Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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but required even human victims for its performance. They eat and drink whatever is
given to them, even ordure and carrion; and in order to extort money from the credu-
lous, they resort to the most disgusting devices.

The Urdhnbdhus are solitary mendicants; they extend one or both arms above their
heads till they remain of themselves thus elevated. They also close the fist, ami the
nails being suffered to grow, completely perforate the hand. They usually assume the
S'aiva marks, and twist their hair so as to project from the forehead, iu imitation' of the
matted hair of S'iva.

The Aicdn'mukhfng hold up their faces to the sky till the muscles of the back of the
neck become contracted and retain it in that position.

The peculiarities of tbe other sects we cannot afford space to specify; they are equally
trifling and, sometimes disgusting. For fuller details on the S'aivas, see 11. H. Wil-
son, .1 Sketch of the Religious Sects of the Hindus; Works, vol. i. (edited by Dr. R. Rost,
Loud. 1862), pp. 188, ff.


SAKAT AY AN A is the name of a celebrated Hindu grammarian, who preceded PaVini
(q.v.) and Yas.ka (see NIRUKTA), for he is quoted by both these authors. His <rra:n-
matical work, however, seems to be lost, for no portion of it has as yet been forthjo u-
ing; and an attempt recently made to identify with it a grammar of a S'akat'iiyaua, copies}
of "which are met with at the India office library, London, and at Madras, has sk'ndly
failed. The latter Sakat'ayana is a Jaina (q v.), who is not only later than Katyayana
(q.v.), but, in all probability, a modern writer.

SAKHALIN , commonly written SAGHALIEN, native name TARAIKA, a long and narrow
island, runs from n. to s. close off the shores of Asiatic Russia, in the s.w. of the Sea of
Ochotsk. It formerly belonged partly to Russia and partly to Japan, but the whole of
the island now belongs to Russia, Japan having surrendered its portion in 1875. The
estimated area is 47,600 sq.m. Pop. '72. 13,000. It is 588 m. in length, and about 120
m. in extreme breadth. Lat. 45 54'-54 24' n. In lat. 52 the island approaches to
within 6 m. of the mainland, from which it is separated by the shallow Mamia strait. A
mountain-chain with craggy summits, which in lat. 52 are covered with snow through-
out the year, traverses the island from n. to south. There are no important natural har-
bors. The chief rivers are the Ty, falling into Patience gulf, and 90 ft. wide and 7 ft.
deep at its mouth, and the Tymy flowing north-east. The rivers and the coasts swarm
with tine fish. Immense stores of fish are preserved in a frozen state during winter, and
upon these the natives and their dogs in great part subsist. On the e. coast of the island
the vegetation, especially in the n., has a stunted appearance. On the w. coast luxuri-
ant grass clothes the valleys, and forests of pine, fir, birch, larch, oak, and maple trees
cover the mountains. Among the animals are the reindeer, the stag, roe, elk, and musk
ox. In the northern part of Sakhalin the climate is even more rigorous than at Niko-
laevsk(q.v.). At Aniva bay, in the s., the coldest day in the winter of 1853-54 showed
a temperature of 13 Fall. The inhabitants carry on an inconsiderable barter trade with
their fish, furs, and seals. Coals have been discovered in several localities and explored
by the Russians. Ravcnstein's Russians on the Amur (Trilbner & Co., Lond. 1861).

SAKHALIN ULA HOTUN, now commonly and more properly called Aigun, a t. of
Manchooria, on the right bank of the Amur, 14 m. below the junction of the Dzeya with
that river. Lat. 50 15' n., long. 127 40' east. It is the chief place of the Manchoo on
the Amur, and is somber in appearance, though it contains many gayly -painted temples.
The great quadrangle, containing the government and other buildings, is 230 yards
square, and is s.urround:-d by double rows of palisades. Paper lanterns hang across the
streets, and fantastic figures, dragons, etc., cut in paper, are fixed to poles above the
shops. Millet, tobacco, and other products are grown in the vicinity for export. Pop.

SAKI, a kind of beer which the Japanese make from rice. It is the common alco-
holic liquor of Japan. It is clear, and has a peculiar tasto, which Europeans generally

Saki. IQ


reckon unpleasant. The Japanese 1 usually heat it before drinking, and pour it into flat
cups or saucers of lackered wood. It produces a very speedy and transient intoxi-

SAKI, Pithecin, a genus of American monkeys, having the tail, which is not prehensile,
covered with very long hair, whence they are often called fox-tailed mvitkeyx. The
head is rouud, and the muzzle short, the ears not unlike those of the human race. The
whole body is covered with long hair.

S AKTAS is the name of one of the great divisions of Hindu sects (see INDIA). The
term is derived from the Sanskrit s'akti, which means "power, energy;" but, ui its special
application, denotes the energy of the deity, and particularly that of the gods oi the
Hindu triad, Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva. This energy, originally spoken of as the
wish or will of the Supreme Being to create the universe, and afterward dilated upon in
metaphorical and poetical speech, assumed at the Pauranik period (soe Hindu l&ligion
under INDIA) the form of a separate deity, thought of as the wife of the god to whom it
belongs. Accordingly, Sardswati (q.v.) became the S'akti or wife of Brahman: Lakshmi
(q.v.), the S'akti or wife of Vishn'u; and Devi, or Durgd, or UmS (q.v.), the S'akti or
wife of S'iva. S'dkta, properly speaking, means, therefore, a worshiper of any of
these female representations of the divine power; but, in its special, and usual sense, it-
is applied to the worshiper of the female energy or wife of S'iva' alone; and the Saktas,
properly so called, are, therefore, the votaries of Durga, or Devi, or Uma (q.v.). Since
S'iva (q.v.) is the type of destruction, his energy or wife becomes still more so the type
of all that is terrific; and, in consequence, her worship is based on the assumption lhat
she can be propiiiated only by practices which involve the destruction of life, and iu
which she herself delights. That such a worship must lead to the br utilization, and
degenerate into the grossest licentiousness, of those addicted to it, is but natural; and it
will easily be understood that the Sakta religion became the worst of all forms which
the various aberrations of the Hindu mind assumed. Appealing to the supers! iiiotis of
the vulgar mind, it has its professors, chiefly among the lowest classes; and, among
these again, it prevails especially in Bengal, where it is cultivated with practices even
scarcely known in most other provinces. The works from which the tenets and rites of
this religion are derived, are known by the collective term of T<intras (q.v.), but as in
some of these works the ritual enjoined does not comprehend all the impure practices
which are recommended in others, the sect became divided into two leading branches,
the Dakxhiii acharim and Vdmacltdnns, or the followers of the right-hand and left-hand

Tho Dak7tin'defiArin are the more respectable of the two. They profess, indeed, to
possess a ritual as pure as that of the Vedas. Nevertheless, they annually decapitate a
number of helpless animals, especially kids, and in some cases pommel the animal to
death with their fists, or offer blood without destroying life practices contrary to the
Vedic ritual. The Vdmdchdrins, on the other hand the type of the S'fikta and among
these especially that branch called Kaula or Kulina. adopt a ritual of the grossest impuri-
ties. Their object is, by reverencing Devi, who is one with S'iva, to obtain super-
natural powers in this life, and to be identified after death with S'iva and his consort.
"According to the immediate object of the worshiper," Professor Wilson says, "is
the particular form of worship; but all the forms require the use of some or all of the
five letters M viz., mansa, matsya. madya, maithuna, and mudra" i.e., flesh, fish,
wine, women, and certain mystical gesticvdations. Suitable manfnts (or formulas) are
also indispensable, according to the end proposed, consisting of various unmeaning
monosyllabic combinations of letters, of great imaginary efficacy. Where the object of
the ceremony is to acquire an interview with, and control over, impure spirits, a dead
body is necessary. The adept is also to be alone, at midnight, in a cemetery or place
where bodies are burned or buried, or criminals executed; seated on the corpse, he is to
perform the usual offerings, and if he does so without fear, the Bhfitas, the Yoginis, and
other male or female goblins, become his slaves. In this, and many of the observances
practiced, solitude is enjoined; but all the principal ceremonies comprehend the wor-
ship of S'akti, and require for that purpose the presence of a female as the living repre-
sentative and type of the goddess. This worship is mostly celebrated in a mixed society,
the men of which represent Bhairava (or S'iva as the Terrific), and the women, Bhairuvi
(S'akti or Devi as the Terrific). The S'akti is personated by a naked female, to whom
meat and wine arc offered, and then distributed among the assistants; the recitation of
various mantras and texts, and the performance of the mudrS, or gesticulations with
the fingers, accompanying the different stages of the ceremony; and it is terminated with
the most scandalous orgies among the votaries." The same author adds that, " in justice
to the doctrines of the sect, it is To be observed, that these practices, if instituted merely
for sensual gratification, are held to be as illicit and reprehensible as in any other branch
of the Hindu faith;" but full assent must be given to his remark which follows a text
quoted by him in support of this view, for he says: "It is only to be added that if the
promulgatora of these doctrines were sincere, which is far from impossible, they must
have br-en filled with a strange frenzy, and have been strangely ignorant of hnman

' ' The members of this sect are very numerous, especially among the Brahmanical


.Sal a.

caste; all classes are, however, admissible, and equal at the ceremonies of the sect. Tho
particular insignia of these S'aktas are a semicircular Hue or Hues on the forehead, of
red sanders or vermilion, or a red streak up the middle of the forehead, with a circular,
spot of red at the root of the nose. They use a rosary made of the seeds of the eleocar-
pus, or of coral beads, but of no greater length than may be concealed in the hand ; or
they keep it in a small purse, or a bag of red cloth. In worshiping, they wear a piece
of red silk round the loins, aud decorate themselves with garlands of crimson flowers."
Two other sects are likewise mentioned as belonging to the S'aktas, the Kdnchuliyas and,
Kardrins, Lut il is doubtful whether they are still in existence. The former are said to
have belonged to the s. of India; and the latter seem to have been worshipers of Devi
in her terrilic forms, the offering to her of human sacrifices being the principal feature of
their ritual. If there are still any votaries of this sect, Professor W ilson believes that
they are the miscreants who, more for pay than devotion, at certain festivals, inflict
upon them>elves bodily tortures, such as piercing their flesh with hooks or spits, reclin-
ing upon beds of spikes, gashing themselves with knives, etc. See H. H. Wilson, A
Sketch of the ltdirjious txcts of the Hindus; Works, vol. i. (edited by Dr. R. Rost, 1862),
pp. 240, ff.

SAKUNTALA is one of the most pleasing female characters of Hindu mythology.
She is mentioned as a water-nymph in the lajuneda (see VEDA); she is the subject of a
beautiful episode of the Mahabhdrata (q.v.), and is spoken of in the Purdn'as; but her
name has become especially familiar in Europe through the celebrated drama of Kalidasa
(q.v.), which, introduced to us by sir William Jones in 1789, became the starting-point
of Sanskrit philology in Europe. The principal features of the legend of Sakuntala, an
narrated in the Mahdbhdrata, are the following: Sakuntala was the daughter of the
saint Vis'wa'mitra (q.v.) and the Apsaras, or water-nymph, MenakS. Abandoned by her
parents, she was adopted by the saint Kan'wa, who brought her up in his hermitage as
his daughter. Once upon a time, king Dushyanta went a-hunting in the forest, and
accidentally coming to the hermitage of Kan'wa, saw Sakuntala, and fell in love with
her. He persuaded her to marry him according to the rite of the Gandharva marriage,
and promised her that the son she would bear Lim should be the heir to his throne, and
that he would take her home as his queen to his roj'al city. Kan'wa, who had been
absent while this event happened, returned to the hermitage, and through his divine
knowledge, knew the whole secret, though it had not been confessed to him by Sakun-
tala. She in due time was delivered of a son, and remained at the hermitage unlil the
boy was six years old; but as Dushyanta, unmindful of his promise, did not send any
messenger for her Kan'wa directed her to proceed with her boy to the residence of
Dushyanta. This she did; but when she arrived at his residence, she was repudiated by
the king. Nor did her speech, however touching and eloquent, move his heart, until
at last a heavenly voice assured him that Sakuntala had spoken the truth, and that he
saw before him his lawful son. Thereupon, Dushyanta recognized Sakuntala as Ins
queen, and her son as his heir. The latter was named Bharata, and became the founder
of the glorious race of the Bhitratas. In the drama, Kalidfisa's genius had full scope to
work out the incidents of this legend, so as to display the accomplished female charac-
ter of Sakuntala. and likewise to show that the obstacle which arose to her recognition
was not the fault of Dushyanta, but the consequence of a curse which Sakuntala had
incurred from a wrathful saint who, when once on a visit to Kan'wa's hermitage, had
considered himself neglected by her. Since, in the drama, Dushyauta recognizes Sak-
untala by means of a ring he had given her at the hermitage, the name of the drama is
Abhijndna-Sakuntala, or "the drama in which Sakuntala (is remembered) by a token."
There are two versions in which this drama now exists an older and a more recent one.
The latter was first .edited at Calcutta, 1761, then at Paris, 1830, by A. L. Chezy, who
also gave a French translation of it; later and better editions of it (Cal. 1860 and 1864)
were prepared by the Pandit Prem Chunder Tarkabagish, under the superintendence of
prof. Edward B. Cowell, the principal of the Sanskrit College at Calcutta. The older
version has been edited by Dr. O. Boehtlingk (Bonn, 1842), by prof. M. Williams (Hert-
ford, 1853). and by a Bombay pandit at the Induprakas'a press (Bomb., 1861). The first
English translation of it is that by sir William Jones (Cal., 1789); the second was made
by prof. M. Williams (Hertford, 1856); it deserves the highest acknowledgment, on
account of the consummate taste with which it .has rendered the metrical part of the
original. Among the various German, Italian, Danish, and other translations of this
drama, the German translation by Ernst Meyer (Stutt,, 1852) is worthy of especial

S AKYAMUNI, or the SAINT S'iKYA, is a name of the Buddha, the founder of the
Buddhist religion. See BUDDHISM.

SAL, Valeria, robitsta. a tree of the natural order dipterace, one of the most val^nble
timber trees of India. Great sal forests exist along the southern base of the Hin ya
mountains, but in many places they have been nearly cut down. The care of govtin-
ment is now extended to their preservation.

SAL A, GEORGE AVGUSTUS HENRY, b. London, 1828; son of an Italian who married
a favorite English singer of West Indian extraction. He was educated toJIe an artist,
but devoted himself to literature. He became a contributor to Household Word*, the
U. K. XIII. 4

Salaam. KA


Welcome Guest, the Illustrated London News, All the Year found; and was the founder
and first editor of the Temple Bar Magazine. He came to America in 18(58 as special
correspondent for the Daily Telegraph of London; and in 1864 published Amen'm in the
Midst of t/u! War. He acted as correspondent to the same paper in Algeria in 1864
and 1875; at the Paris exposition 1867; during the Franco-German war 1870-71; in
Spain, Morocco, and Venice 1875; anu in Russia 1876. In 1879 he visited America sis
a lecturer. He has published, among other works: A Journey Due Soi-Ui; J V/MV Humid
the Clock; Sfver. Sons of Mammon; Strange Adventures of Captain Dtiinjeiunn; 1 nun
Waterloo to Vie Peninsula; Rotes and Sketches of the Paris Exposition; Rome and Venice;
and Under tlie Sun.

SALAAM' (Ssldrn, Arab. = Heb. SJialom, peace), the general term of salutation among
the Mohammedans. They are generally very formal in their social manners', although
their demeanor and conversation are unrestrained enough, both among men and women.
Several of their social usages in this respect are founded upon religious pivcep:.s; among
these is the custom of greeting each other with the words: " Es-sddmti </;>//.:///<" (Peace
be with you), which is answered by: " With you be peace, and the mercy of God, and
his blessings!" This salutation is neither to be addressed to nor to be received from
any non-Mohammedan. The reply, when one Moslem salutes another. i< oMigatory,
while the address itself is rather arbitrary. Should the sainted refuse to reply, tnen the
Other m:iy revoke his salutation, as he does in the case of his discovery that the person
fealuted is not a true bsliever, with the words: "Peace be on us and O'i all the riirnteous
worshipers of God." Generally the rider salutes the person on foot, tae pas>er-by
tho'se who sit down or stand still; the smaller party salutes the large.-, the young the
bldef; etc. Salutation is to bs the first and the last thing on entering a house. Tne fol-
lowing is the rising scale of the different modes of obeisance with Modern: 1. Placing
the right hand upon the breast; 2. Touching the lips and the forehead or turban (or fore-
head and turban only) with the right hand; 3. Doing the same, but slightly inclining
the Ii3a;l during that action; 4. The same, but inclining the body also; 5. the same, pre-
viously touching the' ground with the right hand; 6. Kissing the hand of the peivon to
Whom the obeisance is paid; 7. Kissing his sleeve; 8. Kissing llu -skirt of his clothing;
9. Kissing his feet; 10. Kissing the ground. This, however, is t > IK; understood (igain t
be Sacy) as merely touching the ground previous to touchin j the lips and forelx-a I
with the right hand. The first five moles are accompanie 1 by the "Peace be wit'.i
you," and the reply given above. The sixth mode is observed by servants or pupils to
their master, wife to husband, and children to father, and sometimes mother, by the
young to the aged, and the less learned to the barac-J and pious (Lane, Notes to Arab.
Nighte, etc.).

SALAD, the name given to a preparation of raw herbs for foo'1. I> dorivw ifs n"ne
from the fact that salt is one of the chief ingredients use. I in dressing a s J ,d. The
principal salad herbs are lettuce, endive, chicory, celery, mustard, and cress; water-
cress, onions, radishes, chervil, and a few savory herbs used to give flavor. They are
usually cut up and mixed with gait, vinegar, oil, and other condiments, according to
tasfe. Sugar is also frequently ad.led. Cresses, seed-leaves of mustard, etc., are often,
eaten without any addition. Sal. id has always been a favoriio food with civilized
nations, and lias very little varied in its composition. Tho Romans u<w>r1 it. and made
it thus: Cultivated endive was cut small after careful washing ;ind draining, then gravy
and oil were poured over it, and finely-minced onions were strewed over' the whole,
then a little vinegar and honey was add^l, and the salad pervcd up. The great value of
salads is in the fact that they are uncooked, and consequently contain a larger quantity
of mineral matter, .such as potash, soda, etc., than if boiled. Salads are .sometimes pre-
pared with animal food, such as boiled lobsters, crabs, eggs, etc.

SALADIN, the name given by western writers to SAI.AH-ED-DTN YUSSTIF IBN AYTTB,
the sultan of Egypt and Syria, and the founder of the Ayubite dynastv in those
countries. As the great Moslem hero of the third crusade, and the bean ideal of Moslem
chivalry, he is one of the most interesting characters presented to i:s by the history of
that period. He belonged to the Kurdish tribe of Ravad, and was born nt T.ckreit (:\ town
on the Tigris, of which his father Ayub was kutval or governor under the Seljrks) in
1187. Following the example of his f:tfher and uncle, he entered the service of Xonred-
din (q.v.). prince of Syria, and accompanied his uncle in his various expeditions to
Egyp! in command of Noureddin's army. Saladin was at this time much addicted to
wine and gambling, and it was not till at the head of a small detachment of the Syrian
army he was beleaguered in Alexandria by the combined Cluistians of Palestine and
Egyptians that he gave indications of possessing the qualities requisite for a great
captain. Cn the death of his uncle Shirkoh, Saladin became grand-vizier of the Fati-
mite caliph, and received the title of El-melek-el-nasr, "the victorious prince;" but the
Christians of Syria and Palestine, alarmed at the elevation of a Syrian emir to supreme
power in Egypt, made a combined and vigorous attack on the new vizier. Saladin
foileu them nt Damietta, and transferred the contest to Palcrtir.c, taking several for-
tresses, and- defeating his assailants near Gaza; but about the same time his newborn
power was deposed to a still more forrr.idab!3 danger from his master, Noureddin. whose
jeaiousy of the tabuts and ambition of his able young lieut. required all the skill and

,-, 1 Salaam.


wariness at Saladiu's command to allay. On Noureddin's death in 1174, Saladin began
a struggle with his successor, \vliicli ended in his establishing himself as the sultan of
Egypt atui Syria, a .title which was continued to him by the caliph of Bagdad. The next
ten years were occupied in petty wars with the Christians, and in the arrangement and
consolidation of his now extensive dominion. The plundering by the Christians of a
rich pilgrim caravan on its way to Mecca, an infringement of the treaty with Suhulin t
brought down upon them the hitter's vengeance; their army suffered a dreadful defeat
at Tiberias (July 4, 1187); the king of Jerusalem, the two grand-masters, and many
other warriors of high rank were taken captive; Jerusalem was stormed (Oct. 2), and
almost every other fortified place in Palestine was taken. The news of tins great ac-
cess of the infidels being brought to western Europe, aroused the enthusiasm ot the
Christians to its highest pilch, and a powerful army of crusaders, headed by the kings
of France and England, speedily made their appearance on the scene of strife. They
captured Acre in 1191, and Richard Co3ur-de-Llon, at the head of that portion of the
crusading army which adhered to him, continued the war with success, twice defeated 1
Saladin, took Caesarea and Jaffa, and finally obtained, a treaty for three years (Aug.,
1192), by which the coast from Jaffa to Tyre was yielded to the Christians. In the fol-
lowing year Saiadin died at Damascus of a disease under which he had long suffered.
Saladin wj;s not a mere soldier; his wise administration left behind it traces which
endured for centuries; and the citadel of Cairo and sundry canals, dikes, and roads are
existing evidences of his careful attention to the wants of his subjects. In him the
warrior instinct of the Kurd was united to a high intelligence; and even his opponent*
frankly attribute to him the noblest qualities ot mediaeval chivalry, invincible courage,
inviolable fidelity to treaties, greatness of soul, piety, justice, and moderation.

The Ayubile dynasty of which he was the lounder ruled over Syria till 1259. when
it was di>posessed by tlui Perso-Mongols, and over Egypt till the rise of the nrst Mame-
luke kingdom under Ibeg in 1250.

SALA'DO RIVER, in the Argentine republic, rises in the n.w. of the- province,
flows s.c., and after a course of about 600 ui. empties into the Parana below baula Fd.
It, is navigable below the tStdta lowlands.

SA.LAMAN CA, one of the three modern provinces of Spain into which the ancient

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 11 of 203)