Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

. (page 106 of 203)
Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 106 of 203)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


the case of the female, operatives.] The value of the shoe manufacture in Massachu-
eth , Maine, and New Hampshire in 1874 was set down at $100,000,000; that of Naw
York citv at 10,003,000. The importation of boots and shoes in 1874 amounted in
value to less than $50,000; and the exportation to less than $450,000. The business of
ehoc-making was revolutionized in the ten years between 1861-71; the introduction,
of machinery which applied to every portion of the manufacture, haying occurred
v.'iil'in that period. The most important machines in use are the pegging machine;
McKay .sewing machine; Goodyear welt machine; cal le-sorew, wire, and wire-tacking
machines, etc. The sale of stamps (royalty) of the McKay machine increased from
$88,740 in 18(53 to $529,973 in 1873; in 1874 there were 1200 of these machines in use in
the United States.

SHO'LA, the white pith of the leguminous plant mcliynomcne aspera, a native of the
East Indies. With this substance, which is exceedingly light, the nativesof India make
a great variety of useful articles, especially hats, which, being very light and cool, are
in great request. Helmets made of shola are much used by the British troops in India.

SHOMER, JEBEL, a province in central Arabia; pop. 162,000. It is aflat table-land,
much of it desert with a few oases. On the e. border is a long valley called Wally Sir-
hau or Scrhan, the common route for caravans to and from Syria, ft cuutains the lal<o
of Ittra, which supplies many of the adjacent provinces with salt. By means of artificial
irrigation crops of grain, vegetables, and fruits are raised. A common article of export
is ostrich feathers. There is considerable trade between Havel and Medina. Horses,
mules, and asses are exported. The capital isHayel. It is in an extensive plain between
Adj:i and Solma, inclosed by high mountains, and approached only by a narrow deti! .
Abdullah in 1818 made himself master of the whole district, and was succeeded by hi*
eon Telal in 1845, under whom it has become an independent sultanate.

SHOOTING, with intent to wound, is felony i:i the law of England, and punishable
with penal servitude for life. The offense consists in shooting at another, or drawing a
trigger, or in any other manner attempting to discharge loaded arms. It is not, how-
ever, an offense unless there was a possibility of injuring some person; the intent must
not only exist, but the relative situation of the parties must be such that serious injury
might have ensued. The extent of the actual wound is immaterial.

SHOOTING STARS. See AEROLITES; METEORS; ante.

SHORE. See SEA-SHORE.

SHORE, in ship-building, is a strong prop or stanchion placed under the bottom or
against the side of a ship, To kep her steady on the slip or in dock. Shores are also used
to support or prop up a building during alterations.

SHORE, JANE, 1445-1525; b. London; married a goldsmith of the name of William
or Matthew Shore; mistress of king Edward IV., 1470, of lord Hastings, 1483. Sha
received the offer of the hand of Thomas Lyuom the king's solicitor, but Richard
refused his consent. She was accused of witchcraft, and suspected of favoring the cause
of the young princes. Openly charged with sorcery, by order of the duke of Gloucester,
afterward king Richard III., she was committed to the Tower. Subsequently her prop-
erty was confiscated, and she was sentenced by the bishop of London to do penance for
her crimes. She lived until the accession of Henry VIII., and it is the popular belief
that she died iu penury and without a shelter.

SHOREDITCH. See TOWER HAMLETS.

SHOREHAM. NEW, a sea-port, and parliamentary borough of Sussex, on the left b.r.ik
and at the mouth of the Adur, 6 m. w. of Brighton. The town arose when the harbor
of Old Shoreham, now a in. inland, became'silted up. Pop. of the parish '71. 3,678.
Ship-building is carried on here on an extensive scale, and the irade of the port is con-
siderable, principally with France and the coast. In 1875, 660 vessels, of 85.964 tons,
entered, and 350 vessels, of 22,029 tons cleared the port. About 160 vessels bdon-; to
Shoreham, of which a large number are employed in the oyster-trade. The parliament-
ary borough, which includes the Rape (see SUSSEX) of Bramber, contains, '71, 37,5)84
inhabitants.

SHORT, CHARLES. LL.D., b. Mass. 1821; graduated at Harvard college in 1846;
assistant teacher in Phillips academy in 1847; master of the Roxbury classical school,



Short.
Short-hand.



1847-53, and of a private classical school in Philadelphia, 1853-63; professor of mental
and moral philosophy in Kenyon college, Ohio, and its president, l86t>-67; succeeded Dr.



Drisler as professor of Latin in Columbia college in 1868. His publications are Adcnm-ed
Latin Exercises in Schmidtz and Zuinpt's classical series; New Ancient Geography,
revised; an essay on the Order of Words in Greek. He has translated articles from Ger-
man for Herzogs Real Encyclopaedia, and his contributions to the Bihlintlucn S/rw and
other reviews are numerous. He is one of the American committee of revisers of the
English Bible.

SHORT, WILLIAM, 1759-1849; b. Va. ; educated at William and Mary college. In
1784 he was secretary of legation when Jefferson was minister to France. He was suc-
cessively charge d'affaires at Paris, minister at the Hague, and (179-9o) at Madrid. He
was the first American citizen appointed to office under the constitution.

SHOBT-HAND, a very useful art, by means of which writing is made almost as expe-
ditious as speaking. In ordinary long-hand, many separate motions of the pen are
required to form each single letter: thus TO requires seven motions, k requires fix, h, five,
t four, I three, etc. But as syllables include vowels as well as consonants, and often two,
or even three, and sometimes four consonants occur before or after a vowel, the number
of motions requisite to write syllables in long-hand is very great. The monosyllabic words
long and short, for instance, require respectively fourteen and seventeen motions of the pen ;
while such syllables as stream, splints, strength, etc., require from twenty-one to twenty-
six motions. Abbreviated writing is thus a necessity in all cases where language has to be
written from ordinary delivery. Some stenographers make use of the common alphabet,
and merely contract words by the omission of letters. They would, for instance, write
the last sentence thus:

So. stenog. ma. u. of th. com. alph & me. contr. wo. by th. om. of let.

This is not properly short-hand; the latter term is limited to writing which is both
abbreviated in spelling, and simplified in the forms of the alphabetic characters. Much
attention has been paid to this art in Britain during the last 300 years, upward of 200
systems having been published within that period. The older systems were chiefly
founded on orthography, the ordinary spelling of words being represented simply by a
set of more convenient symbols for letters. The highest brevity attainable in this way
was, however, altogether insufficient for reporting; and consequently, arbitrary signs
for words and phrases, and distinctions in the value of characters, dependent on their
relative position on, above, or below the line of writing, were largely used. The mort
modern systems have all been to a greater or less extent phonetic, or representative of
sounds instead of letters, the number of sounds into which syllables may be resolved
being considerably smaller than that of orthographic elements.

Of the two classes of elements, vowels ana consonants, the latter are the more impor-
tant for the recognition of words; and these are generally written without lifting the
pen, vowels being supplied by dots and other interpolated symbols. In some systems
no attempt is made to discriminate one vowel from another, but only the places where
vowels occur arc indicated by a general sign; in others the five vowel letters have dis-
tinctive symbols; and in others an accurate representation of the varieties of vowel sound
is aimed at. The degree in whieh words are recognizable without vowels may be judged
of by the following specimen:

Chmbrzz nsclpd a dcshnr v nvrsl nlj fr th ppl n th bss v th list dshn v th jram

cnvrsshnz Icscn.

An indication of where vowel sounds occcur without showing what vowels will be
found to give increased and sufficient legibility to a reader who is acquainted with the
language. Thus:

Ch-mb-rz-z -ns-cl-p-d- - a d-csh-n-r- -v -n-v-rs-1 n-l-j f-r th- p-pl -n th- b-s-s -v th-
1-t-st -d-sh-n -v th- j-rm-n c-nv-rs-sh-nz 1-cs-c-n.

Chambers' s Encyclopaedia, a Dictionary of Universal Knowledge for the People, on th*
basis of the latest edition of the German Conversations Lexicon.

Short-hand alphabets consist of simple straight and curved lines, to which hooks,
loops, or rings are added. These elements of writing are common to all systems, but
the powers associated with the symbols are, of course, different in different systemr
Much ingenuity has been shown by various authors in developing the application of
the simple radial and segmental lines of a circle, and the positions of a dot, for the
representation of language; but, in many cases, while a wonderful amount of apparent
brevity has been attained as by writing on a staff of lines, each of which gives a dif-
ferent value to the same sign the systems are all but impracticable, from the multi-
tude of details with which the memory of the learner has to be burdened. The prevailing
fault of such systems of short-hand is that they are long in being short. Reporters
must abbreviate even the simplest possible form of alphabetic writing, but the mastery
of a short-hand alphabet for other than reporting purposes is a very easy matter; and
the acquisition will be found valuable in enabling a writer to save four out of every five
motions of the pen in private memoranda, correspondence, etc.

A great impetus was given to the study of short-hand about 35 years ago by the pub-



Short.
Short-lUnd.

lication of Mr. Isaac Pitman's Phonography. The introduction of the penny postage at
the same period vastly aided the diffusion of the system, and societies for phonographic
correspondence were established in all parts of the kingdom. The Psalms, t!:c New
Testament, and many other works, were published in the phonographic al;.h::!.(t, ai.d
magazines written in short-hand found a widely diffused circle of supporters. TI:is sys-
tem of writing is elegant and expeditious to a practiced hand, and a very great improve-
ment 011 all preceding systems. The alphabet consists of the following characters:

b \\ ' \



cli j // tn x-x

k g - * ^

f v \\ ng \^s

th dh (( Duplicate forms.

a z )) e z Q

eh zh )) r /

The distinction between breath and voice (or mute and sonant) consonants, as above shown,
is happily expressed by a thickening of the symbolic line for the latter elements. The
characters in the second column are, however, auomalpus, the first four, which are
written " thin," representing voice consonants, and the fourth and fifth, written with the
difference only of "thick" and "thin," representing distinct formations, which, differ
from each other as d does from g, and both of which are voice consonants.
In this system vowels are denoted by the interpolated signs



placed at the, top, the middle, or the bottom of the consonant lines. The vowel marks
are written thick for " long," and Ihin for "short" sounds. The long and short vowels
are not, however, phonetic pairs, differing only in quantity; and thus the vowel scheme
is less accurate than that of the consonants. It is, besides, very complex to a begin-
ner, from the employment of a special set of characters for vowels preceded by w and
y, the latter elements not being included in the alphabet of consonants.

In " phonography," as in almost all other systems of short-hand. voWelsare added by
separate liftings of the pen, while their insertion is indispensable to legibility, unless
special modes of writing consonant combinations are adopted. The latter expedient is
employed by Mr. Pitman for such compounds as pr, pi,, spr, sir, nl, mp, etc., the charac-
ters for which make, practically, large additions to the alphabet. The use of a general
vowel sign would evidently be of little advantage in this system, as it would, equally
with the exact vowel marks, require the pen to be lifled for its insertion.

In a more recent system of phonetic short-hand, a new principle of writing is
adopted, by which the positions of all sounded vowels are indicated in the writing of
the consonants, thereby securing easy legibility, with brevity and simplicity, in the
writing of a known, language. This system, the invention of Mr. Melville Bell, is based
on the following principles:

I. A full -sized character represents a consonant with a vowel sound before it.

II. A half-sized character represents a consonant with a vowel sound after it.

III. A tick-sized, or very small character, represents a consonant alone, and neither
preceded nor followed by a vowel.

In this way, all words are distinguished to the eye, as monosyllables, dissyllables,
trisyllables, etc., without any necessity for interpolated vowel points. The relative size
of the letters pf, for example, forming the consonant outline of the words pet. apt, pity,
poet, etc., shows the first pair of these words to be monosyllables, and the others to be
dissyllables. Thus:

pet tick p, full t. ) _ 11oK1o

apt full ^tick<. [one s 3 liable.

pity. hal f p, half t.

poet half p, full t. -,-, ,*

attack full f f ull *. f two yU'W*-

active full k, tick t, full v.

capital half k, half p, tick t, full /. | ,, __ C ..n i,i.

appetite f ull p, f ullf, fulU

The importance of this mode of writing will be at once obvious in such words as con-
tain the same consonants with various syllabication, as spurt, sprite, spirit, support, sep-\
arate, aspirate, etc.



Short-sight.
Shot.



458



To a learner this system offers a very brief and easily rep.d stenography of his
language, so soon as he has learned the alphabet only. The system is of course suscep-
tible of the ordinary methods of abbreviation for the fleet exigences of the reporter, such
as the use of letters for words, special positions for "logograms," etc. Exact vowel
marks also are provided for insertion wherever they are considered necessary, as in the
\vriting of foreign words, proper names, etc. The following is Mr. Bell's alphabet, us
published in the Reporter's Manual:



\\



eh zh-y

n *





//

((

jl



JJ
(
yy



m
n

ng



In this arrangement all breath consonants are written by thin lines, and all voic
consonants by thick lines; and no additional characters are used for compound conson-
ants. The essential principle of the system, by which the positions of vowels, or the
absence of vowels, are indicated in the writing of the consonants, manifestly dispenses
with ihe necessity for separate symbols for combinations.

The three diiferent sizes of the alphabetic characters, which express the effect of
vowels in this system, are employed with some specific value in all systems In Mr.
Pitman's Plionoqraphy , for instance, "half -sized" consonants are used to denote the
addition of t or d to the consonant which is written; while the vowel symbols are in size
precisely the same as the characters which, in Mr. Bell's phonetic shorthand, represent
" tick-sized " consonants.

The vowel scheme of the latter system furnishes a separate sign for every difference
of vowel quality, and the distinction of thick and thin symbols is limited to actual phon-
etic pairs of long and short sounds, such as are heard in the words full and fool, yon and
yawn. But, except in monosyllables written in the first or simply alphabetic style, the
distinctive vowel signs rarely require to be inserted.

As an illustration of the aspect of the writing in these two phonetic systems, the fol-
lowing sentences are written in the full alphabetic styles:



1. Be fit to live that you may be fit to die.



. \



|. /Tt ( -



\



I



.BELL.



/ 1 i r i '

2. He that cannot be silent knows no i how to speak.



rPmcAir.



sm.



\



8. Where words are scarce they are seldom spent in vain,
'A > *J ( ^ MA



.BELL.



4. Forgive and forget ; do as you would be done by.

J %
/



Short-Bight.
Shot.

The fundamental difference between these systems will be understood from the exam-
ples; in the first system, all syllabic sounds arc- definitely shown by means of vowel-
points, but without these latter a reader could not distinguish the number of syllables
contained in a word; in the second system, the consonant outline, without inserted
vowels, informs the eye of the number of syllables in every word all full as well as all
half-sized consonants being necessarily syllabic.

Some systems of short-hand consist mainly of ideographic signs, alphabetic writing
being used" only as supplementary to the arrangement of arbitrary symbols and ruled
lines. Tims the positions upon, above, or below a single line are associated with such
meanings as -present, past, and future for verbs; affirmative, interrogatfre, and negative for
propositions; personal, relative, and demonstrative for pronouns, etc.; while the symbols
tor the various classes of words are merely uniform points, commas, hyphens, and other
non-alphabetic marks. Sometimes the principle of different positional values of sym-
bols is carried to so great an extent that the projectors of such systems are able to boast,
paradoxically, that one-half of any speech is virtually written before the speaker opens
his lips! The difficulty of attending in rapid writing'to such niceties of position as have
been prescribed, maybe conceived from the following specimen of "dot" positions,
extracted from Moat's Shorthand Standard:



Moat's system may be taken as the representative of this class. It is certainly the most
elaborate and methodical in fact, a marvel of ingenuity and perseverance but, like
other ideographic systems, it is so burdensome to the memory of a learner, as well as
difficult in application, that it could never be of much use to any other person than the
contriver.

In all systems more or less use is made of what may be called analogical symbols,
such as a circle for the earth, the world, etc., with a point above, below, before, uj'trr, or
within the circle, for such phrases as abore the earth, under ihe, earth, in the world, etc.
But alphabetic writing by sound can derive little assistance from such arbitrary "Burns,
however suggestive. Abbreviated phonetic writing undoubtedly furnishes the simplest
and most exact method of stenography; and the two systems above exemplified sulli-
ciently illustrate the nature of the art of shorthand, as most widely practiced on the
phonetic basis at the present day.

Some of the older methods still find adherents. In fact, any system to which a
writer is accustomed is better than longhand; and, practical!}', reporters and others
modify for themselves the systems they employ. Fancutt's Stenography on the Baxix of
Grammar (1840) is a very ingenious work; and Jones's Photography (1865), a modifica-
tion of Pitman's, may also be referred to. A History of Shorthand, containing a chrono-
logical enumeration of authors, was published a few years ago. The reader who wishes
to learn a good practical system of shorthand is referred t Pitman's Phonographic
Teacher and other publications.

SHOST-SIGHT. See SIGHT, DEFECTS OP.

SHOSHONE, a co. in n. Idaho, having the Bitter Root mountains for its e. and n.
boundary, separating it from Montana; "3,000 sq.m.; pop. '80, 469 113 of American
birth, 298 colored. It is drained by the n. fork of Clearwater river, and the s. fork,
formi.ig its s.w. boundary; Clarke's "fork of the Cohnr.bia, the Oro Fino, and the Koot-
cnay rivers. It contains lakes Cceur d'AlSne and Pend d'Oreille, the shores of which
are very fertile. The mountain slopes are covered with pine and ced;ir trees, and gold
is found and exported. The value of the exports for one year w^j Vo?0,172. Co. seat,
Pierce City.

SHOSHOXE, or SNAKE, RIVER. See IDAHO

SHOSHONES, or SNAKES, a family of North American Indians, inhabiting the
territory between the Sierra Nevada and the Rocky mountains, the s. part of Idaho, and
the n. of Utah. They are divided into the Shoshones proper, the Utes, Comanches, and
six other tribes. The Shoshones proper include the Bannacks. They came from the
s.. and have been gradually drifting toward the Rocky mountains. The most important
bauds are the Koolsatikara or Buffalo enters on Wind river; the Tookarika or Moun-
tain Sheep-eaters, in the Salmon river valley, the Snake river valley, at Fort Boise, on
Humboldt river, and on Goose creek. The Salt Lake Diggers were nearly exterminated
in a battle on Bear river in 1862. In 1863 peace was made with most of the tribes, after
years of open war, by gen. Augur at fort Bridger. They have been settled on different
reservations, the Klamath, fort Hall in Idaho, at Wyoming, Nevada, and Utah. The
Episcopalians have a mission at Wyoming.

SHOT is the term applied to all solid projectiles fired from any sort of firearms; those
for cannon and carronades being of iron, those for small-arms, *of lead. The latter are
known as bullets and small-shot. The shot used for guns at present vary from tlie



Shotts.
Bhrcveport.

3-pounder, for boat and mountain artillery, to the 13-in. shot, which weighs about 300
Ibs. as a shell, or 700 Ibs. as an elongated bolt. Generally, shot are c;ist. There are
simple practical rules for calculating the weight of xpheriail shot from the diameler. and
vice versa, which are often useful in reading of artillery actions. Given ihu diameter in
inches, to find the weight in pounds: Cube the diameter, and multiply the result by 14;
reject the two right-hand figures; those remaining give the weight iu pounds. Given
the weight in pounds, to find the diameter in inches: Multiply the cube-root of the
weight by 1.923, and the result is the diameter of the shot in inches.

Small-shot is of various sizes, from swan-shot, nearly as large as peas, to dust-shot.
It is made by dropping molten lead through a colander in rapid motion from a c< iiH<Ur-
able height into water. The lead falls in small globular drops. The holes in the colan-
ders vary in size according to the denomination of the shot, No. requiring holes ^
in in diameter, No. 9, 5 J T inch. The colanders are iron hemispheres. 10 in. in diam-
eter, and are coated within with the cream or scum which is taken off the mol'.cn metal.
A small portion of arsenic is melted with the lead, and the fusion in the colanders is
maintained by those vessels being surrounded by burning charcoal. The discovery of,
the advantage attending a long fall was made in England toward the end of last century.
Previously the shot had dropped from the colanders at once into the water. The kiid
was then so soft that the shot were flattened by the water. The fall through the air
enables the lead to cool and harden before taking its plunge. The smaller sizes require
Vss fall than the larger 100ft. suffices for sizes Nos. 4 to 9 the larger sorts demand
150 feet. The highest shot tower is at Villacli, in Carinthia, where there is a fall of 249
feet. After cooling, shot is sifted in successive sieves to separate the sizes. Misshapen
shot are found by their inability to roll; and finally, the whole are polished by rotary
motion in small octagonal boxes, in which a little plumbago has been thrown. See also
CASE -SHOT or CANISTER-SHOT, and GRAPE-SHOT.

SHOTTS, a small and ancient village of Lanarkshire, close to the Kirk of Shotts,
about 16 in. e. of Glasgow. About 3 m. to the s.e. of the Kirk, modern Shotts, or
Shotts proper, began to rise at the close of the last century, when the Shotts Iron com
) any erected their extensive iron-works there. Shotts may be said to consist of three
villages viz., Stane, Shotts Iron-works, and Dykehead, of which the united population
in 1871 was 2,719. In the same year the population of the civil parish oi Shotts
was 8,353. Valuable coal and ironstone, peculiarly fuited for the manufacture of iron,
abound in the district, and a large number of workmen are employed in in u-making
Mid molding. Until recently there was no railway communication from and to Sliotta
lor passengers; but since the opening of the Clelland and Midi-aider branch of the Cale
donian railway, Shotts forms the half-way station between Edinburgh and Glasgow on
that line.

SHOULDER-JOINT, THE, is a ball-and-socket joint. The bones entering into its com-



Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 106 of 203)