Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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the services which it performs can never be observed without admiration. A shepherd's
dog exhibits the utmost care to prevent sheep from straying off the road along which they
are being driven, and sets itself, often of its own accord, to watch any gate or gap in tl t
fence, or goes immediately to bring back stragglers. It is equally useful on the ble;. I
moor or wild mountain, readily going for sheep, and bringing them from a distance.
The sheep become perfectly acquainted with it, and evidently regard it as a friend, anJ
not as an enemy, although the appearance of any other dog would alarm them at once.
It knows the sheep of the flock it is required to attend, and even in a cro\vded market
adroitly separates them from others with which they have become mingled. Its remem-
brance of places is obviously very accurate; and a dog which has found great diffi-
culty in conducting sheep through crowded thoroughfares does the same work much
better on subsequent occasions. The intelligence of the shepherd's dog has sometimes
been proved in a very remarkable way by dishonest masters employing ihem to steal
sheep; the master merely indicating by some sign the sheep which he wished to add to
his own flock, and leaving the dog to do it in his absence. For stealing sheep in this way,
a farmer in the s. of Scotland was hanged about the end of last century. More frequent
instances are on record of the shepherd's dog, conducting a flock of sheep safely home
for many miles, unaccompanied by the shepherd. The shepherd's dog is affectionate,
and becomes strongly attached to its master, but is generally shy to strangers. It is gen-
erally treated with great gentleness by the shepherd; no severity is used in its training,
nor could be used with advantage, it is very muscular and active, and capable, per-
haps beyond any other kind of dog, of continuing its exertions during a long time.

The shepherd's dog is often crossed with other kinds of dog, and particularly with
the pointer and setter. Dogs are thus obtained which, whilst capable of all the services
required by the shepherd, arc equally capabable of being employed in the pursuit of
game, and are most successful in night poaching.

The drover's dog is very often a cross between 1 the shepherd's dog and the mastiff, the
foxhound, the pointer, or the gray hound. It displays many of the best qualities cf the
shepherd's dog, and if too frequently very different from it in its cruel treatment of
sheep, the fault is originally that of the brutal master.

SHEPHESD'S PURSE, Capsclla formerly ThlaspiBursa pnsforis, an anrtual plant
ef the natural order eruciferce, a most abundant weed in gardens and cornfields in
Britain, and remarkable as one of the few plants that are found over almost, the whole
world, adapting themselves to almost all soils and climates. It is a very variable plant,
from 3 in. to 2 ft. in height, with root-leaves more or less pinnatifkl, all the leaves morq
or less toothed, and rough with bairn. The root leaves spread closely along the ground.
The flowers are white and diminutive. The pouch, from which the English name seems
to be derived, is laterally compressed, and somewhat heart-shaped. This is a trouble-
some weed where it abounds, but, being an annual, it is extirpated by continual and
careful cultivation.

SHEPLEY, ETHER, I/L.D., 1789-1877; b. Mass.; educated at Dartmouth college,
and practiced law in Portland. He was IJ. S. attorney for Miinc, 182^-23; U. 8. sen-
ator, 1833-36; justice of the Maine supreme court, 1836-48; and its chief justice,
1848-55.

SHEPLEY, GEORGE F., 1819-78; b. Maine; graduated at Dartmouth college, 1837;
studied law at Harvard university and at Portland, practiced law at Bangor in 1840.
He was U. S. district attorney under pres. Polk, residing in Portland, arid tilled the
office until 1861. In the war of the rebellion he was col. 12th 3te. vols., afterward com-
manded a brigade in gen. Butler's expedition. He was placed in command of the city
of New Orleans and appointed military governor of Louisiana; held a similar position'
in Richmond after the surrender in 186.j; U. S. circuit judge, first circuit, 1871.

SHEP'PEY, ISLE OF, a portion of the county of Kent, insulated from the main-land
by the Swale, an arm of the estuary of the Medway. is 9 m. long, and 4 m. broad. In
early times, its dimensions were much greater, but, the sea has encroached upon, and is
gradually eating away, the northern shore, which is lined by cliffs of London clay, from
60 to 80 ft. in height. The church of Minster, formerly in the middle of the island, is
DOW T on the n. coast. Great numbers of interesting fossils are found imbedded in the
London clay, of which the whole island is composed. In the n. of Ihe island, corn is
grown, but. 'the s. districts, which are low, are laid out in grass. Almost the whole of
the inhabitants are massed in the sea-port of Sheerness (q.v.).

SHEPTON MALLET, a market t, of Somersetshire, 5 m. r.s.e. of Wulls. It is a town
of considerable antiquity, and is mentioned in Domcsduy Book as Sepeton. Its gram-
mar-school, free to twelve boys, was founded in 1627. Worsted stockings, crape, serge,
and velvets are manufactured. It contains several large breweries. Pop. '71, 4,363.



Sherbet.
Sheriff.

SHERBET, an oriental beverage, much used in Mohammedan countries, where
stimulating drinks are forbidden. It consists of the juices.of various fruits diluted with
water, aud sweetened exactly in the way in which lemonade is made in Europe.

SHEE BORNE, a market t. of Dorsetshire, on the river Yeo, 18 m. n.n.w. of Dorches-
ter. The King's school, founded in 1550, has an endowment of nearly 1000 a year,
and several exhibitions of 40, tenable for four years at either of the great English uni-
versities. There are several silk-throwing mills. Pop. '71, 5,545.

Sherborne was the Saxon Scireburn (scir burna, clear brook) It was erected into a
bishopric in 705, and remained the seat of a bishop till 1075 or 1076, when the see wat
removed to Old Sarum. It was a prosperous place, aud the seat of considerable cloth
manufactures in the time of Leland and Camden.

SHERBROOKE, a co. in s. Quebec, consisting of the townships of Ascot and
Oxford; 220 sq.m. ; pop. '71, 8,510. It is intersected by the St. Francis, Megantic, and
Internationa] railroad, the Massawippi Valley, and the Grand Trunk forming a junction
at its county seat. It is drained by the river St. Francis, having valuable water-power,
and by the Magog and other small lakes and streams in the w. and s., and lake Mem-
phremagog, bordering on the s.e. Co. seat, Sherbrooke.

SHERBROOKE, at., capital of Sherbrooke co., Canada; on both sides the Magog
river, 80m. s.e. of Montreal, on the Grand Trunk railroad; pop. '71,4.432, of whom many
are of French origin. The place has a bank, 3 weekly papers, an academy, and many man-
ufactories of machinery, tools, flannel, woolen, and cotton goods. It is one of the impor-
tant towns in eastern Canada, and has many pleasant residences.

SHERBURNE, a co. in e. Minnesota, having the Mississippi river for its s. and s.w.
boundary; 420 sq.m.; pop. '80, 3,855 2,875 of American birth; it is intersected by the
St. Paul and Pacific railroad; it is drained by the Elk river, several small lakes, and
the Rum river in the n.e. It has extensive tracts of woodland, alternating with fertile
plains, producing grain and sweet potatoes. Large numbers of live stock are raised,
and that pursuit, with the lumber business, is the principal industry of its inhabitants.
Co. seat, Elk River.

SHERIDAN, a co. in central Dakota ; about 1700 sq. miles. It is as yet unorganized.

SHERIDAN, a co. in n.w. Kansas, drained by the Saline river in the s., Prairie Dog
creek and the North and South forks of Solomon river traversing it latitudinallv; 900
Fq.m.; pop. '80, 29,09226,124 of American birth, 5,441 colored. The surface is
undulating and the soil is very fertile and well adapted to stock raising.

SHERIDAN, PHILIP HENKY, b. Ohio, 1833; graduated at the military academy at
West Point in 1853, aud, being assigned to the infantry, served on frontier duty in Texas
for nearly two years, and in Oregon, 1855-61. At the commencement of the rebellion
lie was appointed quartermaster of the army of s.w. Missouri, and in April, 1862, chief
quartermaster of the western department. In May, 1862, he was appointed col. of the
second Michigan volunteer cavalry; was commissioned brig.gen. of volunteers, July 1,
1862; and soon afterward was put in command of the llth division of the army of the
Ohio. He commanded a division in the army of the Cumberland, and at the battle of
Stone river, Dec. 31, 1862, saved the army from being routed by his stubborn resistance,
for which he was made maj.gen. of volunteers. In the march toward Chattanooga in
1863. he was very active; and in the battle of Chickamauga, though swept off the field
by the breaking of 'the lines, he recovered himself and returned with his own command
and some other troops to support gen. Thomas. In April, 1864, he was called to the
army of the Potomac by gen. Grant. He'was given command of the cavalry corps,
and during May, June, and July, besides protecting the flnnks of the army a*ju recon-
noitering the enemy's position, was successfully engaged in eighteen different actions.
In Aug., 1864, he was placed in command of the army of the Shenandoah; and soon
afterward of the middle military division, gaining several successes over gen. Early,
for which he was made a brig.gen. of the U.S. army, and in the following November
maj.gen. After completely crushing Early's army, he desolated the whole region
along the banks of the James river, effectually cutting off all supplies for the confcder-
fttc army from the north. He then made a detour around Richmond, joined gen. Grant's
army at City Point, whence he started Mar. 25, 1865. to strike the final blow for the
overthrow of gen. Lee's army of northern Virginia. lie fought the battle of Dinwiddi*
Court-House, Mar. 31; and that of Five Forks, which compelled Lee to evacuate Rich-
mond and Petersburg, April 1. He followed these victories by attacking and harassing
the confederate troops during their flight, which led to the surrender of Lee at Appo-
mattox Court-House, April 9, 1865. He was appointed to the command of the military
division of the s.w., June 3, and of the military division of the Gulf. July 17; of the
department of the Gulf. Aug. 15, 1866; of the fifth military district, including Louisiana
and Texas, Mar. 11, 1867; and of the department of the Missouri, with headquarters at
fort Lcaveiiworth, Sept. 12. He was made lieut.gen., Mar. 4, 1869, and given command
of the division of the Missouri, including the departments of Dakota, of the Missouri, of
the Platte, and of Texas, with headquarters at Chicago, which office lie holds at the
present time. During the political disturbances in Louisiana in 1875, gen. Sheridan was



.4 A -j Sherbet.

Sheriff.

ordered to Xew Orleans, and on quiet being restored returned to liis command at
Chicago.

SHESIDAN, RICHARD BRINSLEY, was the son of Thomas Sheridan, a lecturer on
oratory and elocution, in his day of some notoriety. He was born at Dublin in Sept.,
1751, in due course was sent to school there, and afterward removed lo Harrow. He
gave no promise; as a boy of the brilliancy he afterward displayed as a man, being pro-
nounced a hopeless dunce by all his teachers. He does not seem lo have been brought
up to any regular employment; and after his elopement .mid marriage in 1773 with a
Miss Linley, a public singer of great beauty and accomplishment, his prospects did not
seem bright, more especially as he insisted, on a point of pride, that- Ins wife should give
up her profession. As the readiest resource he betook himself to literature. The lighter
drama was the sphere which attracted him, and in Jan., 1775, his first comedy, The
Rivals, was produced. Damned on its first appearance, through certain deficiencies in
the acting, this piece on its lepetition found gradually the favor with the public which
its wit and vivacity deserved, and made the reputation of the writer. In the course of
the year following Sheridan followed up his success by a farce of no very great merit,
entitled >''. Ptric'k' Day, or the Scheming Lieutenant, and a second comedy, Tlie Duenna,
amid the sparkling dialogue of which are interspersed some songs of exquisite merit. He
now became in some unexplained manner for though his pieces were most successful
they could scarcely have brought him the necessary funds part proprietor of the Drury
Lane theater; and" in 1777 his ScJwol for Scandal was produced there. This, which is by
much his greatest effort, instantly leaped into the popularity it has ever since continued
to retain. His other works for the stage were the inimitably clever farce. Ihe Critij
(1779), and, after a long interval, The Stranger and Pizarro (1798), both adapted from the
German of Kotfcebue. Daring this interval he was deeply engaged in politics. Sheri-
dan's wit and sprigiitliness coruscated in society as bright!}' as they did in his comedies;
he was an admirable table-companion over a bottle the best of then living good-fellows.
With Fox and his wild set these, gifts made him a prime favorite; and through the influ-
ence of Fox it Avas that in 1780 he was returned to parliament for the .borough of
Stafford. In his politics he faithfully followed Fox, and the whig party from time to
time had good service from their brilliant' recruit. He never failed to amuse the house,
and when stirred by the trumpet-call of a great occasion, he was capable^ of rising to
heights of noble eloquence. In particular, his famous speech urging the impeachment
of Warren Hastings (q.v.), is still traditionally remembered as perhaps the very grandest
triumph of oratory in a time prolific of such triumphs.

In 1793 Sheridan lost his wife; and three years after, he was married again to a Miss
Ogle, who brought him 5,000, to Sheridan no doubt welcome, though trifling as a relief
to the difficulties in which he had become involved, and which more and more continued
to accumulate upon him. Always the most reckless and improvident of mortals he did
not improve with time. His later years were years of wretched struggle, of which debt,
duns, and dissipation may furnish a convenient alliterative summary. His health failed
him with his fortunes; and his friends, not finding him in his sickness and adversity
quite so amusing as formerly, naturally failed him also notably and shamefully, the
prince regent, whose dull brains over the wine cup he had many a time been made use
of to brighten. Some honorable exceptions there were, among whom the poets Rogers
and Moore may be mentioned as steadily kind to him to the last. He died in London on
July 7, 1816, in his 65th year.

See his biography by Moore, and (for a just and delicate appreciation of his genius)
Hazlitt's Lectures on the Comic Writers. A good edition of his works, edited by F. Stain-
forth, was published in 1874.

SHERIDAN, THOMAS, 1721-88; b. near Dublin, Ireland ; educated at Trinity college.
In 1743 he entered the dramatic profession, played at Drury lane and Covent garden;
managed the Dublin theater until 1754, when a political riot occurring in die theater
compelled him to retire. With the exception of one or two brief re-appearances on the
stage, the rest of his life was spent as a lecturer on elocution at Oxford, Cambridge, and
elsewhere. He published a Life of Swift, a dictionary, and lectures on reading and
elocution.

SHEEIF (Arab, noble), designates, among Moslems, a descendant of Mohammed,
through his daughter Fatima and AH. The title is inherited both from the paternal ;md
maternal side; and thus the number of members of this aristocracy is very large among
the Moslems. The men have the privilege of wearing green turbans, the women green
veils, and they mostly avail themselves of this outward badge of nobility the prophet's
color while that of the other Moslems' turbans is white. Many (ff these sherifs founded
dynasties in Africa; and the line which, nowadays, rules in Fez and Morocco, still boasts
of that proud designation.

SHEIVIFF (A.-S. sc.ir-r/erefa, the reeve or fiscal-officer of a shire; compare Ger. graf),
in English law, is an officer whose duties are chiefly ministerial (for he has only a few
trifling judicial duties). The office is of great antiquity. The sheriff was formerly
chosen by the inhabitants, though probably requiring confirmation by the crown. But
popular elections for that purpose were put an end to by a statute of 9 Ed. II., which
enacted that in future the sheriffs should be assigned by the chancellor, treasurer, and



Sheriff. A Qf>

Sherlock.

judges. Ever since that statute, the custom has been, and now is, for all the judges of
the common-law courts, with (he lord-chancellor, and chancellor of the exchequer, to
meet in the court of exchequer at Westminster on the morrow of All Souls, and then and
there propose three persons for each county to the crown. This is called the pricking
of the sheriffs, and the crown afterward selects one of the three nominated, and appoints
him to the office. A sheriff continues in office for one year only, and cannot be com-
pelled to serve a second lime. The office is not only gratuitous, but compulsory, for if
the person appointed refuses, he is liable to indictment. In practice, countiy gentlemen
of wealth are appointed. In the city of London, the sheriffs are appointed not by the
crown, but by the citizens. The sheriff has important official duties iu elections of mem-
bers of parliament. He is, by his office, the first man in the county, and superior to any
nobleman while he holds office. He has the duty of summoning the y ; <'i,ii.tatus
i.e., all the people of the county to assist him in the keeping of the queen's peace; and
if any person above the age of fifteen, and under the degree of a peer, refuse to attend
the sheriff after due warning, he incurs a fine or imprisonment. The chief legal duty
which the sheriff discharges is that of executing, i.e., carrying out all the judgments
and orders of the courts of law. It is he who seizes the goods of debtors or their persons,
and puts them in prison. For this purpose he has a number of persons called hound-bail-
iffs (or, iu popular dialect, bumbailiffs), who in practice do this invidious work, and give
a bond to the sheriff to protect him against any mistake or irregularity on their part. The
necessity of this bond is obvious, for the doctrine of law is, that the sheriff is personally
responsible for every mistake or excess made or commit ted by the bailiffs in executing
the writs or process of the court, and frequent actions are brought against him by indig-
nant prisoners, or debtors whose persons or goods have been arrested; and the courts
watch jealously the least infringement of personal rights caused by these bailiffs. Every
sheriff lias also an under-sherilf and deputy-sheriff, the latter being generally uu attorney,
who takes charge of the legal business.

SHEEIFF, in Scotland, is a. title given to three county officials, all appointed by the
crown. The lord-lieutenant is "sheriff -principal," and as such, though he performs no
duties, takes precedence in the county. The ' sheriff-depute" discharged the duties of
the office until recently, when the greater part of them devolved on the " sheriff -substi-
tute." In Scotland the office of sheriff is still that of a local judge, and not merely
ministerial, as in England. The institution of the office is very ancient, and the juris-
diction, both civil and criminal, was, and still is, very extensive. By the statute 20
George II. c. 43, the office was put on a better footing." The principal," or high sheriff,
was debarred from performing any judicial duty, and it was enacted that none should
be appointed to be a sheriff-depute but an advocate of at least three years' standing. The
sheriff-depute is disqualified from acting as advocate iu any cause originating in his
county, though in other respects he is at full liberty to practice. He holds his office for
life or good behavior. The same .statute gave each sheriff-depute power to appoint a
sheriff-substitute. The sheriff-substitute was at first appointed during the pleasure of
the sheriff-depute, but he is now appointed by the crown, requires to be an advocate or
solicitor of five years' standing, and holds office dd riiam aut culpam. Being bound to
reside within his county or district, and prohibited from taking other employment,
while the sheriff-depute usually atiends the sittings of the court of session in Edinburgh,
he, in practice, exercises the original jurisdiction attaching to the office. The civil juris
diction of the sheriff extends to all personal actions on contract or obligations without
limit, actions for rent, and other questions between landlord and tenant. Iu questions
affecting real or heritable property, his jurisdiction Is unlimited in amount when the
object is to regulate possession; but when the validity of a title is in issue, he is limited
tocase^ where the value is less than 1000, and whore the parties consent. In these
cases there is an appeal from the decision of the sheriff-substitute to that of the sheriff-
depute. He has also a summary jurisdiction in small-debt cases where the amount in
question is not above 12; and these cases are determined without written pleadings.
The sheriff does not try civil causes with a jury. In criminal cases the sheriff has juris-
diction in all the minor offenses which do not infer death or banishment, and power to
award any punishment not exceeding two years' imprisonment. He has also jurisdic-
tion in cases of bankruptcy and insolvency to any amount. In small-debt actions,
criminal and bankruptcy matters, there is no appeal from the sheriff-substitute to the
sheriff-depute. The sheriff's jurisdiction excludes that of the justices of peace in
riots. He has charge also of taking the precognitions in criminal cases. He revises the
lists of electors, and returns the writs for the election of members of parliament; and this
last is almost the only duty which he performs in common with the English sheriff. An
idea of the multifarious duties performed by the Scotch sheriff may be gathered from
the statement that he exercises, within a comparatively small district, the functions
which in England are exercised by the commissioners in bankruptcy, county-court
judges, the stipe.ndi.try magistrates, recorders, revising barristers, and "coroners. The
office of commissary (q.v.) has been amalgamated with that of sheriff. Recently, large
additions have been made to the sheriff's jurisdiction, and other changes are in con-
templation.

The office of sheriff is one of the few which may be traced back to the Saxon times,



Sheriff.
Sherlock.



TLs



and it appears originally to have been the same both in England and Scotland,
sheriff was (under the earl and next to the bishop) the chief man of the shire, and i
to have possessed unlimited jurisdiction to keep the peace: to have presided in all ti.e
courts; to have punished all crimes, and have redressed all civil wrongs. r lbls extensive
jurisdiction, gradually acquired at the cost of lesser local courts, has been gradually
infriuged upon, partly by the exercise of the royal prerogative, and partly by parli.-"-
ment. But in England it suffered more from the appointment, to the office of men ur.l'.t
to exercise judicial powers, and from the consequent usurpation of their functions bv
the supreme courts. The same causes operated in tcotland, though to a less extent, hi
England, they resulted in the almost entire abolition of the judicial functions of th
sheriff. In Scotland, they resulted in his being deprived of the more important parls of
the criminal jurisdiction, particularly of the power to punish by death; and in his civil
jurisdiction being limited mainly to questions affecting movables. In both countries,
the office was usually hereditary, which tended to a separation of the duties of the office
into the honorary and the laborious the former being performed by the principal
sheriff, and the latter by the deputy. In Scotland, this separation was completed by
the act of George II., which entirely separated the offices, by the transference of the
power of appointing the depute from the principal sheriff to the crown. In England,
this complete separation has never become necessary, from the fact of the sheriff's power
having been much more crippled than in Scotland. Indeed, in England, so purely
honorary and ministerial has the office become, that it has been held by a female, ar.d



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 100 of 203)