Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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in Westmoreland, the office was hereditary down to 1849. The duty of enforcing ti.e
orders of the supreme courts, which now in England are a principal part of the duties
of the sheriff, appears to have been engrafted on the office probably on the theory that
these orders were those of the king himself. In Scotland, the sheriff has never been
called on to enforce any writs except those actually and not merely in name proceeding
at the instance of the crown.

SHERIFF (antt) in the United States, is an officer of the state and county, and not
of the general government; he has no judicial functions unless power to assess damages
in certain cases with the aid of a jury is considered as such; and he is almost invariably
elected by popular vote. The deputies of a sheriff are responsible to him only while he
remains responsible to the executive and the public (see PUBLIC OFFICERS). The duties
and function of the sheriff are in general much the same in this country as in England.

SHERIFF-CLERK, in Scotland, is the registrar of the sheriff's court, and as such lins
charge of the records of the court. He registers, and, when required by the proper
party, issues the sheriff's judgments. He also conducts what correspondence may be
required. He has important duties to perform in regulating the summary execution
which is issued in Scotland against the debtors in bills of exchange, promissory notes,
and bonds, without the necessity of any judicial suit.

SHERIFF-MUI2, a nnme given to several moors in Scotland on account of the
" wapinschaws" which used to be there held, under the superintendence of the sheriff.
The only moor of this name which appears prominently in Scottish history is situated in
Perthshire, on the northern slope of the Ochils, 2 m. n.e. of Dunblane, and was the site
of the great battle between the adherents of the houses of Stuart and Hanover, Ifov.
13, 1715. The former, who consisted of the northern clans under the earl of Seaforth,
and the western clans under gen. Gordon, numbering about 9,000 in all, were on their
march southward, under the leadership of the earl of Mar, to join the Jacobites who hnd
risen in the n.w. of England, when they were met by the duke of Argyle at the head of
3,500 disciplined troops. After lying under arms all night, the Macdonalds, who
formed the center and right of the Highland army, attacked the left of their opponents,
and routed it so completely that the fugitives fled with all speed to Stirling, carrying
the news that Argyle had been totally defeated. Argyle, however, with his dragoons
had meantime driven the left of the Highlanders back for 2m., when the right and
center returned from the pursuit, and took him in rear; he then skillfully withdrew his
men to a place of shelter, and remained facing his opponents till the evening, when ho
retired to Dunblane, and next day to Stirling. About 500 were slain on each side. A
a mere battle, the victory lay with the Highlanders; but it was so little decisive, that it
paralyzed the action of the Jacobites almost as effectually as a defeat would have done.

SHERLOCK, THOMAS, D.D., an English prelate, was the son of Dr. William Sherlock.
dean of St. Paul's, and was born in London in 1678. He was educated at Eton and
Catharine hall, Cambridge, where he took the degree of M.A. in 1701. In 1704 he
obtained the mastership of the temple; in 1714 he became vice-chancellor of his college,
taking the degree of D.D. in the same year; and in 1716 dean of Chichester. Eleven
years later he was raised to the see of Bangor, was transferred to that of Salisbury in
1734, and in 1748 to that of London. He died in 1761. Sherlock was a strenuous torv,
and supported the church-and-state politics of his day with a sort of dull dignity. He
displayed a good deal of diplomatic skill in his different official positions, whence Bent
ley nicknamed him " cardinal Alberoni;" his eloquence and learning were likewise of a
very superior order, as may still be ascertained from his 4 vols. 01 Sermons (1755-76).
which were highly praised in their day. Besides these sermons, he wrote a variety of
controversial treatises and pamphlets, all of which are now wholly forgotten.

V. K. XIII. 28 *


SHERLOCK, WILLIAM, D.D., 1641- ".707; b. London; graduated at Cambridge and
became rector of St. George's parish, London, 1669; was made a prebendary in St.
Paul's, master of the temple, and rector of Therfield. After the revolution be was sus-
pended for refusing the oath of allegiance to William and Mary, but afterward took it,
defending himself -by publishing the Allegiance of the Two Sovereign Powers, to which,
the replies were almost innumerable. In 1691 he became dean of St. Paul's.

SHERMAN, a co. in n.w. Kansas, having the state line of Colorado for its w. bound-
ary; 1050 sq.m. ; pop. '80, 1311 of American birth. It is drained in the n.e. by the
North and South fork of Sappa creek, and Beaver creek, affluents of the Republican
river. Its surface consists of level, fertile plains.

SHERMAN, a co. in central Nebraska, drained by the Loup fork of the Platte river,
and other streams; 576 sq.m.; pop. '80, 2,0611600 of American birth. Its surface con-
sists of vast rolling prairies, extremely fertile and adapted to stock-raising, the produc-
tion of grain, and'dairy products. Co. seat, Loup City.

SHERMAN, a city in n.e. Texas, in Grayson co., 64 m. n. of Dallas; pop. '75,
7,000. It is on the Texas and Pacific railroad at its junction with the Houston and
Texas Central railroad; 12 m. s. of the Red river. It is regularly and substantially
built, mostly of brick, has a court-house of brick and stone erected at a cost of $30,000.
It is the center of a large local trade, and exports cotton and hides. It contains 2
banks, with an aggregate capital of $450,000, 3 newspapers, 8 churches, and is the seat of
Austin college. "i'he leading industries are tlie manufacture of iron, flour, tobacco, and

SHERMAN, JOITN, 1613-85; b. England; graduated at Cambridge, 1633; came to
Connecticut, 1634; preached there for several years, and became a magistrate, 1641; was
minister at Watertown, Mass., 1647-85. He was distinguished as a mathematician, pub-
lished several almanacs, and was a fellow of Harvard college, where ho uL>o lectured.

SHERMAN, JOHN, b. Ohio, 1823; brother of gen. W. T. Sherman; studio:! law; admit-
ted to the bar in 1844, elected a member of the 34th, 35th, and 36th congresses. In 1860
he was again elected to the house of representatives, but was made senator from Ohio
in the following year, and re-elected for the two following terms. On the accession of
president Hayes, senator Sherman was appointed to a place in the cabinet as secretary of
the treasury, in which position he had the satisfaction of superintending the resumption,
by the government, of specie payments, Jan. 2, 1879, after a suspension of 17 years.
In the exciting campaign for president in 1880, secretary Sherman was a prominent
candidate for nomination by the republican party at the convention held at Chicago in
June; but it becoming apparent that his nomination was impossible, owing to the for-
midable strength of the friends of gen. Grant, a combination was effected between the
Sherman and Elaine parties in the convention, and the compromise pursued which
resulted in the nomination of gen. Garfield. On Mar. 4, 1881, Mr. Sherman took his seat
as U. S. senator from Ohio.

SHERMAN, ROOEK, 1721-93; b. Mass.; a shoemaker, who in 1743 settled in Con-
necticut, where he was a store-keeper. He became couuty surveyor of lands i:i 1745; but
taking up the study of law, was admitted to the bar in 1754. He served a number of
terms in the assembly, became a judge of the court of common pleas in 1759, and was
appointed to the same office 6 years later at New Haven, whither he had removed in
1761; and he held the office till 1789, part of the time sitting on the superior court. He
was a member of congress from 1774 till his death, one of the committee of 5 appointed
to draft the declaration of independence, a member of the boards of war and ordnance,
and of several important committees. He helped codify the laws of Connecticut, and to
draw the articles of confederation; was a member of the constitutional convention of
1787, U.S. senator, 1791-93, and mayor of New Haven from 1784 to his death. He was
a man of strong practical sagacity.

SHERMAN, SIDNEY, 1805-73; b. Mass.; lineally a descendant from Roger Sher-
man; received a common school education; established himself in business in New York,
but removed thence to Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1831, and again to Newport, Ky. In 1835
he raised a company to aid Texas in her struggle for liberty and independence, equip-
ping his men and supplying two pieces of artillery. He was engaged in the conclusive
battle of San Jacinto, in which he commanded the left wing of the Texan force, and
first raised the exciting battle-cry "Remember the Alamo !" In 1837 he removed to Texas,
and five years later was sent to congress from Harris co., that state. He planted the
first railroad on Texas soil in 1854. During the war of the rebellion he organized the
defense of Galveston.

SHERMAN, THOMAS W., 1813-79; b. Rhode Island; graduated at West Point in
1836; commissioned 2d lieut. in 3d artillery. He was engaged in the Mexican war,
and was made brevet maj. for gallant conduct at the battle of Bucna Vista. At the
outbreak of the rebellion he was appointed lieut.col. of the 5th artillery, but in 1863
returned to the 3d artillery as its col. He was made brig.gen. of volunteers: commanded
the land forces in the operations against Port Royal and the Sea islands in Oct., 1861;
and in December of the same year occupied Beaufort and Tybee island. He was under

A OK Sherlock,


gen. Banks at Port Hudson in 1863, where lie lost a leg. In 1870 he was placed on the
retired list with the full rank of in the U. S. army.

SHERMAN, WILLIAM TECUMSEH, an American gen. ; b. in Ohio in 1820; was educated
for the army at the military academy of West Point, and received a commission as 1st
lieut. in 1841. During the war with Mexico, he served in California, and was promoted
to the rank of capt. In I860, at the secession of the southern states, he was residing
at New Orleans in a civil capacity, but went north, and at the commencement of tho
war offered his services to the federal government, was appointed col. of infantry, and
was in the battle of Bull Run. Raised to the rank of brig.gen., he succeeded gen.
Anderson in the department of Ohio, from which he was removed for declaring that it
would require 200,000 men to hold Kentucky. He distinguished himself at the battle of
Shiloh, and as maj.gen. in the siege of Vicksburg. Raised to an independent command,
he marched across the state of Mississippi, and after the defeat* of gen. Rosecrans, took
command of the army in Georgia, forced gen. Hood to evacuate Atlanta, and then
marched across the entire state, capturing Savannah and Charleston ; from which point he
moved u., capturing the most important confederate positions, and by cutting off the
resources of gen. Lee, compelled the evacuation of Richmond, and the surrender of gen.
Lee to gen. Grant, April 9, 1865. The surrender of the army of gen. Johnston to gen.
Sherman in North Carolina a few days later, and that of gen. Kirby Smith, w. of the
Mississippi, closed the war. No northern gen. has acquired greater popularity than
Sherman. He divides with Lee and Stonewall Jackson the admiration of impartial
foreigners. Sherman was appointed lieut.geu. in 1866; and, in 1869, became Commander-
in-chief. He has had ample justice done 10 the daring originality of design, the fertility
of resource, brilliant strategy, and untiring energy that made Grant pronounce him " the
best n'eld-olh'ccr the war had produced." See ALemoirs of General William T. Sherman,
by himself; published in 1875.

SHERMAN, WILLIAM TECUMSEH, (ante), b. Ohio, 1820; graduated at West Point in
1840, and in the same year was appointed 2d lieut. of the 3d artillery. He was engaged in
the Florida war, and in 1847 was sent to California, where he was acting ass't.adjt.gen.
until 1850. In 1853 he resigned from the army and entered the banking business in San
Francisco, afterward removed to New York, practiced law for a time in Kansas, and in
1858 was president of the Louisiana military academy. In 1861 he went to St. Louis, and
was commissioned col. of the 13th regular infantry, and on May 17 brig.gen. of volun-
teers. He commanded a brigade at Bull Run (July 21); in October took command of
the department of the Cumberland; and had charge of a camp of instruction at St. Louis,
later and until February, 1863, when he was ordered to the command of the district of
Paduouh, Ky. lie fought through the campaign in Mississippi and Tennessee, was
wounded at Sliiloh, and on May 1 was commissioned maj.gen. of volunteers. In
December he made an unsuccessful attack on Vicksburg, and was with gen. Grant in
the subsequent movement against that stronghold. After the fall of Vicksburg he was
made a brig.gen. in the regular army. During the latter part of 1863 he was in Missis-
sippi and Tennessee; commanded the left wing of the army at Chattanooga; and forced
gen. Longstrecf to raise the siege of Knoxville in December. After various movements
of importance, including cutting the railroad lines centering at Meridian, Miss., he took
command of the military division of the Mississippi in Mar., 1864, and concentrated
and organized at Nashville an army comprising 100,000 men, with which he undertook
his invasion of Georgia. He fought the confederates under gen. Joseph E. Johnston
at Dalton. Resaca. Cassville, Dallas, and in the Kenesaw mountains, from May 12 to
the beginning of July, when he occupied Marietta, and defeated gen. Hood, who had
superseded Johnston, in several hard-fought battles, winding up his triumphant cam-
paign Sept. 1. when Atlanta was evacuated after a siege of 40 days; on Aug. 12 he was
commissioned n: ; ,j.gen. in the regular army. Gen. Sherman now resled his army until
November, when he undertook the: "march to the sea" which has chiefly perpetuated
his fame. On Dec. 13 he w-^s at Savannah, when he stormed fort McAllister and cap-
tured the city. Making the latter his base for future operations, he marched into South
Carolina, capturing Columbia Feb. 17, 1865; Clieraw. Mar. 3; and, continuing into North
Carolina, fought battles at Averysboro and Bentonville, and captured Goldsboro on
Mar. 23. He took Raleigh April 13. and on the 26th received the surrender of gen.
Joseph E. Johnston at Durham Station. He continued his march to Richmond and
Washington, where it concluded May 24. having extended over 2,600 miles. He was
appointed in June to the command of the military division of the Mississippi. On July
25, 1866, he succeeded gen. Grant as lieut. gen., and, on Grant becoming president, was
made gen. of the army, a position which he still holds. In 1871 he made an extended
tour through European and oriental countries, being everywhere received with distinc-
tion. He made his headquarters in Washington after his return, until 1874, when he
removed to St. Louis. In 1875 he published Memoirs of General W. T. Sherman, by

SHERRING, M. A., 1826-80; b. England; ordained in 1852; went to Benares, north-
ern India, as a missionary of the London missionary society, 1853; was stationed at
Mirzapore in 1856; returne'd to Benares in 1861, where he remained until his death. lie


visited England in 1867 and 1876. He published, T7ie Indian Clmrch during Hi* Mutiny;
'JLhe Sacred City of the Hindus; The Tribes and Castes of India a* Represented in Benarea;
'2 fie History of Protestant Missions in India.


SHERWIN, THOMAS, LL.D., 1799-1869; b. N. H.; graduated at Harvard college in
1835; was principal of an academy at Lexington, Mass., 1825-36; tutor at Harvard,
1836-27; spent several months in engineering and surveying; taught a private school for
boys in Boston for a year; and afterward had charge of the Boston English high school;
was one of the founders of the American institute of instruction in 1880. He publi&hed
an Elementary Treatise on Algebra; Common Sclwol Algebra.

SHERWOOD, MABY MARTHA (Btrrr), 1775-1851 ; b. England; educated by her father,
the rev. George Butt. Her first book was published, against her wishes, when she waa
17 years of age. She married capt. Henry Sherwood; resided in India, 1804-18, and
afterward in England. She wrote 90 volumes, including stories for children, novels,
and works of laborious research. Among the best known are: Henry and his Biarer;
Roxobel; and The Lady of the Manor.

SHEEWOOD FOREST, a stretch of hilly country in the w. of Nottinghamshire,
lying between Nottingham and Worksop, and extending about 25m. from n. to s., and
6 to 8m. from e. to west. It was formerly a royal forest, and the traditional scene of
many of the exploits of the famous Robin Hood and his followers; but it is now almost
wholly disafforested, and is occupied by gentlemen's seats and fine parks. The town of
Mansfield and a number of villages are situated within the the ancient bounds. Numer-
ous remains of the old forest are still to be seen. The soil, which is principally a species
of quartzose gravel, is in some j)laces fertile, in others almost barren, and on the whole
but of moderate quality.

SHET LAND, ZETLAND, or anciently HIALTLAND, and likely the ultima thule of the
Romans, a group of about 100 islands, islets, and rocks, 23 of which are inhabited.
They lie between the Atlantic and the North sea, between lats. 59 51' and 60 50' n.,
and between longs. 53' and 1 15' w. ; but Fair isle, which belongs to Shetland, lies to
the s., and is about midway between Orkney and Shetland. The group is iibout 25
leagues n.e. of Orkney, and 44 w. of Norway. Area, 325 sq.miles. There are three
chief islands, the largest or Main-laad, 60 m. long by 3 to 10 broad ; Yell. 20 by 6 m. ;
and Unst, 11 by 6 miles. Pop. in 1811, 22,379, and in 1871, 31,608, with 141.2 temalea
to every 100 males, and 5,667 inhabitated houses. In 1871, 67 per cent of the children
between the ages of 5 and 13 were receiving education. In 1869 only 4.7 per cent of the
births were illegitimate. Lerwick, 272 m. n. of Edinburgh, and 95 n. of Wick, is the
only town in Shetland, and has a custom-house, law courts, and other public offices,
nnd about 70 shops. Its pop. in 1871 was 3,516. It has a fine natural harbor, and has
steam communication with Granton bi-weekly in summer, and weekly in winter, for
passengers, mails, and a large part of the exports from and imports into Shetland. Fort
Charlotte, now used as a prison, court-house, etc., is at the n. end of the lown, and adds
to its picturesqueness. Lerwick has two hotels, two licensed public-houses, ;ind several
lodging-houses. The chief imports are oatmeal, flour, tea, tobacco, spirits, sugar,
cottons, woolens, timber (chiefly from Norway), tar, salt, etc. From 15,000 to 20rOOO
worth of bread-stuff is imported annually to supply the deficiency of native grain. All
classes consume much tea. No wood grows in the country. In 1875. 244 vessels of
39,605 tons entered, and 214 of 37,116 tons cleared the port of Lerwick. Scalloway and
Hillswick are the largest villages. The chief exports are dried salted fish, about 3,000
tons annually, about a half to Spain; herrinsre, 4,000 to 10,000 barrels in the year; about
2,100 cattle and 600 ponies yearly; about 12,000 sheep in 1873; eggs, of which 54,000
have left in one steamer; hand-knitted woolens of great beauty and fineness of work-
manship; fish oil; chromate of iron from Unst; copper ore from Sandlodge; iron
pyrites formerly from Fitful when sulphur was dear. The exports exceed in value
100,000 annually.

Fishing for cod, ling, herring, is the chief industry, but each fishermnn has usually
a small farm, at 4 or 5 yearly rent, and mostly worked by the females of his family.
In 1876 Shetland had 614 fishing-boats, with 2,772 fishermen and boys. Almost all the
small tenants practice spade cultivation. Seals and bottle-nosed whales arc often caught.
Nearly every house has a quern or hand-mill, and every township has one or more of
the old Norse water-mills. The spinning-wheel is common, but the spindle is still in
use in some parts. Carts are rare, and in many districts unknown. The sheep and
ponies run at large on the scatfield or common, and have registered marks; but many
large tracts have been inclosed and drained, and now rear first-class cheviot and black-
faced sheep. The rivlin, a sandal of untanned leather, is still worn. Some lands are
till held runrig, and some islanders on the w. still hold their stock as steel-bow. In
certain districts, till a very late period, the poor, by the Norse law, went from house to
house, and stayed a longer or snorter period in each, according to the size of the form.
The Shetland dialect is a soft and pleasant English, but contains many peculiar Norse
words. Many of the people still eat their fish wind-dried and slightly tainted. Young
men from Shetland are employed as sailors in the Peterhead and Dundee whalers, or at


some of the large shipping ports of the kingdom. 'They are intelligent, sober, and
sedate, and are much liked as seamen, Shetland is still subjected to the truck or barter
system hi local commercial transactions.

Slielland had a parliamentary constituency of 358 in 1875-76, and with Orkney forms
a county, which sends one member to parliament. In 1876 Shetland had 5,772 horses,
1,050 cattle, 87,935 sheep, and 4,663 pigs; 10,859 acres in oats and barley, the only
grain crops; and 618 acres in turnips. The native cattle, sheep, and horses (shelties or
ponies) are small. The valued rent in 1877-78 was 36,695. Free landed property is
termed udal, and the proprietor an udaler. Shetland has 14 civil parishes, with 23
established churches, aud 9 free.

The surface is rugged and wild, and often sterile. The coasts are abrupt, and cut
with deep bays or voes, and caves. The rocks are mainly gneiss, clay-slate, sandstone,
granite, sieuite, mica-slate, serpentine, and diallage. The highest hills are Ronas. 1500
ft., and one of five in Foula, 1400. The coast cliff scenery is very fine, and none in
Scotland surpasses that about Papa Stour. The climate is moist and variable. South- w.,
., and n. winds prevail. The mean temperature for the year is 45, for Jan. 39", and
for July 53, winter being warmer, and summer cooler than in the s. of Scotland. The
mean annual rainfall at Bressay is 38 in., and at East Yell, 50. The tide flows an hour
earlier on the w. than on the e. side of Shetland. The prevailing diseases are dyspepsia,
rheumatism, and catarrh. Infant mortality is not high. Idiotcy and imbecility are
frequent. Fair hair and blue eyes are very common.

Though we know little or nothing of the original inhabitants of Shetland, the
physiognomy, character, and language of the present point to a Norse or Scandinavian
descent. In Unst, etc., have been found cairns over long and short stone cofiins. with
skeletons, clay urns, weapons, and stone vessels. Tumuli and burned stones and earth
are frequent, and contain remains of rude buildings and stone implements. Circular
strongholds of unhewn stone, called burghs or " broughs," are very numerous, generally
on a cliff or headland, but also on artificial islands in fresh- water lochs. Mouse isle has
the most perfect " brough" known. In Sandsting occur very rude underground houses,
with the rudest stone implements. In Bressay was found a stone of the Christian
period, with an Ogham inscription. Monoliths are rather frequent. Stone circles are
rare, and never large.

SHEW-BREAD, " bread of the presence," in the Jewish ritual; 12 loaves of unleav-
ened bread, sprinkled with frankincense and placed in the "holy place," on a table of
acacia wood overlaid with gold. They were exchanged for fresh loaves every Sabbath,
and, after the incense on them had been burned as an oblation, were eaten by the priests.
Yet in extreme cases they might be given to hungry men. Wine was placed on the tablo
the bread.


SHIAWAS'SEE, a co. of s.e. Mich., intersected by the Shiawassee river, drained also
by the Looking-Glass and Maple rivers, and intersected by the Detroit and Milwaukee,
and Jackson, Lansing and Saginaw railroads; 550 sq.m. ; pop. '80,27,059. Its surface is
undulating, and extensively covered with forests of oak, ash, beach, and sugar-maple.
Soil sandy but fertile, producing wheat, maize, oats, and hay.

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 101 of 203)