Francis Lieber.

Library of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) online

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a pardon was procured him from Charles II., and he returned to his native country.
Nevertheless, he was still obdurately republican in his opinions, and it is undoubted that he
schemed for the overthrow of the monarchy, and the establishment of a republic in its
stead; for this end he solicited the aid of the French monarch, and there is evidence of his
having been supplied with money by Barillon, the French ambassador. Obscurely his
designs were suspected, and in June, 1683, when the Rye house plot was announced, the
opportunity was seized to get, rid of a man felt to be dangerous. Along with his friend
lord Russell and others, he was arrested, and committed to the tower. On Nov. 21 he
was tried for high treason before the brutal Jefferies, and on the merest mockery of evi-
dence, found guilty, and condemned to die. On Dec. 7 he was beheaded on Tower hill.
He met his death with heroic firmness, amid general sympathy and indignation. He
has ever since enjoyed a sort of canonized reputation as a patriot hero and martyr, and
it cawnot be held undeserved, narrow and impracticable as we must admit his views to
have been. In the history and theory of government, Sidney was more deeply learned
than any man of his time. His Discourses concerning Government were first published
in 1698; in 1704 another edition was issued, a third appeared in 1751. and the fourth in
1772. Sidney's life has been written by S. W. Meadley (Lond. 1813). See also Blen-
cower's Sidney Papers (Lond. 1813).

SIDNEY, Sir PHILIP, the son of sir Henry Sidney, and Mary, sister to Robert Dud-
ley, the favorite of queen Elizabeth, was b. at Penshurst, in Kent, on Nov. 29, 1554.
When 10 years old, he was sent to school at Shrewsbury, whence, in 1569. he went to
Christ church, Oxford. From Oxford he passed to Cambridge, which he left with a high
reputation for scholarship and general ability. In 1572, as the custom then was for
young men of rank, he went abroad on his travels. lie was in Paris when the
massacre of St. Bartholomew took place, and narrowly escaped being one of its
victims. Thereafter, he visited Belgium, Germany, Hungary, and Italy; and in
1575 he returned home, perfected in all manly accomplishments. His uncle, Dudley,
earl of Leicester, was at this time in the zenith of his fortunes, and for Sidney a court-
career lay temptingly open. As a courtier, his success was great; and with queen
Elizabeth he became, and continued while he lived, a special favorite. In 1576, as a
mark of her approval, he was sent on an embassy to the court of Vienna, from which he
returned in the course of the year, following. Shortly after, he had the boldness to
address to the queen a " remonstrance" against her proposed marriage with Henry duke
of Anjou, a union to which she seemed herself not indisposed. It is significant of the
high favor in which he was held by her, that Elizabeth, imperious as she was in temper,
and little inclined to brook such interference, seems scarcely at all to have in this
instance resented it. About this time, a quarrel with the carl of Oxford led to Sidney's

Sidney. A*Q


temporary retirement from court, during which, at Wilton, the seat of his brother-in-
law, the earl of Pembroke, he wrote his celebrated Arcadia. In 1583 he consoled him-
self for the marriage of lady Penelope Devereux, to whom he had been ardently
attached, and who figures as the Stella of his poems, by himself marrying Frances, the
daughter of sir Francis "NValsingham. By this lady he had one daughter, who survived
him. In the spring of 1585 he is saiol to have meditated sailing with sir Francis
Drake in an expedition against the Spaniards in the AVest Indies, but to have been
expressly forbidden by Elizabeth, on a ground of anxiety " lest she should lose the jewel
of her dominions." It does not seem nicely consistent with this pretty story, that later
in the same year she appointed him governor of Flushing, whither he went to take part in
tl>e war then being waged between her allies, the Hollanders, and the Spanish. As it
proved, she thus sent him to his death. At the battle of Zutphen, in Gelderland, after
behaving with conspicuous gallantry, and having a horse killed under him, lie received
a musket-shot in the thigh, and after lingering for some days in great suffering, he died
at Arnlieim on Oct. 7, 1586, in the 83d year of his age. A beautiful trait of humr.nity is
recorded of him as he was being borne wounded from the field. He complained griev-
ously of thirst, and a bottle of water was procured for him, from which, as he was about
to drink, he was touched by the wistful look up at it of a mortally wounded soldier, who
lay close by, and taking it un tasted from his lips, he handed it to his fellow in need, with
the words: "Thy necessity is yet greater than mine." The estimation in which Sidney
was held by his countrymen, was shown in the passion of grief with which the news of his
death was received. His body was brought to England, and after lying for some time in
stale, was buried with great solemnity in the old cathedral of St. Paul's, a general
mourning on the occasion being observed throughout the country. The universities
issued ihrce volumes of elegies/on his death, and Spenser, in his Asirophtl, mourned for
the loss of one who as a friend had been dear to him.

The love and admiration which Sidney won from his contemporaries was mainly
a tribute to the singular beauty of his character. His short life was illustrated by
no brilliant achievement; and his literary genius, though true and exquisite in its kind,
would scarcely of itself have sufficed to account for the fervor of regard he inspired.
But the purity ai.d nobility of his nature, and the winning courtesies in which its
gentle magnanimity expressed itself, took captive all hearts while he lived, and have
t-ince kept sweet his niemorj'. "Sublimely mild, a spirit without spot," he lives in
the history of his country as a rare and finished type of English character, in which
the antique honor of chivalry is seen shading into the graces of the modern gentleman.
Ilis Arcadia, overrun as it is with the fantastic affectations of the time, may still be rec-
ognized by the rcrdcr who has patience to peruse it, as a work of indisputable genius,
flushed with the lights of a fine imagination, and in its purity and tenderness of sen-
timent, givintr an authentic reflex of the lovely moral nature of the writer. His oilier
chief work, the Dtfnue of Poetie, published in 1595, after all that has since been written
in the way of phih sophical exposition on this and cognate subjects, will even now
be found to repay the attention of the reader. Many of his shorter poems, more espe-
cially some of his sonnets, are also of rare merit, feee Fulke Greville's biography of
Sidney, Zourh's memoirs of Sidney (1808), and H. R. Fox Bourne's Memoirs of &ii Pk Hip
Sidney (1862).

SIDNEY SUSSEX COLLEGE, Cambridge, was founded in 1598 by lady Frances
Sidney, countess of Essex, or rather by tier executors, in obedience to the instructions
of her will. They obtained of queen Elizabeth a mortmain for the purpose, ai.d pur-
chased of Trinity college the site of the ancient convent of Franciscans, or Gir.y friars.
There are 10 fellowships.

SI DOIT (Hebr. Zidon, perhaps "fishing-place"). ancientlj T . a city of Phenicia, situated
on the e. coast of the Mediterranean, in'lat. 83 o4' 5" u., 45 in. s. of Berytus. It was
built on a rising mound, protected by the sea on the n. and w; while the bed of a river
formed a natural fosse to the s., and the high hills shielded it to the e. ; a double
harbor gave shelter to its ships both in summer and winter. It soon rose, both by
its exceptional position and the daring and enterprising character of its inhabitants, to
the highest rank among the cities of Phenicia (q. v.). so that the whole country is some-
times designated by the name of Sidon, " the great," " the metropolis." The extensive
commerce of Sidon is well known from ancient authorities. Its colonies extended over
the coast of Asia Minor and the adjacent islands, the coast of Thrace and Eulxra. and
even some parts of Sicily, Sardinia, Spain, the coast of Cornwall and the Baltic shores,
the northern parts of Africa, and, in fact, nearly the whole of the ancient world.
Their manufactures of glass and linen, purple dye and perfumes, were sources of
unbounded wealth : and, whether they were the skillful workers, or merely the exporters
and traders of those " divine" works in gold and silver, ivory and bronze, which
were the marvel of both Greeks and Hebrews, so much seems certain, that they man-
aged to be considered unanimous!}' the most skilful workmen of their time. Although
one of the cities assigned to the Israelites by Joshua, it never in reality belonged to them,
but, on the contrary, was every now and then in arms against them, either singly, or in
league with some of their deadliest enemies, and even subjugated them for a time.
After 'being conquered itself by Tyre, the daughter-city, it attempted to throw off the

4.7Q Sidney.

' ' Siege.

yoke at the invasion of Phoenicia by Slmlmanezer, to which king it surrendered.
Under Assyrian, Chaldean, and Persian domination, it retained a kind of independence
for its internal affairs, and under the Persians, actually reached its highest prosperity.
But an unsuccessful revolt against that power, under Oclius, ended in its temporary
ruin (331 B.C.). Speedily rebuilt and repeopled, it opened its gates to Alexander the
creat (333 B.C.). and from that time forth it fell successively into the hands-of Syrian,
Greek, and Roman rulers. Through the middle ages little is heard of it, except that
it was taken by the Crusaders. During part of the 17th and 18th centuries, it again
became an important place of commerce; but misrule and violence put an end to its
rising prosperity, and the number of its inhabitants has sunk to about 5,000. There is
till some little export of silk, cotton, and nut-galls. It is now called Suida, occupies
a place somewhat to the w. of the ancient city, and belongs to the Turkish pashalic of

SIE'BENBURGEN (Seven Castles), the German name of the Austrian principality of
Transylvania (q. v.).

SIE BENGEBIEGE, a collection of conical heights in Rhenish Prussia, on the right
bank of the Rhine, about 22 m. above Cologne. "The highest of the peaks is the Lowen-
kopf or Lowenberg, 1560 ft, high; but the most famous is the Draehentels (q.v.).

SIEDL'EC. a government in w. Russian Poland, bounded on the u.e. and e by the
Bug river; about 5,500 ; pop. '72, 543,392.

SIEGE (Fr. a sent, a sitting down) is the sitting of an army before a hostile town or
fortress with the intention of capturing it. With certain elements, the success of a siege
is beyond doubt; the result being merely a question of time. These elements arc: first,
the force of the besiegers shall be sufficient to overcome the besieged in actual combat,
man to man. If this be not the case, the besieged, by a sortie, might destroy the oppos-
ing works, and drive away the besiegers. The second element is, that the place must be
thoroughly invested; so that no provisions, reinforcements, or other aliment of war can
enter. The third clement is, that the besiegers be undisturbed from without. For this
it is essential Jiat there shall not be a hostile army in the neighborhood; or if there be,
that the operations of the besiegers be protected by a covering army able to cope with
the enemy's force in the field. The ancients executed gigantic works to produce these
effects. To complete the investment, they built a high and strong wall around the whole
fortress; and to render themselves secure from without, they built a similar wall facing
outwards, beyond their own position. The first was circumvallation, the second con-
travallation. It was thus that Cojsar fortified himself while besieging Alexia, and main-
tained 60,000 men within his ring. In modern warfare, it is considered preferable to
establish strong posts here and there round the place, and merely sentries and vedettes

Let us now assume that a fortress of great strength has to be reduced, and that the
force of the enemy in the vicinity has been either sub lued or held in check by a cover-
ing army. By rapid movements, the place is at once invested on all sides. This step
constitutes merely a blockade; and if time be of littlj importance, is a sufficient opera-
tion, for hunger must sooner or later cause the fortress to su; render; but, if more ener-
getic measures are required, the actual siege must be prosecuted. Advantage is taken of
any hidden ground to establish th-j park of artillery and the engineers' park; or if then*
be none, these parks have to be placed out of range. The besieging force is not
encamped just beyon 1 the reach of the guns of the fortress; and their object is to gel
over the intervening ground and into the works without being torn to pieces by the con-
centrated tire of the numerous pieces which the defenders can bring to bear on every
part. With this view, the place is approached by a series of zigzag trenches so pointed
that they cannot be enfiladed by any guns in the fortress. In order to accommodate the
forces necessary to protect the workers, the trenches at certain intervals are cut laterally
for a great length, partly encircling the place, and affording safe room for a large force
with ample battering material. These are called p<ir<'Ue's, and they are generally three
in number. The distance of the first parnllel will increase as small-arms become more
deadly; but with the old smooth-bore muskets it was usual to break ground at 600 yards
from the covered way of the fortress, while at Sevasto, jl ground was broken at 2.000
yards, and ui the siege of Paris by the Germans the lines were begun at least 4 m.
from the city. The locality of the parallel being decided on, a strong body of men is
sent to the sp:>t soon after nightfall. The attention of the garrison is distracted by f;;!se
alarms in other directions. Half the men are armed cap-a-pie, and lie down before the
proposed parallel; while the other half, bearing each pick and shovel, and two empty
gabions, prepare for work. Each man deposits the gallons where the parapet of the
trench s'lould be. He then di'^s down behind them, tillii.g the gabions with the earth
dugout; and, after they are filled, throwing it over them, to widen and heighten the
parapet Before daylight the working -p-irty is expected to have formed sufficient cover
to conceal themselves and the troops protecting them. During the day, they b'-ing
conreal"d from the garrison widen nnd complete their parallel, making it of dimensions
su'Hcifnt to allow of wagons and bodies of troops with guns passing along. During the
same night, other parlies will have been at work at zigzags of approach from the depots



out of range to the first parallel, which zigzags will be probably not less than 1000 yards
iu length. As a rule the defenders will not expend amnKinition on the first parallel, for

its extent (often several
miles) \vill render the
probability of doing ma-
terial damage extremely
small. For this reason
also, the dimensions of
the parapet and its solid-
ity are of far less import-
ance in the first parallel
than in the more advanc-
ed works of attack. The
first parallel, AAA, fig.
1, being completed, the
engineers select points

A near its extremities, at

Which they erect breast-

FIG. l.-Siege Works. works, B.B, to cover

bodies of cavalry, who are kept at hand to resist sorties from the garrison. The
length of the parallel is usually made sufficient to embrace all the works of two bastions
at least. Sites are then chosen for batteries, C,C, which are built up of fascines, gabions,
sandbags, and earth. They are placed at points in the parallel formed by the
prolongation of the several faces of the bastions, ravelins, and other works of
the fortress, which faces the batteries are severally intended to enfilade by a
ricochet tire. Other batteries will be formed for a vertical fire of mortars and
shell-guns. By these means it is hoped that the traverses on the hostile ramparts
will be destroyed, the guns dismounted, and the defenders dispersed, before the final
approaches bring the assailants to the covered way. The sappers will now commence
their advance toward the points, or salient angles, of the two bastions to be attacked.
If, however, the trench were cut straight toward the fortress, its guns could easily
destroy the workmen and enfilade the approach. To prevent this, ii is cut in short
zigzags as at D the direction always being to a point a few yards beyond the outmost
flanking works of the garrison. The side of each trench nearest the fortress is protected
by gabions and sandbags, as in the case of the parallel. At intervals, short spurs of
trench, incipient parallels, are cut, as at E. to contain small-arms-meu, to act as guards
to the sappers. The second parallel is about 300 yards from the enemy's works and
has to be more strongly formed than the first. It often terminates in a reboubt, F, to
hold some light artillery and a strong force of infantry, who could assail any sortie in
flank; or it may run into the first parallel, as G, giving easier access for troops than
through the zigzags. The second parallel is revetted with sandbags, in which loopholes
are left for musketry. After parsing the second parallel, the angles of the zigzags
become more acute, to prevent enfilading. At about 150 yards, certain demi-pnralleis,
H, are cut, and armed with howitzer batteries, to clear the* covered- way, while- riflemen
also act from it. The third parallel is at the foot of the glacis. Thence Ihe place, after
being sufficiently buttered, is taken by a storming-party, who make their way over the
glacis, or the covered-way is topped by the double sap, which is a safer plan for the
army generally, though much more deadly to the sappers When the crest of the
covered-way has thus been reached, batteries of heavy artillery will be there established,
for the purpose of breaching the walls of the ravelin and bastion; while at the same
time minors will first seek to destroy the defenders' counter-mines (which would other-
wise be likely to send these batteries into the air), and then will excavate n tunnel to the
ditch, at the foot of the counterscarp. If the branch becomes practicable, a storming-
party will emerge from this tunnel or gallery, and seek lo carry the opposite work by
hard fighting. If inner works still subsist, which would tear assailants to pieces, the
double sap may be continued across the ditch, if a dry ditch, right up the breach, that
counter-batteries may be formed. If the ditch be wet, means must be adopted for a
causeway or a bridge. By these means, however obstinate may be the defense, if the
besieging force be sufficiently strong, and aid do not arrive from without, the ultimate
success of the attack becomes certain. Vauban raised attack to a superiority above
defense, first, by the introduction of ricochet fire, which sweeps a whole line; and
secondly, by originating parallels. Before his time the whole attack was conducted by
zigzag approaches; in which the troops actually in front could be but few, and were
therefore unable to withstand strong sorties of the garrison, who, in consequence,
frequently broke out and destroyed the works of the besiegers, rendering a siege an
Operation of a most uncertain character.

SIEGE (ante). During the war of the rebellion, 1860-65, the following important
siege operations occured: the investment of Yorktown by the army and ircn. McC'lellan,
which occupied the month of April, 1862. the position being evacuated May 3; the
siege of Charleston, S. C. , which continued at intervals during the war, until its evacua-
tion by the confederates in Feb., 1805, after the capture of Columbia by gen. Sherman;

/1S1 Siege.


the movement ag:tinst and siege of Corinth, Miss., April, 15-May, 30, 1861; siege of
Kuoxville, Teuii., by iron. Lougstreet in Dec., 1861; siege of Atlanta, Ga., July, 22-
Sept. 1, 1864, by gen. Sherman; operations against Vicksburg, May-July, 1863, by gen.
Grant, resulting in its surrender July 4; siege of Petersburg, Va., June, 1864-April,

SIEGE-ARTILLERY is heavy ordnance used for battering purposes, and of too
weighty a character to take the field. A siege-train of guns and their ponderous ammu-
nition is usually maintained in the rear of an army, ready to be brought up for use when

SIE'GEN, a manufacturing t. of Prussia, in Westphalia, stands on the Sieg, 38 m.
g.s.w. of Arnsberg. In 1875 "it had 12,902 inhabitants, who are engaged in manufactur-
ing leather, cotton, and woolen goods. Siegen is also said to produce the best iron m
the w. of Germany. In the vicinity are numerous iron mines and smelting furnaces.
Its iron and steel wares are noted; especially its files, of which 400 different sorts are
said to be manufactured.

SIEGERT, KAKL AUGUST, b. Germany, 1820; studied art under Hildebrandt, and
at tlie Dilsseldorf academy, 1837-46; and has produced many genre pictures of great
popularity. Among the best are his "Dinner Hour," "Lay Brother distributing Alms,"
and " Sunday Morning." In 1851 he was made professor of painting at Diisseldorf.


SIE'MENS. EKNST WKKNER, b. at Leuthe, near Hanover, in 1816. He was edu-
cated in the gymnasium of Lubeck and in the school of artillery and engineering of
Berlin, and entered the Prussian army as an artillerj r officer in 1838. He studied
chemistry and electro-magnetism and invented a process for electro-plating in 1841. He
was the first to explode a submarine mine by electricity (1848). Since 1849 he has been
engaged in the establishment of telegraph lines, particularly through Russia, Brazil,
Spain, and northern Germany. His researches in electricity have resulted in discoveries
and improvements of great value, one of which is the determining of the locations of
injuries in submerged cables, and also of charging them in order to reduce the disturb-
ing influence of induced currents.

SIEMENS, KARL WILIIELM, a German engineer and physicist, brother of the pre-
ceding, b. at Leuthe. near Hanover, 1823. He was educated at GSttingen; went to
London in 1843, and founded there in 1853 a branch of the Berlin establishment, mak-
ing telegraph instruments at Woolwich, and having steel works at Landore in Wales.
He is the author of numerous inventions, of which the principal are a process of
"anastatic printing;" a chronometric governor for controlling the motion of astronomi-
cal instruments; a regenerator for recovering the heat emitted at the exhaust port of
caloric engines; a water-meter extensively used in Europe; (in connection with his
brother Frederick) a regenerating gas furnace for the production of high-quality steel,
and a rotary furnace for making iron and steel direct from the ore. He has been
connected with telegraph engineering since 1848. He has published, On a Regen-
erative Condcnver (1850); On the Conversion of Heat into Mechanical Effects (1853); On a
Regenerative Steam- Engine (1856); and On the Increase of Electrical Resistance in Con-
ductors, irifh Rise of Temperature, and its application to the Measure of Ordinary and
Fhtrnace Temperature (1871). He is D.C.L. of Oxford, a fellow of the Royal society, and
a member of all the great technological and scientific bodies of England and the con-
tinent of Europe.

SIEN'NA, a city of central Italy, 60 m. s. of Florence by railway. Pop. '72, 22,965.
It is situated on three little hills, separated from each other by three valleys, and higher
than the other hills surrounding them. Its climate is on this account very salubrious,
notwithstanding the deficiency of water caused by its elevated position; to remedy
which, subterranean aqueducts had been excavated, 5 m. in length, some of them
dating as far back as the Roman dominion. Its environs are not beautiful, consisting
of naked clay-hills, capped with sandstone, but the city is surrounded by trees and
avenues, which have a fine effect. The handsome square, Piazza del Campo, is one of
the finest in Italy. Eleven streets lead out of it, and it is surrounded by handsome
buildings. In this square there is also the famous tower called the Mangia, of prodig-
ious height; there are also other towers here and there, seen from a great distance
remnants of tlie inhabitants of the feudal lords. The streets are narrow, some paved
with tesselated bricks, and others flagged. There are many ancient Gothic palaces, not

Online LibraryFrancis LieberLibrary of universal knowledge. A reprint of the last (1880) Edinburgh and London edition of Chambers' encyclopaedia, with copious additions by American editors (Volume 13) → online text (page 111 of 203)