Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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SHIB BOLETH (Heb ear of corn, or stream), the test-word used by the Gfleadites,
under Jephthah, after their victory over the Epliraimites, recorded in Judges xii. 6. It
nppears that the latter could not pronounce the sh, and, by saying sibboleth, betrayed
themselves, and were slaughtered mercilessly. It may be noticed that all those Hebrew
names in the Old Testament which commence with the ah, have now, through the
inability of the Septuagint to render this sound in Greek, become familiar to us through
the versions that flowed from it, as beginning with the simple , e.g., Sem, Simon,
Samaria, Solomon. Saul, etc. The word shibboleth is used in modern languages in th
eense indicated: viz., a test of speech and manners of a certain party or class of society.

SHIDZUOKA, a city in Suruga province, Japan, formerly called Sumpu or Fuchiu,
noted even in mediaeval times. lyeyasu, the great unifier of Japan, made it the capital
of his fief, and after establishing his family in Yedo, made it the seat of his labors for
the revival of literature and the arts of peace, 1604-16, during which time many Euro
peans visited the city and described it in their works. In 1868 the tycoon and his fol-
lowers were ordered to make this city, their former ancestral home, their abiding place,
its name Fuchiu being changed to Shidzuoka, which means Peaceful Slope. The sur-
rounding region is the richest tea-district in Japan. Inlaid lacquer-work and split
ware arc largely manufactured. Looming before the city is the sacred Fujiyama. Si*
miles distant is the farced Kuno San, and the sea-port of Shimidzu. Christian churche*
and flourishing schools on the American plan attest the influence of the teachers from.
the United States who have resided there.

SHIEL, LOCH, in the w. of Scotland, forms part of the boundary between the coun-
ties of Argyle and Inverness, separating the district of Moidart on the n. from those of
Sunart and Ardgower on the south. Tne head of the poch is about 16 m. w. of Fort
William. It is 15 m. long, and about 1 k m. broad, and communicates with the sea bj
Bhiel Water and loch Moidart.

Shield. 4QQ


SHIELD, a piece of defensive armor, borne on the left arm, to ward off the strokes of
the sword and of missiles. It has been constantly used from ancient times through
the middle ages, till the invention of fire-arms rendered it useless. The large shield
worn by the Greeks and Romans (Gr. aspis, Lat. clipeus) was circular, and often orna-
mented" with devices. Another form of shield (Lat. scutum) was used by the Roman
heavy-armed infantry, square, but bent to encircle the body. The early shield of
knightly escutcheon of the middle ages was circular in outline, and convex, with a boss
'in the center; the body generally of wood, and the rim of metal. In the llth c., a form
came into use which has been compared to a boy's kite, and is said, with some proba-
bility, to have been brought by the Normans from Sicily. It was on the shields of this
shape that armorial designs were first represented. These shields were in reality curved
like the Roman scutum; but after heraldry began to be systematized, we generally find
them represented on seals, monuments, etc., as flattened, in order to let the whole
armorial design be seen. In the 13th c.t this long and tapering form began to give
place to a pear-shape, and a triangular or heater-shape. During the 14th c., these new
forms became more generally prevalent, and the heater-shape, which was perhaps most
frequently represented ou armorial seals, began to approach more to an inverted equilat-
eral arch. The same variety of forms, with some modifications, continued during th*>
15th c., a tendency appearing in all representations of the heater-shaped shield to givft
it more breadth below. A notch was oiten taken out in the dexter chief for the recep-
tion of the lance, in which case the shield was said to bedbouc/ie. Subsequent to the mid-
dle of the 14th c., when the shield came to be depicted as surmounted by the helmet and
crest, the shield is often represented couche, that is, pendent from the corner, an arrange-
ment said to have originated in the practice of competitors hanging up their shields
prior to a tournament, wLere, according to De la Colombiere, if they were to fight on
horseback, they suspended it by the sinister chief, and if on foot, by the dexter chief.
A square shield denoted a knight-banneret. Shields of arms were often represented a
suspended from the guige, or shield-belt, which was worn by the knights to sustain the
shield, and secure it to their persons.

After the introduction of fire-arms made shields no longer a part of the warrior's
actual equipment, the form of the shields on which armorial bearings were depicted, on
seals, monuments, brasses, etc., varied greatly in form, and generally speaking, became
gradually more tasteless, fanciful, and unmeaning. A tendency has, however, been
shown in recent heraldry to recur to the artistic forms prevalent in th*e 14th and loth

In early times, shields of the form which generally prevailed at the period were
exhibited on the seals and monuments of ladies; but about the 15th c., the practice
began, which afterward became usual, of unmarried ladies and widows (the sovereign
excepted) bearing their arms on a lozenge instead of a shield.

The heraldic insignia of towns, corporations, etc., as well as individuals, are placed
on shields. The bearing of merchants' marks (q.v.) in a shield was prohibited by the
heralds of the 16th c. under severe penalties, and yet not a few instances are to be found
on monumental brasses of these devices being placed on shields.

SHIELDS. CHAKLES WOODRUFF, D.D., b. Ind. 1825; graduated at the college of
New Jersey, 1844, and at Princeton seminary, 1847; pastor of First Presbyterian church,
Hempstead, L. I., 1849-50; and of the Second Presbyterian church, Philadelphia,
1850-65; professor of the relations of religion and science in the college of New Jersey
from 1865 to the present time (1881). He has edited Tlie Book of Common Prayer, as
amended by the Westminster Divines; and is author of Philosophia Ultima, a work of
extensive scope and deep reasoning.

SHIELDS, JAMES. 1810-79; b. Ireland; came to this country in 1826; practiced law
atKaskaskia, 111., 1832; member of the legislature, 1836; state auditor. 1839; judge of
the supreme court, 1843; commissioner of the general laud office, 1845. He served in
the Florida war and in Mexico; brevetted for gallantry at Cerro Gordo, and Chapul-
tepec; severely wounded at both places. He was governor of the territory of Oregon,
1848; U. S. senator from Illinois, 1849-55; removed to Minnesota and was senator from
that state, 1858-60. From there he went to California, returned during the war, and
took command of gen. Lander's division at his death; was wounded at the battle of
Winchester. He was appointed U. S. senator from Missouri in 1879 to fill out the unex
jired term of David H. Armstrong.

SHIELDS, NORTH, a municipal corporation and seaport of Northumberland, on the
n. bank of the Tyne, and at the mouth of that river, opposite South Shields, and 8 m.
e.n.e. of Newcastle. It stretches more than a mile along the river-bank, and is rapidly
extending westward. Possessing all the usual institutions, as churches, schools, theater,
custom-house, sailors' home, etc., it is not distinguished by any striking architectural
fepturcs, and it is indebted to its rising trade and manufactures for its importance.
There are numerous collieries in the vicinity, and the Northumberland docks, which are
within the borough, export more than a million tons a year. The resident ship-owners
of North and South Shields possess together upward of 200,000 tons of shipping. The
harbor is bordered with quays, and is spacious enough to accommodate 2,000 vessels of
WO tons each The building of wood and iron vessels, and tug-steamers^ the manufac-

/1QQ Shield.


ture of anchors, chain-cables, ropes, blocks, masts, and other articles of ship-furniture,
are the principal branches of iudustry. North Shields has an extensive public freo
library and news-room. It sends one member to parliament. There is a school-board,
and it further possesses a time-gun, which is fired daily at one o'clock in the afternoon.
Pop. '71, 38,969.

SHIELDS, SOUTH, a custom-house port, municipal and parliamentary borough, and
market-t. of Durham, on the s. bank of the Tyne, and at the mouth of that river, 9 m.
e.n.e. of Newcastle bj 1 river and railway. The town stretches for 2 m. along the side of
Shields harbor, which is lined with numerous dockyards and manufactories. The Tyne
dock, containing 50 acres of water space, in which upward of a million tons of coal aro
annually shipped, and a large import trade is carried on. is within the borough. The
ptarket-place is a spacious square in the center of the town, near which is the large
church of St. Hilda. The town, with North Shields, is one of the chief ports in the
kingdom for the building of iron ships, iron screw-steamers, and tug-steamers. There
are large alkali, bottle, and glass works, and every kind of manufacture connected with
shipping. A steam-ferry for passengers and carriages plies day and night between the
two towns, one on the u., and the other on the s. side of the entrance to the Tyoe.
Shields bar has been removed by dredging, in order, with the piers, to form a harbor of
refuge. The sea-coast, in the neighborhood, is interesting from the rocks and caves.
The life-boat is a South Shields invention. South Shields sends one member to parlia-
ment. South Shields possesses a large public library, with news-room, and large hall
for public meetings. There is an extensive colliery, that of St. Hilda's; a school-board;
and Tyne pilotage board, comprising representatives of North Shields, South Shields,
and Newcastle. A large new theater has recently been erected. Pop. '61, 35,239; '71,

SHI'ITES ("sectaries," from the Arab. sJtiah, sldat, a party, a faction), the name
given to a Mohammedan sect by the "Sunnites" (q.v.), or orthodox Moslems. The
Shiites call themselves "followers of AH," and have special observances, ceremonies,
and rites, as well as particular dogmas of their own. The principal difference between
the two consists in the belief of the Shiites that the imamat, or supreme rule, both
spiritual and secular, over all Mohammedans, was originally vested in AH Ibn Abi
Taleb, and has been inherited by his descendants, to whom it legitimately now belongs.
The Persians are Shiites; the Turks, on the other hand, are Sunnites; and this division
between the two nations dates chiefly from the caliphate of Mothi Lilla, the Abasside, in
86811., when political dissensions, which ended in the destruction of Bagdad and the
loss of the caliphate of the Moslems, assumed the character of a religious war. The
Shiites themselves never assume that (derogatory) name, but call themselves Al-Adeliat,
" Sect of the Just Ones." They are subdivided again into five sects, to one of which,
Unit of ITaidar, the Persians belong; the present dynasty of Persia deriving its descent
from Haidar, a descendant of AH. Ali himself is by some of them endowed with more
than human attributes. The Shiites believe in metemps3^chosis and the descent of God
upon his creatures, inasmuch as he, omnipresent, sometimes appears in some individual
person, such as their imams. Their five subdivisions they liken unto five trees, with
seventy branches; for their minor divisions of opinions, on matters of comparatively
unimportant points of dogma, are endless. Yet in this they all agree, that they consider
the caliphs Abu Bekr, Omar, and Othman, who are regarded with the highest reverence
by the orthodox Sunnites, as unrighteous pretenders and usurpers of the sovereign
power, which properly ought to have gone to AH direct from the prophet. For the
same reason they abominate the memory of the Ommayad caliphs, who executed Husain,
a son of Ali, and they still mourn his death at its anniversary. They likewise reject
the Abasside caliphs, notwithstanding their descent from Mohammed, because they did
not belong to All's line.

SHIKARPUR', the most important trading t, and probably Ihe most populous t..
in Sinde, stands about 20 m. w. of the Indus, half way between Multan and Kflrrachi.
The district in which it stands is so low and level that, by means of canals, which are
supplied from the Indus, it is flooded every season. Its climate, notwithstanding, is
said to be not unhealthy. The inundated quarters are extremely fertile and produce
great crops. Groves, orchards, and fruit-gardens surround the town; sugarcane is
largely grown. Shikarpur is situated on one of the great routes by the Bolan pass
from Sinde to Afghanistan, and the transit trade to that country and to Khorassan is
important. The bankers and financiers of Shikarpur are known and trusted from Astra-
khan to Calcutta. Shikarpur is the chief town of the district of the same name, which
has an area of 8,813 sq.m. and 776,227 inhabitants. Pop. of the town, '72, 38,107, about
20,000 of whom are Hindus, and the rest chiefly Mohammedans.


SKILL ABER, BENJAMIN P., b. K H., 1814; was a printer at Dover, N.IL, in 1830,
and in 1835 went to Demerara, Guiana, as a compositor, and remained there three
years. From 1840 to 1847 he was in the printing office of the Boston Post, and after
that time for three years was connected with the same paper editorially. It was at this
period that he wrote over the name ' ' Mrs. Partington" and Rained a reputation as a


humorist by the quaintness of his style and matter. Between 1850 and 1852 he tried
his hand at newspaper proprietorship, in the Pathfinder and Carpet-Sag, but returned to
the Post, 1853-56. From 1856 he was for ten years one of the editors of the Boston
Saturday Evening Gazette. He has published Rhymes with Reason and Without; Poems;
Life and Sayings of Mrs. Partington; Knitting- Work, and other volumes.

SHILLING, the name of a money in use throughout many European states, partly as
a coin and partly as a money of account. In all probability the name, as well as the
thing itself, is derived from the Roman solidus, which, with other remains of RomaA
institutions, was adopted by the Franks and other Germanic nations. See PENNY,
SOLIDUS. Others give more fanciful derivations, as from schelltn, to ring, on account
of the particularly clear ring of the coin, and from St. Kilian, whose effigy was stamped
on the shillings of Wiirzburg. The solidus-shiUiiig of the middle ages has suffered
various degrees of diminution in the different countries. Thus the English silver shil-
ling is ^ of a pound sterling; the Danish copper one is ^ of a ryks-daler, and =d. ster-
ling; and the Swedish shilling is A of a ryks-daler, =-kl. sterling. In Mecklenburg,
Sleswick-Holstein, Hamburg, and Lubeck the shilling is used as a fractional money of
account (the -fo of a mark, -fa of a thaler), and as small silver change (each coin being a
shade less in value than Id. sterling). The French sou is another representative of the
solidus. See POUND, MINT.

SHILOH, a city of Ephraim, on a hill n. of Bethel and e. of the great northern
road; the abode of the tabernacle and ark from the conquest to the death of Eli, after
which it sank into insignificance, and is several limes spoken of in Scripture as having
been visited with judgments from God because of the iniquities committed there while
it was the place consecrated to his worship. Dr. Robinson identified it with Seilun, a
city surrounded with hills, where he found the ruins of au old tower with large stones
and broken columns.

SHILOH, BATTLE OP. So named from a church situated where the battle was
fought, near Pittsburgh landing, Hardin co., Tenn., on the Tennessee river, April 6-7,
1862. Gen. Grant, who was in command of the union force, had about 82,000 men;
and gen. Albert Sidney Johnston, with about 50.000 confederates, marched up from
"Corinth and attacked on the morning of the 6th with his entire force, driving the federals
toward the landing. Gens. "VV. T. Sherman and Prentiss suffered greatly in this attack,
the latter losing three entire regiments. Gen. Johnston was killed by a rifle-ball on
this the first day of the fight, and the command felKto gen. Beauregard, who continued
vigorously the attack, directing it mainly toward the center and left of the union array.
This portion of the line of defense being protected by a heavy concentrated- fire of
artillery, and covered by two gun-boats in the river, the attack was repulsed, and the
confederate line fell under such heavy fire at night that it was forced to retire. la
the mean time gen. Bucll had come up with reinforcements to the extent of about 13,000
men, and these crossed the river during the night. The battle was reopened on the
morning of the 7th by a heavy artillery fire from the union batteries, and on the con-
federates falling back, an assault was made and a general engagement ensued, which
continued with great fierceness until late in the afternoon, when the confederates finally
retired discomfited. The union loss was 1700 killed, 7,495 wounded, 3,022 prisoners;
total, 12,217. Confederate loss: 1728 killed, 8,012 wounded, 959 missing; total, 10,699.

SHIMONOSE KI, a t. of Japan, in 33 56' n. lat., and 131 e. long., at thes.w. extremity
of the island of Nipon, and at the entrance of the inland sea Suonada. It is surrounded
by hills, and consists of one main street, containing about 10,000 inhabitants. The ware-
houses the principal buildings are built of mud and wood, coated with cement, and
re said to be fireproof. Simonoseki is a depot for receiving the European imports from
Nagasaki, to be sent into the interior of the country; also for the produce from Osaca,
which is reshipped to Nagasaki and other places.

SIIIMONOSE'KI, a sea-port city of Japan, at the extreme s. end of the province of
Nagato (Choshiu), commanding the narrow straits of the same name; lat. 33 56' n.
long. 131 e. ; pop. '75, 19,532. It is the terminus of the great high road that traverse*
the entire main island, and the entrepot of a bustling junk and steamer trade. It is
surrounded by high hills. In 1185 the naval battle, in which 1200 war junks were engaged
and the Taira army was annihilated by the Minamotos, was fought off the town. In
1864 the dnnnio of Choshiu and his retainers erected forts on the bluffs, and refused to
allow foreign vessels to pass through the straits a place where they had no legal
right to bu, the laws of nations guaranteeing to every country the right to .'ill its terri-
tory " to the distance of a marine league along all "its coasts," (see "Wheaton, pn**i/n).
The strait of Shimonoseki at the narrowest portion is but half a mile wide. The mikado
commanded the Choshiu clan to close the strait. Foreign vessels were first warned off
and then fired on. By the instigation of sir Rutherford Alcock, another expedition
consisting of five British, four Dutch, and three French ships, with the small chartered
steamer Takiang, having on board a gun and a party from the Jamentown, represent-
ing the United States, arrived Sept. 4 off the batteries, and began the bombardment on
the 5th, continuing it for 3 days, when the silenced forts were entered and dismantled.
The allied powers demanded from Japan the sum of $420,000 for injuries and expenses,

441 Shilling


and an "indemnity" of $3,000,000, of which $750,000 was paid to the United States,
and $10,000 to the American owners of the ship Pembroke, fired on by the batteries, but
unhurt. The total expenses incurred in the expedition by the United States government
was less than $25,000 (see MIKADO'S EMPIRE, p 593). The " Shimonoseki Indemnity
Fund," still lies in the U. S. treasury, amounting by accumulation of interest to about
$1,500,000. Tiie many attempts to have the money returned, thus iniquitously extorted
from Japan have thus far failed. It is to be hoped that this justice will not be long de-

SHIN, Locn, in the s. of Sutherlandshire, measures 18 m. by 1 mile. The Shin water, a
famous trout-stream, carries the waters of the loch into Oikell water. Loch Shin abounda
in trout and salmon.

SHINDLER, MARY S. B. (PALMER), b. S. C. 1810; educated in northern seminaries;
became a Unitarian and afterward an Episcopalian. She published several volumes of
poems and novels, among which were, T lie Southern Harp; The Northern Harp; C/uirlei
Morton, or The Youiiy Patriot.

SHINER, the name of a small fish, the slilbius Americanus; applied also to other specie*
of the cyprinidce family. The shiner is usually but 3 or 4 in. long, resembles the bream,
is found abundantly iu the United States, but is not edible.


SHINGLES (probably derived from Lat. cingulum, a belt) is the popular name for the
variety of hcrpca (q.v.) which is known as H. zoster.

SHINGLES, flat pieces of wood used in roofing like slates or tiles. Such roofs are
much used in newly-settled countries where timber is plentiful. The wood is chosen
from among the kinds which split readily and straight ly, and is usually some kind of
fir. It is cut into blocks, the longitudinal faces of which are of the size intended for
the shingles, which are then regularly split off in thicknesses of about an quarter of au


SHI? (Gcr. ScJiiff = itkiff; from the root skap- or skapli-, to scoop, dig; Gr. sJeapJus, s
trough, a boat) is a term applied with great vagueness to all large vessels; while under
ihipping would be included vessels of all sizes, excepting boats without decks. Among
seamen, the expression is said to be limited to vessels carrying three masts, with a royal-
mast surmounting each; but the development of steam-navigation, in which the largest
vessels have sometimes only a schooner rig, must have gone far toward obliterating this

SHIP-B30KER INSURANCE BROKER. A ship-broker is a person employed in the
buying and selling and freighting of ships. His duties include adjusting the terms of
charter parties and bills of lading, settling with the master for his salary, collecting 1
freights on goods brought into port, arranging with passengers for the terms of their
passage, and generally managing all business transations occurring between ship-owners
and the shippers or consignees of goods. The charges made by ship-brokers are gener-
ally about two per cent on their gross receipts. Ship-brokers have been ruled not to be
within the acts for the regulation and admission of brokers.

The business of an insurance broker is usually combined with that of a ship-broker.
Marine insurance is in Great Britain to a large extent transacted by brokers. Those
who insure are in most cases capitalists, who are known to the broker as persons pre-
pared to undergo any risks which he recommends to them. The broker, who has a list
of persons ready at a moment's notice to underwrite a policy, is the mutual agent for
both parties. He procures the subscriptions of the underwriters, arranging with them
the rate of premium and conditions of the risk, receiving from them the amount of their
respective subscriptions, in the event of loss; and, when such loss is partial, arranging
the proportion to be recovered from the different underwriters. An insurance broker
charges as profit five per cent on the premium, and one-half per cent deducted from all
claims recovered from the underwriters. An insurance broker is personally liable to
the underwriters for the amount of the premium, but incurs no liability to make good
the amount insured to the owner of the ship and goods, who, in case of loss, must look
to the underwriter alone for idemnification.

BRITISH. From crossing a river or lake on a floating log, or on two or more logs
fastened together raft-wise, the first step^ toward ship-building were probably canoes
(q.v.), and ccracles (q.v.). The earliest Egyptian drawings show boats constructed of
sawn planks, and having sails as well as numerous oars. So far as can be learned from
ancient sculptures, the galleys of the Mediterranean at the dawn of civilization appear*
to have boon open., at least in the middle portion; to have been built with keel, ribs, and
pldiukiuir. and to have been strengthened cross-wise by the numerous benches on which
the rowers sat. Ships continued, however, to be generally of small draught, for they
were beached every winter; and Cnusur mentions, as a noteworthy eircumstnnee, that

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 102 of 203)