Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 107 of 203)
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position are the humerus or arm-bone, and the scapula or shoulder-blade, the large
globular head of the former being received into the shallow plenoid cavity of the latter,
an arrangement by which extreme freedom of motion is obtained, while the apparent
insecurity of the joint is guarded against by (he strong ligaments and tendons which
surround it. and above by the arched vault formed by the under surface of the aeromion
and coracoid processes. See SCAPULA. As in movable joints generally, the articular
surfaces are covered with cartilage, and there i? a synovial membrane which lines the
interior of the joint. The most important connecting medium between the two bones is
the capsular ligament, which is a fibrinous expansion embracing the margin of the
glenoid cavity above, while it is prolonged upon the tuberosities of the humerus l,e!<,w.
From its relations with the surrounding muscles, the ligament derives much of its
strength. Accordingly, in paralysis of the arm, one or two fingers can often be pressed
into the joint toward the head of 'the glenoid cavity, from which the head of the humerus
is now separated.

The shoulder-joint exhibits the following varieties of motion. 1. Flexion, to a. great
extent; 2. Extension, in a much more limited degree; 3. Adduction, in r.n oMlrr.e direc-
tion, forward and inward; 4. Abduction, very freely: 5. Circumductiou ; and G. Rota-
tion slightly.

The morbid affections of the shoulder-joint maybe divided (1) those arising from
disease, and (2) those dependent on an accident. The most common diseases are i;cut
and chronic inflammation of the joint, which often terminate in its anchylosis cr immo-
bility. The principal accidents are fractures and dislocations. There may be fraCturi
(1) of the aeromion process, or (2) of the coracoid process, or (3) of the neck of the scap-
ula, or (4) of the superior extremity of the humerus; or two or more of these accidents
may be associated. Again, the head of the hnmcrua may be dislocated from the glenoid
cavity as the result of accident in three different directions viz. (1) Downward and
inward into the axilla, which is by far the most common form; (2) Forward and inward,
and (3) Backward on the infra-spinous fossa, or the dorsum of the scapula. The first of
these varieties is of such common occurrence that persons of ordinary intelligence t-lK.uld
know how to recognize, and even (in an emergency) to trent it. The following are the
most prominent symptoms: "The arm is lengthened; a hollow may he felt under the
, where the head of the boue ought to be; the shoulder seems liatter.ed, the


elbow sticks out from the side, and cannot be made to touch the ribs; and the head
of the bone can be felt if the limb be raised, although such an attempt causes great
pain ami weakness from the pressure exerted on the axillary plexus of nerves. "-
Druitt's Surgeon's Vade-mecum, 8th ed, p. 282. There are at least live methods of treat-
ing this form of dislocation. It is sufficient to notice two of them. 1. Reduction by the
heel in the axilla. The patient lies on a couch, and the operator sits at the edge and
puts his heel (the shoe or boot being previously removed) into the axilla, to press the
head of the bone upward and outward, and at the same time pulls the limb downward
by means of a towel fastened above the elbow. 2. Reduction by the knee in the axilla.
The patient being seated in a chair, the surgeon places one of his knees in the axilla,
rest ing his foot on the chair. He then puts one hand on the shoulder to fix the sc ipula,
and with the other depresses the elbow over his knee. Fora description of the symp-
toms and mode of treatment of the other forms of dislocation, and of the diil'creut vari-
eties of practice, we must refer the reader to any systematic treatise on surgery.

SHO'VELEB, TllninrliHxpis, a genus of ducks of the section having no lobe or pendcnfc
membrane on the hind toe, and remarkable for the expansion of the end of the mandi'
bles in adult birds, particularly of the upper mandible. The lamellae of the mandibles.
are long and very delicate. The legs are placed near the center of the body, so that
the- birds walk much more easily than many of the ducks. The common shoveller
(R. clypi'fttn) is smaller than the wild duck, but rather larger than the widgeon. The
shoveler is a winter visitant of Britain, but not very common. A few remain all the
year. It is widely distributed over Europe, Asia, and North America. Its llesh is very
highly e/teemed. A species of shoveler is found in Australia.

SHOW-BREAD. Sec Snrm'-BnEAD, ante.

SHOWZE3 OF FISHES have occasionally fallen in different parts of the -world,
exciting great astonishment. Instances of this kind have occurred in Britain. A fevtf
years since, a shower of small three-spined stickle-backs fell near Merthyr-Tydvil in
Wales, sprinkling the ground and house-tops over an area of at least several square
mibs. They were alive when they fell; yet if caught up by a whirlwind from any of
the brackish ponds near the sea, in which this species of fish abounds, they must have
been conveyed through the air a distance of almost thirty miles. Another similar
instance occurred at Torrens, in the isle of Mull, in which herrings were found strewed
on a hill rive hundred yards from the sea, and 100 ft. above it.

Showers of fishes occur much mora frequently in tho-e tropical countries where
violent storms, sudden gusts of wind, and whirlwind* arc most common. In India, a
shower of fishes varying from a pound and a half to three pounds in weight h is been
known to fall. Sometimes the fishes are living, more frequently they are dead. ;;:ui
Sometimes dry or putrefying. They are always of kinds abundant in the sea or fresh
waters of the neighborhood; and it cannot by doubted that they arc carrb.1 up into tlu
air by violent winds or whirlwinds; although they sometimes fall at a considerable dis-
tance from any water which could supply them. The sudden reappearance of fresh-
water li-h?s in ponds which have been dried up for months in tropical countries, is often
popularly ascribed to their falling from the clouds; but the truth is, that they have Iven
buried in the mud below, existing probably in a state analogous to that of animals incoltl
climates during hyhernation. A p'>ol, the bottom of which has long b::en dry, and on
which grass has grown and cattle have w'alked, is again filled with fishes iu a few hours
after it is filled with water.


SIIREVE, HEXKY MILLER, 1785-1851 ; b. K J. Capt. Shrove was one of the first to
engage in steam navigation in the west, and for nearly 40 years was connected with ihe
river commerce of that section. He wa; the inventor of the steam "snag-boat," and for
several years held the position of U. S. inspector of western river improvements.
In the war of 1812 he had charge of various fortifications on the Mississippi, and in the
battle of -New Orleans did effective service as capt. of artillery.

SIIREVEPORT, a city in n.w. Louisiana, co. peat of Caddo parish, incorpornted
1839; on the w. bank of the. Red river, 20 m. below the Great Raft; 44 m. s.e. of Jef-
ferson, Texas; pop. 'SO, 11,017. It is thee. terminus of the Texas and Pacific railroad,
is connected with St. Louis by the all-rail route via Marshall, Texas; and regular linos
of steamers run from this port to New Orleans, touching at points on the Red and Mis-
sissippi rivers. It is the first port of delivery e. of the Pacific on the line of the Texas
and Pacific railroad. In the midst of the cotton-growing region it is an important cotton
mart, shipping annually from 110,000 to 125,000 bales, sold to agents, and shipped on
through bills to Liverpool andthe east. Value of annual shipments, $7,500.000; sales of
merchandise, $7,000,000. The shipments of cotton include 20,000 bales reshipped to go
up the Red river. The surrounding country is productive and among the exports are
hides, wool, tallow, and cattle. It contains many very handsome buildings, and a mar-
ket costing $50,000. It is lighted with gas, has a well-organized lire department, 3
private banks, 9 private and denominational schools and academies, 11 churches (5 for
colored people), a Jewish synagogue, a marine and a charily hospital, 4 newspapers, and
4 public schools (2 each for colored and white pupils). It'has 2 cotton compresses, and


manufactories of cotton-seed oil, iron, lumber, carriages, cotton gins, spokes and hubs,
ale and beer. It has several street railways and a cotton exchange.

SHREW, Sorex, a genus of small quadrupeds of the family sorecidce. They are often
popularly confounded with mice and rats, but are really very different, having insecti
vorous and not rodent teeth. The head is very long; the snout elongated, attenuated,
and capable of being moved about; the eyes small ; the tail long; both body and tail
covered with fine short hair; the feet have a broad, sole and 5 toes. The genus has
recently been sub-divided, and the British species belong to more than one of the sub-
divisions. The COMMON SHREW of Britain (S. or corslra vulgans) was, until recently, con-
founded with S. araiieus, a species common in continental Europe. It is nearly 24 in. -
in length from the snout to the root of the tail, the length of which is about If inches.
It abounds in dry fields, gardens, and hedge-banks; feeding chit-fly on insects and worms,
for whicli it grubs with its long snout among the roots of the herbage. It burrows, and
makes long runs just under the surface of tne ground. It is an excessively pugnacious
little animal, and the males have fierce combats in spring, in which many are killed.
Cats kill the shrew, but do not often eat it, probably on account of its strong musky
smell; but it is the prey of weasels, hawks, owls, and shrikes. Harmless and inoffensive
as it is, it has long been very generally regarded with dread and aversion by the vulgar.
(See White's Natural History of Selborne?) Another and even smaller species, S. pyg-
rnwus, is found in Ireland, where it is called the shrew mole. The WATER SHREW (S.
fodietw or croaaopusfodieiis) is larger than the common shrew, being fully 3 in. long, and
the tail 2 inches. It is of a blackish- brown color, gray or white on^the underparts. It
burrows in the banks of streams, and is very aquatic in its habits. "It is found in many
parts of Britain. Some of the Indian species of shrew attain a much larger size* as that
called the musk rat (q.v.). There is an Italian species which is the smallest of all known
mammalia. It is only about 14, i Q - m length, exclusive of the tail, which measures about
1 inch.

SHREW-MOLE, Scalops, a genus of insectivorous mammalia of the family talpid,
and very nearly allied to the moles. There are 6 incisors, 2 canine teeth, 8 false molars,
and 6 true molars in each jaw. The ear is destitute of auricle; the eyes are very small,
and much concealed ; the Icet are 5-toed, the fore-feet large, as in the mole. The whole
figure, and also the habits, resemble those of the mole. There are several species, all
natives of North America.

SHREWSBURY, a parliamentary and municipal borough and market t, the capital
of Shropshire, stands on the Severn, by which it is nearly surrounded. 163 m. n.n.w. of
London by the London and North-western railway. It is irregular in plan, contains
many inferior houses, partly built of timber, but often of very picturesque appearance.
In the modern quarters the houses are handsome and regular. Two bridges, the "Eng-
lish" and the " Welsh," cross the Severn, and connect the town with the suburbs of
Abbey-Foregate and Coleham on the e., and Frankwell on the west. To the n. is the
other suburb of Castle-Foregate. The town contains interesting remains of the ancient
walls, the castle, two monasteries, and a Benedictine abbey. The remains of the abbey
church now form the church of Holy Cross. There are other ecclesiastical edifices, a
free school, with an income from endowment of 3,100 a year, and 22 exhibitions to the
universities; a number of other important schools, institutes, hospitals, etc. The town
and county hall, the public rooms, a handsome Greek structure, and the market-hall,
erected in 18'>7-68, in the Italian style, are worthy of mention. Shrewsbury carries on
manufactures of linen thread, canvas, and iron-wares, and there is a salmon-fishery on the
Severn. The brawn and " Shrewsbury cakes" made here have long been held in esteem.
The borough returns two members to the house of commons. Pop. '71, 23,406.

Shrewsbury, called by the Welsh Pengwern, was named by the Anglo-Saxons
Scrobbes-Byrig, and of this the modern name is a corruption. The town connects itself
intimately with the history of the country from the 12th to the 17th century. It was
taken by Llewellyn the great, prince of North Wales, in 1215, during (lie disturbances
between king John and the barons; and in 1403 Henry IV. here defeated the insurgent
Percies aud their allies with great slaughter. It was taken by the parliamentarians m

SHRIKE, or BUTCHER-BIKD, iMnius, a genus of birds of the family lonifidce (q.v.),
approaching more nearly in character to the falconidtv than any other of that family,
having a short, thick, and compressed bill, the upper mandible curve, hooked at the tip,
and furnished with a prominent tooth, the base of the bill beset with hairs, which point
forward. The species are numerous, most of them natives of warm climates, although
some occur in the more northern parts of the world. They prey on insects and small
birds, and have a remarkable habit of impaling their prey on thorns; so that the nest of
a shrike may be discovered by the numerous insects impaled in the neighborhood of it.
Shrikes kill and impale many insects \vhich they never eat, leaving them to dry in the
sun; and in confinement they make use for this purpose of a nail, if provided with it,
or stick portions of their food between the wires of the cage. They can imitate in
some degree the notes of many birds, particularly those which are the utterance of dis-
tress, and they seem to make use of this power in order to attract birds within their
reach. The most common British species, rarely seen, however, except in the s. of Eng-


land, i; the RED-BACKED SHRIKE (L. colluris), a bird only about 7 in. in length, about a
third of the length being formed by the tail, which is square at the end. Insects are the
chief food of this bird, but it also preys on small birds, young frogs, and even young
pheasants. The GREAT GRAY SHRIKE, or SENTINEL SHRIKE (L. excubitor), is about the
size of a thrush. It is a rare bird in Britain, but common in some parts of Europe, and
is found als6 in Asia and North America. It was formerly used by falconers in catching
hawks, of which it is greatly afraid, screaming loudly on their approach; the falconer
waited in concealment, after fastening some pigeons and a shrike to the ground, until the
scream of the shrike gave him notice to pull the string of his net.

SHRIMP, Crangon, a genus of crustaceans, of the order decapoda, suborder mawovre,
and family crangonicUe, allied to lobsters, crayfish, and prawns. The form is elongated,
tapering, and arched as if hunch-backed. The claws are not large, the fixed finger
merely a small tooth, the movable finger hook-shaped. The beak is very short, afford-
ing a ready distinction from prawns. The whole structure is very delicate, almost trans-
lucent; and the colors are such that the creature may readily escape observation, whether
resting on a sandy bottom or swimming through the whter. The quick darting move-
ments of shrimps, like short leaps, however, betray them to any one who looks atten-
tively into a pool left by the retiring tide on a sandy shore. When alarmed, they bury
themselves in the sand, by a peculiar movement of their fanlike tail fin. The COMMON
SHRIMP (C. tulgai'is) is very abundant on the British coasts, and very generally elsewhere
on those of Europe, wherever the shore is sandy. It is about 2 in. long, of a greenish-
gray color, dotted with brown. It is in great esteem -as an article of food, and is gen-
erally taken by nets in the form of a wide-mouthed bag, stretched by means of a short
cross-beam at the end of a pole, and pushed along by the shrimper wading to the knees.
Sometimes a net of larger size is dragged along by two boats. The supply of the market
with shrimps affords employment to a great number of people. The other species of
shrimp seem to be equally fit for the table. Several are occasionally taken on the British
coasts, but belong rather to more southern climates. Shrimps are very interesting
inmates of the aquarium.

SHROPSHIRE, or SALOP, a frontier county in the w. of England, bounded on the w-
by north Wales, and on the e. by the counties of Stafford and Worcester. Area. 841,-
167 acres; pop. '71, 248,111. The Severn, the principal river, enters the county from
Montgomeryshire, about 12 m. w. of Shrewsbury. It pursues a generally s.e. course of
70 m. across the county, is navigable throughout, and is joined by two considerable tribu-
taries, the .Tern and Temc. To the n. and n.e. of the Severn, the county is generally
level, and is under tillage; to the s. and s.e., it is hilly and mountainous, and here cat- .
tie-breeding is extensively carried on. A breed of horned sheep is peculiar to this county.
More than three-fourths of the whole acreage are arable, or in pasture and meadow.
The soil is generally fertile and well cultivated, though there are still extensive tracts of
waste land. Shropshire is remarkable for its mineral wealth. The coal, iron, copper,
and lead fields of Coalbrookdale, Snedshill, Ketly. etc., are very productive. Several
thousand persons are employed in raising coal, iron, stone, and lime, and in the iron
manufacture. The county returns four members to the house of commons. Capital,

SHROUDS are very strong ropes passing from the bends of the lower masts in a ship
to the chains or channels on~her sides, for the purpose of affording lateral support. They crossed by thinner ropes, called ratlines, to form steps or ladders. The top-mast
shrouds in ship rigged vessels are similar, except that they terminate in a row of dead-
^yes on the outside of the tops.

SHROVETIDE (Anglo-Saxon scrifan, to shrive, to confess), literally means "confes-
sion-time," and is the name given to the days immediately preceding Ash- Wednesday,
which, as indeed the whole ^period after Septuagesima Sunday appears to have been,
were anciently days of preparation for the penitential time of Lent; the chief part of
which preparation consisted in receiving the sacrament of penance, i.e., in "being
ehriven," or confessing. In the modern discipline of the Roman Catholic church a trace
of this is still preserved, as, in many countries, the time of the confession, which pre-
ceedsthe paschal or Easter communion, commences from Shrovetide. These days were
sometimes called fasting-tide or fast-mass, names which are still retained among the
population in some parts of Great Britain. The name of Shrovetide was retained in Eng-
land after the reformation, although the practice of "shriving," in which it had its
origin, was abandoned. The precept of " shriving" having been fulfilled, the faithful,
upon the eve of entering upon the Lent, were indulged with permission to give them-
selves up to amusements, and to festive celebrations, of which the counterpart ii
Still seen in the continental carnival. In England the pastimes of foot-ball, cock-fight-
ing, bull-baiting, etc., were, down to a late period, recognized usages of Shrovetide; and
tbe festive banquets of the day are still represented by the pancakes and fritters from
which Pancake Tuesday took its name, and by the " coll ops" which gave its title to
Collop Monday. These usages are gradually disappearing.

SHRUB (see SYRUP), a kind of liqueur made chiefly in the West Indies. It consist!
of lime or lemon-juice and syrup, to which a small portion of rum is added; other flavor-
ing materials are used occasionally.


SHRUBS arc plants with woody stem and branches like trees, but qf smaller size, not
generally exceeding 20 ft. in height, and branching near the root, so as to have no main
stem of considerable height. When a shrub is of small size and much branched, it is
often called a bu-sh. There is no more important botanical distinction between trees and
shrubs, and the same genus very often includes species of both kinds. Many shrubs, as
honeysuckle, are climbers.

IH point of law, whoever plants a shrub thereby makes it a part of the soil, and it
becomes a kind of fixture, incapable of being removed by tenants. But if the tenant is
nurseryman, who makes a business of planting and removing shrubs, it is otherwise.
Whoever unlawfully and maliciously cuts, breaks, barks, or roots up a shrub growing
in a pleasure-ground, ;arden, or ground adjoining a dwelling-Bouse, if the injury exceed
one pound in value, is guilty of felony, and liable to penal servitude for three years; and
wherever the shrub is situated, if the damage amount to one shilling, the person is liable
to be imprisoned or fined by a justice of the peace.

SHUBRICK, WILLIAM BRANFOUD, 1790-1874; b. S. C. ; studied at Harvard, but left
to enter the navy, 1806. He served in the war of 1812, on the Hornet, on the frigate
Constellation, and on the Constitution, of which he became second in command in 1:
He was promoted commander in 1820, and capt. in 1831 ; was in command at the Norfolk,
Va., navy-yard, 1840-i3, and was appointed chief of the bureau of provisions in 1844.
He commanded the Pacific squadron during the Mexican war, was made chairman of
the bureau of construction in 1853, .and commanded the Brazil squadron in 1858. Return-
ing in 1859, he again became chairman of the light-house board, to which lie had been
appointed in 1853. He was made senior member of the advisory board, and rear-admi-
ral in 1862.

SHUFELDT, ROBERT W. ( b. K T., 1821; entered the navy as midshipman, 1839.
At the beginning of the rebellion he was a 1st lieut., but was then consul-gen, to Cuba;
in 1862 ho. was made comm-mder. He was prominent in the defenses of Charleston and
had command of several ships. After the close of the war he was with the East Indian
fleet, 1865-66, with that of the Mediterranean, 1871-73, and in' 1875 was made chief of
the bureau of equipment and recruiting.

SHUGSHUT, a small t. of Turkey in Asia, in Anatolia, on the left bank of the Sakaria,
95 m. in direct line s.e. of Constantinople. On un adjacent hill is the tomb of Othman
(q.v.), founder of the Ottoman dynasty. The tomb, resembling the handsomest and
most ancient of the Turkish sepulchers at Constantinople, stand amid a grove of
cypresses and evergreen oaks. Pop. estimated at about 8,000.


SHUMLA, a city of Bulgaria, about half-way alon^ the line of nilway which con-
nects Rustchuk and Varna, and 60 in. s.s.w. of Silistria. It is bounded oa the n and w.
by* mountains, and on the s. and e. by an undulating plain furrowed by valleys that
extend n. to the Danube. Its situation is pleasing, and the character and distribution
of its buildings give it a picturesque appearance. The roads from the former Turkish
fortresses on the lower Danube and in the Dobrudscha 0:1 the n., and from the passes
of the eastern Balkan on the s., converge upon Shuiiila. and from this reason it is an
important, strategic position. Under the Turkish sway. Shumla was one of their most
important strongholds, with very strong and extensive fortifications, and possessed a
citadel, arsenal, capacious magazines, large and numerous barracks, and a military hospi-
tal. The plain around was also studded with detached forts. In Shumla are nearly 40
mosques. Wine and silk are largely produced; there are manufactures of copper, tin,
and leather. Tha inhabitants during the Turkish supremacy were estimated at about
20,000. and were for the most part lurks or Mohammedans. Shumla was attacked in
vain by the? Russians in 1774, in 1810, and in 1828. The congress of Berlin, which estab-
lished Bulgaria as an autonomous principality in 1878, resolved that the fortifications
of Shumla and other Bulgarian towns should be; destroyed.

SHUNT SYSTEM OF RIFLIN9 is a very ingenious arrangement for securing the accu-
rate centering of a projectile discharged from a rifled canon. To obta'n precision of
aim and range, it is absolutely essential that the axis of a projectile should, at the
moment of discharge, coincide exactly with the axis of the bore. This can scarcely be

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 107 of 203)