Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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chant-vessel far less space is allotted to the crew, and far more to the cargo. In every
ship a space -must be provided for the carriage of provisions and water proportionate
to the number of the crew and the intended duration of voyages. A steamer differs
from a sailing vessel in requiring a large compartment amidships to be kept clear for
her engines and boilers. In screw-steamers, to the height of the boss of the screw above
the keelson, a tunnel, known as the screj>-alley, has to be kept open for the shaft of tho
screw from the engine-room to the stern. The heavier portion of a cargo, as coal and
water, is carried immediately above the keel, so that the center of gravity may be as
low as possible, and for the same reason the engines and boilers are placed as low down
as practicable. For various details concerning the formation and arrangement of ships,
the reader is referred to detached articles descriptive of the respective portions, as DECKS,
MASTS, CAPSTANS, CHAINS, CHANNELS, HOLD, KEEL, SAIL, SHEATHING, etc.

Lloyd's. In order that a ship may be insured by the underwriters, it has to be
inspected and surveyed by one of the surveyors of " Lloyd's." According to the reports
of their surveyors, the committee of Lloyd's registry classify the vessel, affixing to its
name a letter which is intended to be as nearly as possible a correct indication of its real
and intrinsic qualities. For wooden vessels, these letters (in order of excellence) are A

(in black or red), ^E, E, and I; for iron ships or steamers they are , , and'
Numbers put before these letters indicate the number of years for which they are to



447



Ship.
Shipping.



hold the grade indicated by the letter; and numbers (1 or 2) put after the letters refer to
the completeness of their general equipment.

The table below gives details as to the number and tonnage of the vessels built in the
United Kingdom during the year 1875. In 1877 the total numbers were 1096 vessels, ol
433,094 tons.

NUMBER AND TONNAGE OF VESSELS, THE BUILDING OF WHICH WAS COMPLETED IN
THE YEAR 1875, IN THE UNITED KINGDOM.





SAILING.


STEAM.




Iron.


Wood.


Com-


Total


Iron.


Wood.


Compos-


TotaL


POETS.






posite.








ite.






B


03

1


'


8


rr




a


rf>


00

a


0)





r/i


B

a









5

a






5









o










o





o


B


o








k


H


>


H f>


H


>


H


>


H


t>


H


>


H


!>


H


ENGLAND:


































Hull






11


789 ..




11


789


>-,


4,261










5


4 261


Liverpool . . .


14


15,713


1


237 ..




15


15.950


11


6,307










11


5307


London


1


1,904


7


700 ..




8 2,064


18


7,513j 1


13 i


140


20


7,668


Newcastle &








i
























Shields
Runderland.


9
34


7,634
34,03(5








9

56


7,634

44,087


47
26


30,068 14
21,880! ..


375! .
.... 1


'MO


61

27


30,443

22.3'X)


21


8,7J6


1 1,335


Other ports.


88


34,02 li 278


23,028


..! 301! 47,049


53


31.023 33


758 2


20


OS


31 796


Total England






318
















81


83,368


33,470


1 1,335 400 118,173


160


100,052


E3


1,141; 4


670


217


101,863


SCOTLAND:


































Glasgow
Greeuock. . .
Oilier ports.


C3
3-,>
10


6-1,064
30,013
10,567


1

7
37


32

257
6,955






64
39
47


64,096
31,200
17,522


72
39
IB


51,118
13,C79
7,097






5


678


77
30
10


51,790
13,879
7754






3


568


i


89


Total Scotland






























105 105.574.


45 7.244






150 112.818 12f> 72004


a


568 6


7C7i 135


73429


IRELAND:





















'










































Total


7


9814





841






1P>


10655


5


3613










5


3 613


Total United








































1




















Kingdom..


193


10?,736


372


41,555


1 1,335 566 241,040
II 1


291


175,758


56


1,709


10


1,437


337


178,905



SHIP CANAL, IXTEKOCEANIC. See INTEROCEANIC SHIP CANAL.

SHIP-MC^EY, a tax hr.d recourse to in England at various times, but especially in the
reign of Charles I., for the equipment of a fleet. Iiir 1007, when the country was
threatened by the Danes, a law was made obliging all proprietors of 310 hides of land
to equip a vessel for the protection of the coast. Elizabeth, at the time of the threat-
ened Spanish invasion, required the various ports to fit out a certain number of ships at
their own charge; and so great anxiety was shown by the public for the national defense,
that London and some other ports furnished twice as many vessels as had been
demanded. It was in 1620 that Charles first had recourse to an impost of this descrip-
tion, requiring each of the maritime towns, with the assistance of the neighboring
counties, to arm a given number of vessels, 20 being required from London. In 1634
the tax was extended over the whole kingdom. A general spirit of resistance was
immediately aroused, not so much in consideration of the amount of the tax, as of
the objectionable feature, that it w 7 as imposed by the arbitrary authority of the king
alone, which had come to be regarded as an unwarrantable stretch of the royal pre-
rogative. In 1637 the celebrated John Hampden, a gentleman of property in Bucking-
hamshire, resolved to confront the power of the government by disputing the legality
of this exercise of the prerogative, and resolutely refused payment of the impost, an
example in which he was followed by nearly the whole county to which he belonged.
He was prosecuted in the exchequer chamber for non-payment, and his trial was
watched with groat interest and anxiety by the nation on account of the constitutional point
involved in it. The Judges, four excepted, pronounced in favor of the crown; but the
trial had the effect of thoroughly arousing the public mind to the danger of the impo-
sition of taxes by the royal authority alone The long parliament, shortly after its
meeting in 1640, voted ship-money illegal, and the sheriffs and others who had been
employed in assessing it or collecting it to be delinquents; and canceled the sentence
against Hampden.

SHIPPEN. WILLIAM, 1705-1808; b. Philadelphia; .graduated at Princeton college in
1754; studied medicine with his father, afterward at London and Edinburgh; returned
to Philadelphia and lectured on anatomy iri 1762; became professor of anatomy and
surgery in the Philadelphia medical school in 1765; was in the medical department of
the army in 1776, and its director- general in 1777-81.
" SHIPPING. See MERCHANT Snip. ACT.



448

SHIPPING, LAW or, treats of the ownership and employment of ships, the
rights and obligations of their owners, masters, and seamen, and of the owners of their
cargoes, and all contracts and torts arising from the employment of ships. By the U.
S. statutes, the owners, masters, and officers of a vessel must be U. S. citizens to make
it a U. S. vessel; it must be built in the United States, and must be duly registered or
enrolled. Whenever it is sold, the bill of sale must recite the original certificate of
enrollment or registry, or it cannot obtain a new registry. If the vessel is for foreign
commerce, the necessary facts are presented on affidavit to the collector of ihe district,
who issues a certificate of registry, which is evidence anywhere of the nationality and
character of the vessel, whose name and that of its owners as well as its tonnage, where
it belongs, etc., must be recited. If the vessel be less than 20 tons burden, only a license
is necessary. If the vessel be over 20 tons burden and designed for fishing or the coast-
ing trade, a certificate of enrollment issues in the same way in addition to a license.
The rules of property in ships, unless modified by statute, are the same as those of other
chattels. By statute, title to a U. S. vessel can be had only by building, by a judicial
sale as a prize or for forfeiture, or by purchase and repair in this country at'a cost of al
least three-fourths its value, of a wrecked foreign vessel. By statute, "also, every con-
veyance, mortgage, or bill of sale of any vessel or part of a vessel of the United States
must be recorded in the office of the collector of the district where the vessel is regis-
tered or enrolled; otherwise such conveyance, etc., is valid only against the grantor,
etc., his heirs and devisees, and persons having notice in fact. As to persons employed
in navigating the ship, only the powers of the master need be considered here; the
rights of the seamen, whose claim for wages takes precedence of all other liens upon the
vessel, and is enforced in admiralty by a proceeding in rem, are protected by comprehen-
sive statutory provisions. But the liability for wages is conditional upon earning freight
on the voyage. The master has an absolute authority over the officers and crew, and in
the navigation of the ship. He may bind the owners on all ordinary shipping contracts,
which are usually executed in his name, and upon which suit may be brought by or
against him personally. He may borrow money for repairs, hypothecate ship or cargo,
and, in certain cases, even sell or abandon both. It is now held, however, that, before
resorting to any extraordinary step, he must, if within reach of the telegraph, get
instruction from his principals. The rights and liabilities of owners of vessels are,
unless limited by statute, identical with those of common carriers. See CARRIERS. For
the two principal shipping contracts, see *BiLL OF LADING and CHAKTER PARTY. For
the rules of navigation, see NAVIGATION, LAW AS TO (ante). And for so much of the
subject as is not treated here, see MEKCHANT SHIPPING ACT (ante), PART OWNERS,
SHIP'S HUSBAND, DEMURRAGE, STOPPAGE IN TRANSITU, FREIGHT, AVERAGE, BOT-
TOMRY, RESPONDENTIA, SALVAGE.

SHIP'S HUSBAND, the maritime term for an agent appointed by the owners to
attend to all matters connected with the outfit, repairs, and freighting of the ship. Under
this capacity hie powers have been held to be very large. He must see to it that
the ship is seaworthy in all respects, has a proper crew and officers, is fully furnished
with provisions, and has proper clearances and registry. He has power to enter into
charter-parties (q.v.), and may settle freight-contracts, but has no power to insure the
vessel nor to borrow money for her use; nor has he as ship's husband any lien on ship
or proceeds. He is usually one of the part-owners (q.v.), and his powers may be
enlarged by acts of the owners.

SHIP-WORM. See TEREDO.

SHIPWRECKS, in ancient times, were deemed the property of the crown, but by a
statute of Henry I., the hareh consequences of this law were avoided whenever any per-
son escaped alive out of the ship; and in Henry II. 's charter it was declared that if either
man or beast escaped alive, the goods should remain to the owners if claimed within
three months; ana the courts of law still further refined away all these harsh rules.
Many nice distinctions have been made as to what goods constitute wreck, which is dis-
tinct from goods floating. See FLOTSAM. By the recent merchant shipping act, 1854,
which extends to the United Kingdom, the board of trade has the superintendence of
all matters relating to wreck, and to jetsam, flotsam, and ligan. Receivers of wreck are
appointed for various districts, and have power to summon assistance. When wreck is
found by any person, he must give notice to the receiver of wrecks, and if nobody claim
the property within a year, it is sold, and the proceeds, after paying salvage and other
such expenses, are paid into the exchequer. Persons plundering wreck are guilty of
felony, and may be punished with 3 to 14 years' penal servitude; and any person expos-
ing false signals to cause wreck, may be sentenced to penal servitude for life,

The number of wrecks, casualties, and collisions from all causes, on or near the coasts
of the United Kingdom, reported in 1874-5, was 3,590; a large increase on previous
years, accounted for in great measure by the inclusion of small casualties not pre-
viously counted, etc. In the year 1875-6, a still higher number 3.757 was reported.
Of the casualties of 1874-5, about 1 in 23 resulted in loss of life. It having been found
in numerous instances that the direction and force of the wind as given by the masters
in their reports differed more or less from the particulars of weather reported to the
meteorological office during 1872, steps were taken toward making strict inquiry at the



1JQ Shipping.

/ Shire.

moment into all such variations. The life lost in 1874-5 was distributed as follows: In
fishing smacks, 110; in vessels carrying heavy cargoes in bulk, 207; and in other vessels
609. Three hundred and thirty-eight wrecks and casualties happened in 1874-5 to nearly
new ships. 646 to ships from 3 to 7 years of age ; 021 to ships from 7 to 14 years old ; 1 263
to ships from 15 to 30 years; 567 to ships from 30 to 50 years; 74to ships between 50 and
60; 31 to >hips between 60 and 70; 18 to ships between 70 and 80; 11 to ships between 80
and 90; 3 to ship* between 90 and 100; and 3 to ships over 100 years. The ages of 3s.)
vessels were unknown. The sum paid by the board of trade out of the mercantile
marine fund for providing apparatus for saving lives on the coasts of the United King-
dom in 1S74-5 was 11,010; the expenditure on this account iu the 20 years 1855-75,
was 163,44."), besides 1337 paid by the admiralty on account of life-belts. At the end
of June, 187.1. there were on the coasts of the United Kingdom, 277 sets of rockets or
mortar apparatus provided by the board of trade. The number of life-boats in 1S75 tvas
273, of which 244 belonged to the national life-boat institution; and 29 (of which six
were subsidized by the board of trade) were under other management, 548 stations were
supplied with eapt. Ward's life-jackets for the use of the coast-guard. The number of
volunteer life brigades in 1875 was 5, and the number of volunteer life companies, 1160.
The number of lives saved on or near the coasts of the United Kindgdom in 18745 was
3,837 503 being saved by life-boats; 355 by rocket and mortar-apparatus lines, etc. ; 511
by buyers, coast-guard, and other boats: 440 by ships and steam-boats; 1644 by ships'
own lioaK etc.. and 385 by other means. The number of lives saved on or near the
coasts of the United Kingdom RI the 20 years 1855-75 was 77,918. The number of
inquiries held by the board of trade; in 1872 was 49; by order of naval or consular officers,
24; by a court in a British possession abroad, 96.

SHIR AS, ALEXANDER EAKIX, 1813-75,; b. Philadelphia; graduated at West Point,
1833; commissioned ia the artillery; 1839-43, was professor at West Point. In the Mexi-
can war h.- served in the commissary department, and was assistant to the commissary
general. 1817-63. In 1874 he was made commissary general with rank of brig.gen. Iu
1865 he received the brevet ranks of brig, and ma j. gen.

SHISAZ , a .celebrated city of Persia, and the capital of the province of Pars, in lat.
29" 41 u., loag. 53 38' e., was formerly a very flourishing city, and the ordinary resilience
of the Persian monarchs, but is now singular!}' divested of its ancient splendor. It is sit-
uated in a wide plain, on one of the limestone ledges which shoot out from the great
west-Persian mountain system, 112 m. from the Persian gulf, and 35 s.w. of the ancient
Persepolis (>j v.). It is inclosed by walls nearly 4 in. in circumference, and, previous to
the great earthquakes which have repeatedly laid it i:i ruins, contained many splendid
mosque-, ba/aars, caravansaries, and other public buildings. The houses, which are
mostly built of stone, are superior in appearance to those of most other Persian towns;
and the adjoining portion of the plain is of exuberant fertility, and is laid out in vine-
yards and in rose-gardens of great extent. The principal manufactures are silk, cotton,
and woolen goods, cutlery, fire-arms, glass, and earthenware. The wine of Shiraz, which
is very s'r.'Kig and resembles Tokay, is still famous throughout the east. Rose-water is
also still nrcpared in large quantities. The trade of the town is transacted in the l><i~nr-
i- H'w/v.Y. which is about a quarter of a mile long by 40 ft. wide, and affords accommodation
to several hundred shop-keepers. Sliiraz carries on trade with Yezd, Ispahan, and Bushire,
from the last of which towns it receives Indian and European goods. The city was
founded in 697 A.D., and from its beautiful situation and charming climate became a
favorite resort of the Persian princes; but a destructive earthquake in 1812 laid a large
portion of it in ruins, and another in 1824, which cost the livesof 4,000 of the inhabitants,
completed the wreck of it ; prosperity. It was, however, rebuilt, and had attained a pop.
of 40,000 (its pop. previous to 1812 having been almost 60.000), when a third and more
terrible visitation of this destructiveagent, in April. 1853, laid almost the whole town again
in ruins, and caused the death of 12,000 people. It has since been partially rebuilt in a
somewhat inferior style, and its pop. is now estimated at 25.000. It is celebrated f-^r the
number and eminence of the scholars and poets to whom it has given birth; chief of these
is Sibuyah. the lirst of Arab grammarians: Haliz (q.v.), the " Anacreon" of Persia, whose
tomb is half a mile n.e. of the Ispahan gate; and Saadi (q.v.), whose mausoleum is 22 m.
to the n e. See History of Persia, by Clements .Markham, 1874.

SHIRE, a river of south-eastern Africa, has i:s source in lake Nyassn, from which :fc
issues in lat. 14 J 28' s., and after a southerly course of 250"m., joins the Zambesi. It flows
through a cotton and sugar producing country of vast extent, is 80 to 150 yds. broad. 13
ft. deep, and never varies more than 2 or 3 ft. from the wet to the dry season. Its cur-
rent travels at the rate of 2i knots an hour. The navigation is obstructed by cataracts
over a space of 35 m., in which it falls 1200 feet.

SHIRE (Sax. Kfirnn, to divided, a term which seems to have originated in the 8th c.,
and is applied to the districts, otherwise called coun'ies, into which Great Britain is
divided. A considerable number of the counties of England, as Kent, Essex, Surrey,
Xorfolk, Suffolk, were formed out of the petty kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxons, which,
with the advancing tide of centralization, were gradually becoming consolidated into one
great kingdom. As early as 800, an entry in the Saxon chronicle relates that kings had
ceased to reign among the Hwiccas (the inhabitants of the district afterward known as
U. K. XIII. 29



Shirley.
Shock.

Worcestershire), and that they were governed by an ealdorman acting tinder Cyuwulf,
king of Mercia. This substitution of etddormen (or earls) for kings marks the gradual
organization of the counties. It was sometimes found convenient to split up a kingdom
into several shires. The civil, military, and judicial head of the shire was the ealdorman,
, whose office was not necessarily hereditary, though .it had sometimes a tendency to become
so. Twice a year he held the shire-mote, in which he and the bishop presided with equal
Jurisdiction. Among other questions which would come before the shire-motes were those
that related to the boundaries of the respective shires. As a border thane pushed his
occupation toward the frontiers of the shire to which he belonged, and came into collision
7/ith the occupants of the neighboring shire, questions necessarily arose which could only
fee settled by a compromise arranged by the two shire-motes, and these compromises may
account for the irregular jagged boundaries which separate shire from shire, and occa-
sional isolation of particular portions. Yorkshire, Durham, Cheshire, and Worcestershire
derived their name from their ancient bishoprics. Various shires which had once an
existence in then., as Norhamshire, Islandshire, Hexhamslnre, Hallamshire, Bamborougu-
shire, have merged into others. The term shire is nearly synonymous with county, yet
not quite so, as there are certain counties with whose names the affix "shire" is never
used. One explanation which has been given of this usage is, that the object of the addi-
tion of the syllable " shire" is to distinguish the county from the town of the same name,
and that it is therefore only applicable to counties bearing the same name with their
county town. Another explanaljiyp is that shire, being a word of Anglo-Saxon origin, is
BOl properly applied to any of the^English counties except those which formed part of
Hie larger Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. Neither of these reasons is exactly correspondent
with the actual usage by which shire terminates the names of all the English counties
except the following: Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmoreland, Durham, Norfolk,
Suffolk, Essex, Sussex, Middlesex, Kent, Surrey, and Cornwall. In Cheshire we drop
the final syllable of the town of Chester. Berkshire, Shropshire, and Hampshire are
never used in their simple form, though sometimes abbreviated into Berks, Salop, and
Hants. Shire is applied to all the Welsh counties except Anglesea.

In Scotland, the English tendencies of the sovereigns from the time of Malcolm Can-
more to the war of succession, and the tide of immigration from the s., brought in, among
other innovations, the division into shires. Its introduction seems to have begun early
in the 12th century. Twenty-five shires or counties are enumerated in a public ordinance
of date 1305. Nearly all the counties of Scotland may receive the terminal addition of
eliire. It is not applied to the island county of Orkney, and seldom to the counties of
Bute and Caithness. Kirkcudbright is neither a shire nor a county, but a Stewartry.
See STKWAUTUY. The Irish counties are not generally called shires.

In England, s. of the Tees, there was a subdivision of the shires into Tinndrfds, which
originally, in theory at least, seem to have been districts inhabited by 100 or 120 families;
and were in some localities called irapentake*, these hundreds or wapentakes being
further subdivided into lythingx, inhabited by ten free families; and it became incum-
bent on every one to be enrolled in a tything and hundred for the purposes of civil gov-
ernment. In some of the larger counties there was an intermediate division to which
that into hundreds was subordinate. Yorkshire had and still has its riding* (q.v.), Kent
had its IntheK, and Sussex its rapes. The division into hundreds and tythings never
penetrated into the four northern counties of England, or into Scotland, where ihuward
and qunrtf.r were the immediate subdivisions of the county.

England possessed three counties palatine Cheshire. Lancashire, and Durham of
which the earls formerly possessed all the judicial and fiscal powers of the crown, aV
now annexed to the crown (see PALATINE). Similar privileges belonged to the earldoa.
of Strathe.rne in Scotland.

SHIRLEY. JAMES, 1594-1666; b. London; educated at Oxford and Cambridge; was
curate at Hertfordshire, but soon resigned on account of becoming a Roman Catholic;
opened a school at St. Albans, but, being unsuccessful, went to London, .and l>ecame a
dramatic writer. He founded a classical academy in London. His Dramatic Works and
Poem* were published in six volumes.

SHIRLEY, WILLIAM, 1693-1771; b. England; studied law and emigrated to Boston,
1734: was a commissioner to determine the boundary between Massachusetts and Rhode
IslMnd: governor of Massachusetts, 1741-45, and again in 1753, after a sojourn of eight
years in England; commander-rn-rhief of the forces in British North America against the
French, 1755; lieut.gen., 1759. afterward governor of the Bahama islands; returned to
Massachusetts and built a residence at Roxbury in which he died. He wrote Elcctra, a
tragedy, and a Journal of the Siege of Louisburg.

SHIRWA, or TAMANDUA, a lake of s.e. Africa, n. end 30 m. s.e. of lake Nyassa, lat.
of center 15 10' s., long. 35 J 40' east. It is of an oval shape, tapering to the s. ; length,
60, breadth. 10 to 23 m., and 1800 ft. above the sea level. It is surrounded by elevated
land. On the w., between the lake and the river Shire, Mt. Zomba rises to 7,000 feet.
Several small rivers enter the lake on the s. and west.

SHIS DBA, or JISDRA, a t. of European Russia, in the government of Kaluga, and 80
m. s.w. from Kaluga, on the Shisdra, a branch of the Oka. It has manufactures of



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 104 of 203)