. The
capital is Kingston (q.v.), and the other one or two small towns or villages are of little
note. In 1861 the importation of coolies from India was commenced, 500 of them hav-
ing been brought to the island in that year. Shocks of earthquake are frequent; hurri-
canes occur at intervals, and the violent rains occasionally damage the crops and roads.

SAINT VINCENT, CAPE, in Portuguese Cnlw da Sao Vicente, a promontory forming
the south-western corner of Portugal and of Europe, off which several important naval
battles have taken place. On June 16, 1693. admiral Rooke, with 20 English men-of-
war, was here attacked by a vastly superior French fleet, and defeated with the loss of
12 men-of-war and 80 merchantmen which were sailing under his convoy; on Jan. 16,
1780, admiral Rodney here destroyed several Spanish ships; on Feb. 14. 1797. the great
battle of cape St. Vincent, between 15 British line-of-battle and 6 frigates, under admiral
Jervis (afterward created earl St. Vincent), and 27 Spanish line-of-battle and 12 frigates,
resulted in the total defeat of the latter and capture of 6 of their largest ships (of which,
however, 4 only were ultimately secured). The effect of this last victory was to frustrate
the formidable Spanish-French scheme of invading England. The fourth naval fiirht off
cape St. Vincent took place between the fleet of queen Maria of Portugal, commanded
by sir Charles Napier (q.v.), and that of Dom Miguel, in which a portion of the latter
was destroyed, and the rest captured, 5th July, 1833.


SAIS, an ancient Egyptian city, called in the hieroglyphs Sn, and existing at the time
of the old monarchy, was situated on the right bank of the Canopic branch of the Nile,
in 31 4' n. lat. It is at present called Sa el Ilagar, or Sa of the Stone, from some mod-
ern stone buildings in the neighborhood. There are, however, no remains of temples or
palaces on the site; all that remains being a wall of nnburnt brick 70 ft, in thickness,
perhaps the peribolos of the temple. Traces of the Temenos, 720 ft. long, still exist,
and of the citadel, but the temples and tombs which stood within the city walls have
been completely stripped; many tine statues of basalt of the 26th or Saite dynasty, from
this spot, being found in the different collections of Europe. Sais gave its name to a
nome, and also to two Egyptian dynasties, the 21th and 26th. founded by natives of the
city. The goddesses principally worshiped there were Ncith or Minerva, and Ceres or
Isis. Neith was said to be the mother of the sun, and is constantly called in the hiero-
glyphical legends the mistress of Sais; and an inscription in the temple of Neith is said
to have declared of her. "I am past, present, and future; no one has lifted my veil; the
fruit I have brought forth is the sun." At Sais there was also a sepulcher of Osiris.
The tombs of the kings, contrary to Egyptian and resembling the Greek custom, were
within the walls. The tomb of Amasis consisted of a stone edifice with columns, and a
chamber with doors. Sais was important as a religious capital. Toward the decline of

Baivas. A />

Saki. 46

the monarchy, it rose to great splendor. The 26th dynasty transferred hither the cap'tal
of Hie kingdom. Amasis transported a monolithic shrine of jrranite from Elephantine
to Sais utter tnree years' labor, employing 2,000 men in the undertaking. [Solon and
Pythagoras visited Sais, and Plato was instructed in its colleges. There serins lo have
been a considerable Greek population in the city; but althouglO'ais continued to be men-
tioned after thc26lh dynasty, its political importance then declined, and Memphis became
the seat of government. The intercourse between Sais and Athens siib.-eqiu iitlv iruve
rise to the idea of Athens having been colonized from it. Lepsius, Brief a, p. 12; Wilkin-
sou, Modern Egypt, vol. i. p. 183; Herodot, ii, 28, 59, 169; Strabo, xvii. p. 801; Champol-
lion, L'Egypte, ii. p. 219; Lettres, p. 50.

S AIVAS is the name of one of the three great divisions of Hindu sects. See INDIA.
The word designates the votaries of S'iva, and comprises different special sects, which
varied in number at different periods of mediaeval Hinduism. To judii'e bv the number
of shrines dedicated to S ivu in his form as Linga, it would seem that the worship of this
deity was the most prevalent of all the modes of adoration; bat these temples are scarcely
ever the resort of numerous votaries, and they are regarded with comparatively little
veneration by the Hindus. In upper India, the worship of S'iva has, indeed. 'never
assumed a popular form. No legends are recorded of tiiis deity of a poetic or plea>inir
character; the S'aivus, unlike the Vaishnavas, have no works in" any of the common dia-
lects, such as the lidmdyan'a, the Vdrtid, or the Bh<ikt<nnd*d; no establishments in Hin-
dustan, like S'linath or Purl; and their teachers of repute, like S'ankara (q.v.), arc too
philosophical and speculative to be really popular. 1 he worship of S'iva seems, there-
fore, lo have, been, from a remote period, more that of the learned and speculative
classes, than that of the masses of the people. In a renowned work called the

tijuya, or the victory of S'ankara over the world, composed by Auandagiri. one of the
disciples of S'ankara, several subdivisions of the S'aiva '

'aivas are named viz., the ,

properly st) called who wore the impression of the Linga on both arms the Itaudras,
who hail a trident stamped on the forehead; the Uffrns, who had the drum of S'iva on
their arms; the Bltdktas, with an impression of the Linga on their foreheads; the Jartga-
tnitK, who carried a figure of the Linga on their head; and the Pdx'upataz, who imprinted
the same- symbol on the forehead, breast, navel, and arms. The present divisions of the
S'aivas, however, arc the following: The Dan'd'insand Das'nanii -Dandins; the Yogins;
the Jangamas; the Paramahansas ; the Aghorins; the Urdhalwhus; Akas 'mukhins and
Nakhius; the Gudaras; the RQkharas, Sukharas, and Ukharas; the Kaialingius; the
Brahmacharins; and the Nagas.

The Dun'd'inK, or staff-bearers, properly so called, are the representatives of the fourth
order, or mendicant life, into winch a Hindu is to enter after lie passed through the
stages of a religious student, householder, and hermit. The Dan'd'iu is distinguished by
carrying a dan'd'n, or small staff, with several projections from it. and a piece of cloth
dyed with red ocher in which the Brahmanical cord is supposed to be enshrined
attached to it. He shaves his hair and beard, wears only a cloth round his loins, and
subsists on food obtained ready dressed from the Louses of the Brahmans once a day
only, which he deposits in the small clay pot that he always carries with him. He
should live alone, and near to, but not a city; this latter rule, however, is rarely
observed. The genuine Dan'd'in is not necessarily of the S'aiva sect; but those who
worship S'iva, especially in his form as Bhairava, or the Terriffic, have, at the ceremony
of initiation, a small incision made on the inner part_of the knee, the blood drawn by
this process being deemed an acceptable offering to the god. The Das' ndmi-Dun'd' ins
are included in this class; but they admit none but Brahmans into their body, and are
considered to be the descendants of the original members of the fraternity, who refer
their origin to the celebrated Sankara or Sankardclarya (q v.). He is said to have had
four disciples, who are called Padmapa'da, Haslamalaka, Surcs'wara or .Mandana, and
Tr^'aka. Of these, the first had two pupils, Tirlha and As'rama; the second two, Yana
ami Aran'ya; the third had three, Saraswati, Pur!, and BhSrati; and the fourth had also
three. Gin or Gir, Parvata. and Sfigara. These ten constitute collectively the Das'nami
(from dd*'an, ten, and tin man, name); and when a Brahman enters into either class, he
attaches to his denomination that of the class of which he becomes a member; as Tirtha,
Giri. etc. The philosophical tenets of this sect are mainly those of the Veddntn (q.v.), as
taught by S'ankara and his disciples; but they generally superadd the practice of the
Yoffi (q.v ), and many of them have adopted the doctrines of the Tantras (q.v.).

The Yoffins are. properly sneaking, followers of the Ym/a (q.v.) system; and the term
implies a class of men who practice the most difficult austerities, in order to become
absorbed into the universal s-pirit, and thus liberated from repeated births. The votaiies
of S'iva, so called, hold that, by dint of these practices such as continued suppressions
of respirations, sittingin 84 different attitudes, fixing the eyes on the top of the nose they
will be finally united with S'iva, whom they consider as the source and essence of all
creation. .The principal sect of this class is that of the Kdnphdt'd Yog inn, who their
oriirin to a teacher named Gur<ik1indth, who seems to have lived in the beginning of the
15th c., and, according to his followers, was an incarnation of S'iva. A temple of Gor-
akhiiath exists at Gorakhpur; a plain, called Gorakhkhetr, is near Dwaraka. and a
cavern of his name at llaridwar. The Yogins of Gorakhnath are called Kanphatas,

A 17 Salvas.

4: Saki.

from having their ears bored and rings inserted in them at the time of their initiation.
They may be of any caste; they live as ascetics, single or in colleges; officiate as priests
of S'iva iu some places; mark the forehead with a transverse hue of ashes, and smear
the bodv with the same substance; they deal iu fortune-telling, profess to cure diseases
with drugs and spells; and some play and sing, and exhibit animals.

The Jangamas, or Linff(tr<itx, are likewise not an important division of the S'aiva
eect. Their essential characteristic is tlie wearing of the Liuga emblem on some part of
their dress or person.

The Paramahaiwtu are ascetics who pretend to be solely occupied with the investi-
gation of Brahman, and to be equally indifferent to pleasure or pain, insensible of heat
or cold, and incapable of satiety or want In proof of this, they go naked in all
weathers, never indicate any natural want, and receive from their attendants what is
brought to them as their alms or food.

The same apparent worldly indifference characterizes the Aghorins; but they seek
occasions for its display, and demand alms as a reward for its exhibition. Their prac-
tices, too, seem to betray that originally their worship was not of an inoffensive kind,

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 10 of 203)