Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 105 of 203)
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woolen cloth, glass-works, iron-works, tanneries, oil-factories. Pop. '67, 10,572.



AX] Shirley.

Shock.

SHISHAK (in hieroglyphs, Shashank, the Susak or Susakim of the Septuagint, and
the Shishak of the Hebrew version, the Sesonchosis or Sesonchis of Manetho), the name
of several monarchs of the 2'2d, or Bubasfite Egyptian dynasty, supposed to have
descended from foreign settlers in Bubastis, and to have been of Shemnic origin. The
kings of this name were Shishak I., the first monarch of the dynasty, whose name is
found in the portico built by the Bubastite dynasty at the great- temple of Karnak, and
on several statues of the godde.-s Paslit, which probably came from Luxor. Jeroboam,
fled to Shishak from the pursuit of Solomon, who wislied to kill him, and lived there
during the lifetime of Solomon. On the death of this monarch, Jeroboam quitted 1
Egypt, and contended with Kehoboam for the possession of the crown. This struggle
caused the division of the kingdom of David into two stales, that of Israel and Judab.
In the fifth year of Kehoboam, Shishak marched to Jerusalem with an army of 12,000
chariots, 60.000 cavalry, and an innumerable number of infantry, composed of Troglo-
dytes, Libyans, and Ethiopians. He took the city, the treasures of the temple, and all
the gold bucklers which Solomon had made. The conquest of Jerusalem is found
recorded on the monuments of Karnak, on which Shishak I. is represented dragging
before the god Ammon three files of prisoners, inscribed with various names of places,
among which are Judea, Mageddo, Ajalon, Mahanaim, and other towns taken by Shishak
in his line of march.

SHITTIM WOOD. It is not certain what kind of wood is meant by this name in the
Old Testament. The ark of the covenant was made of it, and probably it was a kind
of wood distinguished both for beauty and durability. It has generally been supposed
to be the wood of the acacia nilotica, which, however, is deficient in both these qualities.
Another supposition is, that the wood qf a species of olive is meant, olea similis, which
possesses them both, and is particularly remarkable for its durability.

SHIVES, a name used by cork-cutters to designate the small bungs used to close wide-
mouthed bottles, in contradistinction to the phial-corks used for narrow-necked bottles.

SHO A, a kingdom of Africa, the most southern division of Abyssinia, in lat. 8 30' to
10 or 11 n., long. 38 to 40 30' east. Its boundaries, however, are by no means fixed,
that on the w., where Shoa is bordered by the Galla tribes, being specially variable. An
extensive tract in the e. of the kingdom, between the capital, Ankobar, and the river
I la wash is called Efat. The character of the country, and the condition of the people,
ore described under Abyssinia (q.v ).

SHOCK, COLLAPSE, AND REACTION. It is well known that some forms of injury, as,
for example, a blow on the pit of the stomach, may occasion deaih without leaving any visi-
ble trace of their operation in the body; and. indeed, life may occasionally be destroyed
even by sudden and powerful mental emotions. In such cases as these death is said to
result from shock, the actual cause of death being the sudden arrest of the heart's action,
consequent on the violent disturbance given to the nervous system. Instead of actual
death, the condition known as collapse is more frequently induced, in which the patient
lies in a state of utter prostration, and apparently on the verge of dissolution. The
face, and even the lips, are pale and bloodless; the skin is cold and clammy, and drops
of sweat are often seen on the forehead. The features are contracted, and there is
great languor in the general expression. There is extreme muscular debility, and the
sphincter muscles sometimes relax, so that there is involuntary discharge of the contents
of the bowels and the bladder. The pulse is quick, and so feeble as often to be almost
imperceptible, and the respiratory movements are short and weak, or panting and gasp-
ing. The patient is in some cases bewildered and incoherent, in others drowsy, and
sometimes almost insensible. Nausea and vomiting, with hiccup, are not unfrequeut
symptoms; and in the case of children, convulsions are often present.

When a person recovers from a state of collapse, he passes into a condition termed
renc-tion, which often lasts for several hours. The first symptoms of this favorable
change are improvements in the state of the pulse and the respiratory actions, recovery
of the power of swallowing, an increased temperature, and an inclination to move from
the supine position to one side. A slight degree of feverishness then often ensues, after
which the skin becomes moist, the patient falls asleep, and awakes convalescent. As a
general rule, the longer the symptoms of reaction are delayed, the greater is the danger,
and if several hours pass without any sign of the commencement of reaction, there it
little hope of recovery. If the reaction is imperfectly developed, a condition may super-'
vene which is known as " prostration with excitement." which may terminate cither
fatally or favorably, and into the smyptoms of which our limited space will not allow
us to enter further than to remark that a peculiar delirium, closely resembling delirium
tremens, is most commonly present.

The principal causes of collapse (as given by Mr. Savory in his article "Collapse, and
the General Effects of Shock upon the System," in Holnv-.s's System of Surgery) are:

"Injuries sudden and severe, or extensive, as contused and lacerated wounds, involv-
ing a considerable amount of texture the crushing of a limb, for instance. Burns pre-
sent familiar and striking examples of extreme collapse, produced by this cause. Under
this head, too, come capital operations. Injuries of very important organs, as the liver
or other of the viscera, or of the joints, or other organs abundantly sxipplied with nerves.
Pain alone, when intense and protracted, has proved fatal in this way ; and it appears in



Shoddy.
Shoes.

a case related by sir A. Cooper that sudden relief from great agony v,-?;r; attended by the
same untoward result. Certain poisons operate in this manner, depressing the system
so suddenly and severely as to produce a state of collapse; tobacco, for example; and
drastic purgatives have in some cases induced a similar condition."

The effects of shock are aggravated by loss of blood; and hemmorrhage alone, if
sudden and profuse, will produce collapse. General debility and old age favor the
influence of the shock, and much depends upon the idiosyncracy of the patient; an
injury which will produce no apparent effect on one man, often producing a serious and
persistent impression on another.

The following are the most important points in, regard to treatment: The patient
should be kept in a horizontal position, with the head on the same level as the body,
and he should not be raised till decided symptoms of reaction appear. The best stim-
ulus is brandy, given in the form of hot brandy and water. "Its effects," says Mr.
Savory, "are most certain and decided, and it suits the stomach best. It will remain
when all other stimulants are rejected. The state of the circulation and the temperature
arc the guide to its use. If no effects are apparent after an ounce or two have been
swallowed, it is very questionable if any advantage will be gained from a larger quan-
tity," At the same time heat should be applied to the pit of the stomach and the
extremities, by means of hot flannel, hot-water tins, or, in their absence, bottles con-
taining hot water, ami other appliances. Nourishment, in the form of beef tea, should
closely follow the stimulants; the two may be combined with the greatest advantage,
and as the system rallies, the latter may be entirely replaced by the former.

In those cases in which a patient is in a state of extreme collapse from an injury
requiring a capital operation, such as the amputation of a limb, the operation should be
performed as soon as his condition will admit of it; and although it should not be under-
taken while the prostration is extreme, it is not necessary, or even advisable, in Mr.
Savory's opinion, to wait for complete reaction; and this is the opinion of most of our
best surgeons. Moreover, in these cases, the use of chloroform is not expedient; for. in
the first place, it cannot be safely administered to a patient so depressed; and, secondly,
the chief reason for its employment is wanting, for a person in a state of collapse i.s
comparatively insensible to piim For further information on this subject, the reader
is referred to Travers On Constitutional Irritation, and to the excellent article of Mr.
Savory from which we have freely borrowed.

SHCDDY formerly meant only the waste arising from the manufacture of wool ; it
now h..s a wider and much more important signification, and is aimoU wholly un.l ::-
stood to mean the wool of woven fabrics reduced to the state in which it was !>.!'< >:\)
being spun and woven, and thus rendered available for remanufacture. Woolen ra ;s,
no matter how old and worn, are now a valuable commodity to the manufacturer; tli -y
are sorted into two special kinds, the rags of worsted goods and the rags or wooleu.
goods, the former being made of combing or long-staple wools, and tlr.; litter of cur li 13
or short-staple wools. The former are thoso properly known of aholdy-riiy*, and t'.i3
latter are called mungo. Both are treated in the same way; they are put into :i mu/.iina
called a 'irMley, in which a cylinder covered with sharp hooks is revolving, and the rn^-
are so torn by the hooks, that in a short time all traces of spinning and weaving are
removed, and the material is again reduced to wool capable of being reworks I It
was formerly used as a means of adulteration and cheapening woolen cloths, but it is
now found of greater advantage in making a class of light cloths adapted to mil, I
climates and other purposes.

The name is a purely technical one, which 1m arisen among the Yorkshire spin-
ners, and is derived from s/ied, the term having been formerly applied by the operatives
to the flue or waste shed or thrown off in the nrocess of spinning. See WOOLEN MANU-
FACTURES.



SHOEING OF HOHSES. In olden times, horses generally went unshod, as they now
do in many eastern countries; but our macadamized roads* and paved streets, oiir fast
paces and heavy loads, would speedily wear away the stoutest hoofs, and a rim of iron
has accordingly been long in use as a protection. In style and pattern, the horse's shoo
varies almost as much as his master's boot, and like it. when badly made, or unskill-
fully fitted, produces serious inconvenience, and even leads to accidents and diseases.
When the feet are strong and properly managed, nothing is better than a plain shoe of
tolerably uniform breadth and thickness, carefully fashioned to the shape of the foot
But many good authorities prefer what is called a seated shoe, which has a level part
for the crust to rest upon, and within that the inner half of the shoe toward the sole
surface is beveled off This seated shoe is thus wider than the plain shoe, and hence
affords greater protection for a weak or a flat sole. For faulty'or diseased feet, special
forma of shoes are .suitable. In all healthy feet, the shoe should be fitted to the foot,
and not, as is commonly done, the foot cut to fit the shoe. Another frequent error of
keeping the shoe short and spare at the heels must be avoided. For roadsters the toe
of the fore-shoes should be slightly turned up, which greatly obviates tripping. The
hind-shoes are generally thickened, and sometimes turned down at the heels. The
number of nails required must vary somewhat with the weight of the shoe and sound-
ness of the horn; five is the minimum, nine the maximum. It is important, however,
lhat the shoes be firmly held on by as few nails as possible. In a saddle-horse with



Shoddy.
Shoes.

sound feet, three on the outside, and two on the inside, should suffice to hold a well-
fitted shoe. Horses for heavy draught are generally shod in Scotland with tips and
heels, which afford increased firmness of tread, and greater power, especially when drag-
ging heavy loads. To preserve the foot iu a sound state, the shoes should be removed
every month. When the shoe is carefully taken off, the sole-surface on which it has
rested should be rasped, to remove any ragged edges and any portions of adhering nails.
Having for a month been protected from the wear to which the exposed portions of the
foot are subjected, it will probably have grown considerably, and, in a stout hoof, will
require to be cut down with a drawing-knife, especially toward the toe. Lxcept in
very strong feet, and in farm-horses working on soft land, the surface of the sole
uncovered by the shoe seldom requires to be cut. It is the natural protection of the
internal delicate parts, and must be preferable to the leather and pads often artificially
substituted for it. The bars must likewise remain untouched, for they are of great
service in supporting weight; while the tough, elastic frog must be scrupulously pre-
served from the destructive attacks of the knife, and allowed uninjured to fulfill its
functions as an insensible pad, obviating concussion, and supporting weight. When
the shoe is put on, and the nails well driven home, they should be broken off about aa
eighth or even sixteenth in. from the crust, and hammered well down into it. This
obviously gives the shoe a much firmer hold than the usual practice of twisting off the
projecting nail close to the crust, and afterward rasping down any asperities that still
remain. When the shoe is firmly clinched, the rasp may be very lightly fun round the
lower margin of the crust, just where it meets the shoe, to smooth down any irregular-
ities, bill all further use of the rasp must be interdicted. The clinched nails, if touched,
will only have their firm hold weakened; nor must the upper portions of the crust,
which blacksmiths are so fond of turning out rasped and whitened, be thus senselessly
deprived of those external unctuous structures, which render the uurasped foot so tough
and sound, and so free from saudcracks. TPo prevent the hoof becoming too dry and
hard, it is advisable, especially in roadsters, and in hot weather, to stop the feet several
times a week with a mixture of equal weights of lard, tar, bees-wax, and honey, with
about one-fourth part of glycerine, melted together, well stirred, and preserved in pots
for use. Fuller details on this subject will be found in a little volume entitled Notes on
the Shying of Horses, by licut.cdl. Fitzwygram, loth (the king's) hussars; and in a paper
on " Horse-shoeing," by Mr. Miles, published in the Journal of the Royal Agricultural
Sucietti of England, and reprinted in a separate form by Mr. Murray, Albemarle street,
London.

SHOES SHOE-T&ADE. Clothing for the feet, whether in the form of sandals or
shoes, has been in use in every country aspiring lo civilization in ancient and modern
times. The rudimentary shoe is a sandal consisting of a sole, held to the foot by straps
and thongs. Such were the common Egyptian and Greek shoes, to which the shoes of
the peasantry of the Abruzzi, in the s. of Italy, bear a close resemblance. In Egypt,
however, the ordinary material for shoes were stripes of the papyrus interwoven like a
mat. As is seen from paintings on the walls of Thebes, shoe-making formed a distinct
trade in the reign of Thothmes III., 1495 B.C., or about the period of the flight of the
Israelites. The streets of Rome were encumbered with the stalls of shoe makers in the
reiiru of Domitian. The shoe of the ancient Hebrews was a species of sandal. For
ladies, the sandal, translated "shoe," in the Scriptures, was highly ornamental. "How
beautiful arc the feet with shoes, O prince's daugher" (Cant. vii. 1). Ornamented slip-
pers are still a luxury in the east. The foot-coverings of the Romans were various in
character, from the simple sandal and slipper to the boot, which extended up the leg.
When the shoe covered the whole foot it was termed calceus; the calceus of a particular
form and of great strength worn by the Roman soldier was known as caliga.

Reference is made in Scripture to different symbolical usages in connection with
eandals or shoes. The delivery of a shoe was used as a testimony in transferring a pos-
session: " A man plucked off his shoe, and gave it to his neighbor: and this was" a testi-
mony in Israel" (Ruth iv. 7). In cases of this kind, the throwing of a shoe on a prop-
erty was a symbol of a new proprietorship or occupancy: "Over Edom will I cast my
shoe" (Psalm Ix. 8). From these ancient practices, in which the shoe was symbolical of
contract, perhaps comes the curious old custom in England and Scotland 'of throwing
old shoes for good luck after a bride and bridegroom on departing for their new home.

St. Crispin and his brother Crispinian have long been regarded as the patron saints
of shoemakers. According to mediaeval legend these personages were natives of Rome,
and having become converts to Christianity, traveled into France and Britain to propagate-
the faith, everywhere supporting themselves by making shoes, which they sold to the
poor at a very low price one part of the legend being that an angel supplied them with
leather. It is said that they suffered martyrdom in England toward the end of the 3d
century. The memory of St. Crispin, of whom we chiefly hear. has. from time imme-
morial, been kept up by processions and other festivities in his honor on Oct. 25,
which is known as "St. Crispin's day." Under this saintly tutelage, shoemaking has
attained to the distinctive appellation of the "gentle craft;" and is noted for the num-
ber of individuals who have risen from it to eminence. See an amusing but scarce work,
Crispin Anecdotes; and a trade newspaper called St. Crispin. The sedentary and solitary
nature of the craft, as hitherto conducted, has possibly had some influence in producing
a degree of 'thoughtf uluess, while the act of hammering his leather is calculated, as some



Shoes. A- A

Short.

imagine, lo stimulate the mental energy of the operative. If there be any real virtue in
the sitting attitude of the shoemaker, a corresponding evil attends that method of car-
rying on liis operations. In every profession, sitting at work in a close atmosphere is
particularly injurious to health. Statistics assure us that out of 10,01)0 artisans who sit
at their labor, 2,077 fall sick, and 95 die annually; while as regards an equal number of
those who alternately sit and stand, only 1713 sicken and 61 die. To remedy this cry-
ing evil, a member of the profession, Mr. J. Sparks Hall. London, has invented a sim-
ple and inexpensive work-bench, at which shoes may be made standing. A few days
practice, we are told, renders the workman as expert with the standing-bench as if ha
were seated according to the old plan, and he can execute closing with less fatigue and
considerably more cleanliness. The only kinds of work at which sitting is more con-
venient are rounding the soles, lasting, and fitting. This standing-bench is, however,
not much adopted by the men, who prefer old usages.

The fashion of shoes, as has occurred with other articles of dress, has undergone innu-
merable changes. At one time shoes were pointed to an extravagant degree ; and in
last century, the high heels of ladies' shoes became a monstrosity. Shortly after the
beginning of the present century, the most marked improvement was the making of
shoes right and left; the substitution of late-nets for buckles about the same period was
also a step in advance. In our own day, the general disuse of the shoe proper, and the
introduction of short ankle-boots, are the chief changes of fashion. A proposal for a
more perfect adaptation of thoes and boots to the shape of the foot is noticed under
FOOT. The shoemaking trade, as at present conducted in Britain, is divided into two
departments the bespoke and the ready-made or sale business. The larger department
hitherto has been that in which customers bespeak boots and shoes by having them made
to measure; but it is generally giving way to the plan of buying articles ready-made.
The cause of this is exceedingly obvious. The process of measuring is usually very
imperfect, owing, among other reasons, tothe want of lasts to suit every variety of feet,
us well as the too general indifference to meet individual peculiarities. On this account,
and even at the risk of purchasing an inferior class of goods, the public are becoming
daily more disposed to encourage the ready-made trade. Accordingly large quantities
of boots and slices in innumerable varieties are now made and supplied wholesale by
manufacturers for the retail dealers. Northampton, Stafford, and Leicester are consid-
erable seats of Ibis manufacture in England; and from certain districts in France, there
.-ire increasing importations, chiefly of a cheap kind of ladies' shoes.

The plan r.f making boots and shoes by isolated workmen at their own homes has
been found quite incompatible with the modern necessities of trade. As in the case of
the hand-loom weaver, the shoemaker of the old school has had to succumb to machinery.
After an unsuccessful struggle to oppose the introduction of sewing machines, these aro
now coming generally into u.e, and men are employed in large numbers together in
what may be called shoe-factories. Northampton and Stafford, the two chief of the
centers just named, have unquestionably benefited by the introduction of the sewing-
machine, although it deranged the relations between the masters and men for a time.
An instructive and valuable exhibition of the leather and shoe trades was held at North-
ampton in 1873, illustrating the high pitch of excellence which these trades have now
attained.

This manufacture has long been a staple trade of Massachusetts, in which state the
quantity of boots and shoes fabricated annually is numbered by millions of pairs.
Recently a machine has been introduced into the American shoe trade for fixing the
soles to the uppers by means of pegs, the inventor being a person in Salem, Mass.
A pair of boots or shoes can be pegged in two minutes. These pegged goods are
disposed of wholesale in boxes, and may be seen in retail stores all over the United
States. As evidence of the important character of the shoe-trade in Massachusetts it may
be mentioned that a few 3 - ears ago there were as many as fifteen members of the "gentle
craft" in the legislature of that state. Ingenious machines have also been introduced for
fastening the soles to the uppers by means of fine screws. They were shown at the interna-
tional exhibitions of 1862 and 1867 at work uncoiling lengths of wire, making the end into
a screw, cutting off a small piece, piercing a hole in the sole, and screwing the wire therein.

There are no moans of determining the extent of this trade in England or the United
Kingdom. All that can be done is to state the amount of imports and exports. The
boots and shoes imported in 1876 were 109,906 doz. pairs, having a value of 828,540.
These are entered among the customs tables as leather manufactures; but as very few
bAots and shoes are actually without leather, nearly all are probably included here. Tho
exports in 1876 were 441,632 doz. pairs, value 1,408,466; of which 193,072 doz. pairs,
value 614,509, were consigned to Australia. The export trade has varied as follows in
recent alternate years:

Dozen pairs. Value.

1365 439.283 1,462,105

18G7 274,036 952.804

1869 436,329 1,326,792

1871 510,648 1,513.665

1873 526,460 1,704,145

1875 462,104 1,509,639



Shoes.
Short.

SHOES (cxty. The mp.kin.T of shoes was one of the earliest industries introduced
ir.to the American colonies, the. town oi' Lynn. Mass., being noted for its practice from
the thnc of the landing of the pilgrims. A letter from London, dated in 1629, refers to
the sending of "hydes"on board the Miujfloifrr, to two shoe-makers, who settled in
Lynn. In 185-3 there were 4,515 male, and 11,021 female operatives engaged in Lynn
in tl: ;urc of shoes, producing to the value of $4,000,000, this being prior to

the introduction of the use of machinery in the trade. In 1865, with the machinery
then in use, 50 per cent more male and less than half as many female operatives pro-
duced double this value. In 1870 the production reached $17,000,000. [The displace-
ment of human labor in the shoe manufacture in the town of Lynn, by reason of the
application of machinery, was 22 per cent in the case of the male, and 80 per cent in



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 105 of 203)